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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342988/an-anti-inflammatory-dietary-intervention-to-reduce-breast-cancer-recurrence-risk-study-design-and-baseline-data
#1
Amelie G Ramirez, Dorothy Long Parma, Edgar Muñoz, Kristin D Mendoza, Crystel Harb, Alan E C Holden, Michael Wargovich
U.S. breast cancer survivors (BCSs) are expected to increase to 4 million in the next 5-10years. Cancer recurrence risk is highest among obese survivors. Inflammatory (Pro-I) biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukins -3, -6, and -8 (IL-3, IL-6, IL-8), and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α have been associated with cancer recurrence risk. Nutritional interventions aimed at reducing inflammation (INF) may contribute to reduced cancer recurrence risk, but studies have been limited to animal models...
March 22, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342771/the-area-postrema-ap-and-the-parabrachial-nucleus-pbn-are-important-sites-for-salmon-calcitonin-sct-to-decrease-evoked-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-nac
#2
Lynda Whiting, James E McCutcheon, Christina N Neuner-Boyle, Mitchell F Roitman, Thomas A Lutz
The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342683/white-grape-juice-elicits-a-lower-breath-hydrogen-response-compared-with-apple-juice-in-healthy-human-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Jennifer Erickson, Qi Wang, Joanne Slavin
BACKGROUND: Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342541/continuous-gradient-temperature-raman-spectroscopy-and-differential-scanning-calorimetry-of-n-3dpa-and-dha-from-100-to-10%C3%A2-c
#4
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Steven R Aubuchon, Moon S Kim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is exclusively utilized in fast signal processing tissues such as retinal, neural and cardiac. N-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3DPA, 22:5n-3), with just one less double bond, is also found in the marine food chain yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions...
March 22, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340273/genetic-diversity-and-selection-of-common-bean-lines-based-on-technological-quality-and-biofortification
#5
S de M Steckling, N D Ribeiro, F D Arns, H C Mezzomo, M T D F Possobom
The development of common bean cultivars with high technological quality that are biofortified with minerals, is required to meet the demand for food with health benefits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether common bean genotypes differ in terms of technological and mineral biofortification traits, to study the correlations between these characters, to analyze the genetic dissimilarity of common bean genotypes, and to select superior lines for these traits. For this, 14 common bean genotypes were evaluated in experiments conducted in three growing seasons in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339665/an-evaluation-of-a-public-private-partnership-to-reduce-artificial-trans-fatty-acids-in-england-2011-16
#6
C Knai, L James, M Petticrew, E Eastmure, M A Durand, N Mays
The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership in England involving voluntary pledges between government, and business and other public organizations to improve public health. One such voluntary pledge refers to the reduction of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the food supply in England by either pledging not to use artificial TFAs or pledging artificial TFA removal. This paper evaluates the RD's effectiveness at encouraging signatory organizations to remove artificially produced TFAs from their products...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339166/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-pharmacogenomics-safety-and-tolerability-of-avatrombopag-in-healthy-japanese-and-white-subjects
#7
Maiko Nomoto, Gina Pastino, Bhaskar Rege, Jagadeesh Aluri, Jim Ferry, David Han
Avatrombopag, an orally administered, small-molecule thrombopoietin receptor (c-Mpl) agonist, is currently in clinical development for the potential treatment of severe thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease undergoing an elective procedure. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the pharmacokinetics (including the food effect) and pharmacodynamics (platelet count) of avatrombopag following single doses in Japanese and white subjects. Following single dosing under fasted and fed conditions, mean peak concentrations occurred at 5 to 8 hours and subsequently declined with a half-life of 16 to 18 hours in Japanese and white subjects...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339149/effect-of-food-intake-on-the-pharmacodynamics-of-tenapanor-a-phase-1-study
#8
Susanne A Johansson, Mikael Knutsson, Maria Leonsson-Zachrisson, David P Rosenbaum
Tenapanor (RDX5791/AZD1722) is a minimally systemic small-molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE3. Tenapanor acts in the gut to reduce absorption of sodium and phosphate. This phase 1 open-label, 3-way crossover study (NCT02226783) evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacodynamics of tenapanor. Eighteen volunteers completed a randomized sequence of three 4-day treatments with tenapanor hydrochloride 15 mg twice daily: before food, after food, and while fasting. Participants received a diet standardized for sodium content...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338358/a-mismatch-between-athlete-practice-and-current-sports-nutrition-guidelines-among-elite-female-and-male-middle-and-long-distance-athletes
#9
Ida Aliisa Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Louise Mary Burke
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336747/cross-sectional-associations-between-dietary-intake-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-type-2-diabetes-baseline-data-from-a-randomised-trial
#10
Laura Chiavaroli, Arash Mirrahimi, Christopher Ireland, Sandra Mitchell, Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, Judy Coveney, Omodele Olowoyeye, Darshna Patel, Russell J de Souza, Livia S A Augustin, Balachandran Bashyam, Sathish Chandra Pichika, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Stephanie K Nishi, Lawrence A Leiter, Robert G Josse, Gail E McKeown-Eyssen, Alan R Moody, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper, David J A Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way. SETTING: Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335563/the-effects-of-sweet-foods-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-by-icelisa
#11
Bingqian Jiang, Huihua Qu, Hui Kong, Yue Zhang, Shuchen Liu, Jinjun Cheng, Xin Yan, Yan Zhao
The effect of sweet foods, such as honey, was investigated from the perspective of pharmacokinetics on the absorption of glycyrrhizic acid (GA). Due to the unique properties of indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), namely, its: specificity, sensitivity, repeatability, simple pretreatment of samples, fast and simple operation, and because it is economic and non-polluting, it has received increased attention. In this study, we used the advantages of this method to see how honey affected the pharmacokinetics of GA...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335426/elevated-serum-hepcidin-levels-during-an-intensified-training-period-in-well-trained-female-long-distance-runners
#12
Aya Ishibashi, Naho Maeda, Daichi Sumi, Kazushige Goto
Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters...
March 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335422/association-between-coffee-consumption-and-its-polyphenols-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-population-based-study
#13
Andreia Machado Miranda, Josiane Steluti, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Marchioni
Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the "Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)" among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1-3, and ≥3 cups/day...
March 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333975/is-the-number-of-siblings-associated-with-dietary-patterns-in-adolescents-the-1993-birth-cohort-of-pelotas-brazil
#14
F O Meller, M C F Assunção, A A Schäfer, C Loret de Mola, D L Dahly, J S Vaz, F C Barros
Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332903/evaluation-of-white-sesame-seed-oil-on-glucose-control-and-biomarkers-of-hepatic-cardiac-and-renal-functions-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-with-chemically-induced-diabetes
#15
Farhan Aslam, Sanaullah Iqbal, Muhammad Nasir, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Pamela Swan, Karen Sweazea
White sesame seed oil (WSSO) has been used in cooking and food preparations for centuries. It has many purported health benefits and may be a promising nutraceutical. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of WSSO on fasting blood glucose (GLU) and insulin (INS) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with chemically induced diabetes. A secondary aim was to explore other hematological biomarkers of hepatic, cardiac, and renal function. Sixty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into standard diet groups, normal control (NCON) (n = 21) and diabetic control (DCON) (n = 21), and a diabetic sesame oil (DSO) (n = 21) group, which were fed a diet containing 12% WSSO...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331253/content-of-food-advertising-for-young-adolescents-on-television
#16
Setu Gupta, Swati Kalra, Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Piyush Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. METHODOLOGY: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330819/childhood-excess-weight-in-spain-from-2006-to-2012-determinants-and-parental-misperception
#17
María D Ramiro-González, Belén Sanz-Barbero, Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Due to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in Spain, we analyzed changes in its prevalence from 2006 to 2007 and from 2011 to 2012, as well as diet, sleep, and sedentary habits in 5- to 14-year-olds and parental misperceptions about their children's excess weight. METHODS: The sample was from the Spanish National Health Surveys for 2006 to 2007 (n=5590) and for 2011 to 2012 (n=3601). Data were collected by trained personnel through telephone interviews with parents/guardians...
March 18, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330296/application-of-pectinases-for-recovery-of-grape-seeds-phenolics
#18
Petra Štambuk, Dora Tomašković, Ivana Tomaz, Luna Maslov, Domagoj Stupić, Jasminka Karoglan Kontić
Grape marc seeds contain large amounts of different polyphenolic compounds so they can be used for the recovery of these classes of compounds. A new green extraction method for the recovery of phenols from the grape seeds was developed. To provide a high quality extract sourced from natural product by using enzymes as alternative solvents and spending less energy, it is impeccable to call this method "green". Furthermore, this method was optimized by finding out which conditions provide the best possible results and achieving the maximum recovery of polyphenols from grape seeds...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327566/wholegrain-rye-but-not-wholegrain-wheat-lowers-body-weight-and-fat-mass-compared-with-refined-wheat-a-6-week-randomized-study
#19
J Suhr, S Vuholm, K N Iversen, R Landberg, M Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR)...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326551/cyclic-imine-toxins-from-dinoflagellates-a-growing-family-of-potent-antagonists-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#20
REVIEW
Jordi Molgó, Pascale Marchot, Rómulo Aráoz, Evelyne Benoit, Bogdan I Iorga, Armen Zakarian, Palmer Taylor, Yves Bourne, Denis Servent
We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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