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calcium hemostasis

Mahsa Jafari Giv
With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to explore and analyze the current evidence on the association between ATS exposure and development of cardiomyopathy, biological mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of ATSAC, risk factors, clinical features and course of patients with ATSAC...
September 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Hisashi Kato, Yozo Nakazawa, Yumi Kurokawa, Hirokazu Kashiwagi, Yoichiro Morikawa, Daisuke Morita, Fumiaki Banno, Shigenori Honda, Yuzuru Kanakura, Yoshiaki Tomiyama
Affinity regulation of integrin αIIbβ3 for fibrinogen by inside-out signaling plays a critical role in hemostasis. Calcium and DAG-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) was identified as a Rap1 activating molecule and its role in inside-out αIIbβ3 activation was established in CalDAG-GEFI deficient mice. However, little information regarding CalDAG-GEFI in human platelets is available. Here, we report a 16-year-old girl with CalDAG-GEFI deficiency who has been suffering from severe bleeding tendency...
September 23, 2016: Blood
Emilie Montenont, Christina Echagarruga, Nicole Allen, Elisa Araldi, Yajaira Suarez, Jeffrey S Berger
Platelet activity plays a major role in hemostasis with increased platelet activity likely contributing to the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We sought to identify associations between platelet activity variability and platelet related genes in healthy controls. Transcriptional profiling of platelets revealed that WD-40 repeat domain 1 (WDR1), an enhancer of actin depolymerizing factor activity, is downregulated in platelet mRNA from subjects with a hyperreactive platelet phenotype. We used the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01 as an in vitro model for human megakaryocytes and platelets...
September 8, 2016: Blood
Chisa Yamada, Steven W Pipe, Lili Zhao, Alan B Leichtman, Milagros Samaniego, Randall S Sung, Robertson D Davenport
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used for treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after solid organ transplants. There is concern that TPE may increase risk of bleeding, although data are limited. After TPE, clot-based coagulation tests may not accurately represent the levels of coagulation factors due to the effect of citrate. We investigated protein levels of fibrinogen using antigen detection method (FibAg) and correlated results with a clot-based fibrinogen activity test (Fib)...
September 7, 2016: Transfusion
Khushboo Singh, James M Briggs
Mutations in the translocated BCL2 gene are often detected in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), indicating both their significance and pervasiveness. Large series genome sequencing of more than 200 DLBCLs has identified frequent BCL2 mutations clustered in the exons coding for the BH4 domain and the folded loop domain (FLD) of the protein. However, BCL2 mutations are mostly contemplated to represent bystander events with negligible functional impact on the pathogenesis of DLBCL. BCL2 arbitrates apoptosis through a classic interaction between its hydrophobic groove forming BH1-3 domains and the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research
Arun Upadhyaya, Tianpeng Hu, Zhaowei Meng, Xue Li, Xianghui He, Weijun Tian, Qiang Jia, Jian Tan
Harmonic scalpel and LigaSure vessel sealing systems have been suggested as options for saving surgical time and reducing postoperative complications. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare surgical time, postoperative complications and other parameters between them in for the open thyroidectomy procedure. Studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science until December 2015. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Harmonic scalpel and LigaSure during open thyroidectomy were selected...
August 2016: Biomedical Reports
Hiroshi Deguchi, Ranjeet K Sinha, Patrizia Marchese, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Owen J T McCarty, Mitchell J Cohen, John H Griffin
To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle myosins can directly influence blood coagulation and thrombosis, ex vivo studies of the effects of myosin on thrombogenesis in fresh human blood were conducted. Addition of myosin to blood augmented the thrombotic responses of human blood flowing over collagen-coated surfaces (300 s(-1) shear rate). Perfusion of human blood over myosin-coated surfaces also caused fibrin and platelet deposition, evidencing myosin's thrombogenicity. Myosin markedly enhanced thrombin generation in both platelet rich plasma and platelet poor plasma, indicating that myosin promoted thrombin generation in plasma primarily independent of platelets...
July 15, 2016: Blood
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Zhifeng Wu, Song Sun, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexander Sauer, Alexander Dierks, Franziska Wolfschmidt, Nicole Hassold, Thorsten A Bley, Ralph Kickuth
PURPOSE: To present the results of a prospective single-center study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a hemostatic dressing following femoral artery access. METHODS: Within a 9-month period, 80 patients (mean age 68±14 years; 55 men) were treated with a hemostatic dressing patch (Hematrix Active Patch) containing aminocaproic acid, calcium chloride, and thrombin after endovascular procedures via a 6- to 8-F femoral artery access. After removing the sheath, the wound dressing was placed on the puncture site followed by constant manual compression adapted to the sheath size (specified pressure times: 8 minutes for 6-F, 9 minutes for 7-F, and 10 minutes for 8-F)...
October 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Arash Momeni, Mark Joseph Filiaggi
UNLABELLED: Sodium polyphosphate is a linear polymer formed from phosphate units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Addition of calcium to a solution of sodium polyphosphate results in phase separation and formation of a polyphosphate coacervate best described as a polymeric rich viscoelastic material. Polyphosphate coacervate is an interesting candidate as a biomaterial based on its ability to bind with different cations and to be loaded with drugs. Here, in vitro degradation and hemostatic properties of polyphosphate coacervates are comprehensively evaluated...
September 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
A A Ponomareva, T A Nevzorova, E R Mordakhanova, I A Andrianova, R I Litvinov
Platelets are the anucleated blood cells, wich together with the fibrin stop bleeding (hemostasis). Cellular microvesicles are membrane-surrounded microparticles released into extracellular space upon activation and/or apoptosis of various cells. Platelet-derived macrovesicles from the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathophysiology of platelet-derived macrovesicles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain poorly understood...
2016: Tsitologiia
Stéphanie Sarda, Farid Errassifi, Olivier Marsan, Anne Geffre, Catherine Trumel, Christophe Drouet
This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected...
September 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fedor A Balabin, Anastasia N Sveshnikova
Blood platelet activation is required to allow their participation in hemostasis and thrombosis. It is regulated by a complicated signaling network, whose functioning has been recently attracting attention for basic research and pharmacological purposes. Phospholipase С (PLC) is an enzyme playing an important role in platelet calcium signaling and responsible for release of inositol triphosphate (IP3) into platelet cytoplasm thus controlling intracellular calcium concentration. Using a comprehensive computational model of platelet calcium signaling, we studied the influence of the positive feedback executed by cytosolic calcium on the PLC isoform β2 during platelet activation...
June 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
M Keegan Delaney, Kyungho Kim, Brian Estevez, Zheng Xu, Aleksandra Stojanovic-Terpo, Bo Shen, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Jaehyung Cho, Xiaoping Du
OBJECTIVE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to regulate platelet activation; however, the mechanisms of ROS production during platelet activation remain unclear. Platelets express different isoforms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) oxidases (NOXs). Here, we investigated the role of NOX1 and NOX2 in ROS generation and platelet activation using NOX1 and NOX2 knockout mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: NOX1(-/Y) platelets showed selective defects in G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated platelet activation induced by thrombin and thromboxane A2 analog U46619, but were not affected in platelet activation induced by collagen-related peptide, a glycoprotein VI agonist...
May 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Guangming Wan, Meiqiong Yan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the improvement the dingle technology through the PICC catheter puncture point elbow hemostatic effect. Selection. METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2013, chest hospital affiliated to Shanghai jiaotong university under the guidance of ultrasound improved the Ding Gehang PICC catheter patients of 997 cases were randomly divided into three groups A, B, C, respectively, using gauze pad, calcium alginate wound dressings, calcium alginate wound dressings with hemostatic gauze pad three methods to puncture point, compare the three groups within 48 h after puncture biopsy in patients with some local bleeding, treatment times and catheter after 1 week of the maintenance costs of the catheter...
September 2015: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Karen Wolf, Attila Braun, Elizabeth J Haining, Yu-Lun Tseng, Peter Kraft, Michael K Schuhmann, Sanjeev K Gotru, Wenchun Chen, Heike M Hermanns, Guido Stoll, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Bernhard Nieswandt
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin, 5-HT) is an indolamine platelet agonist, biochemically derived from tryptophan. 5-HT is secreted from the enterochromaffin cells into the gastrointestinal tract and blood. Blood 5-HT has been proposed to regulate hemostasis by acting as a vasoconstrictor and by triggering platelet signaling through 5-HT receptor 2A (5HTR2A). Although platelets do not synthetize 5-HT, they take 5-HT up from the blood and store it in their dense granules which are secreted upon platelet activation...
2016: PloS One
James E Manning, James D Ross, Shane L McCurdy, Nicholas A True
OBJECTIVES: Selective aortic arch perfusion (SAAP) uses a thoracic aortic balloon occlusion catheter for heart and brain perfusion in cardiac arrest to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). SAAP with oxygenated stored blood was studied in a model of hemorrhage-induced cardiac arrest. The study hypothesis was that intra-aortic calcium coadministration would be required to maintain normal aortic arch blood ionized calcium during SAAP and to achieve ROSC. METHODS: Twelve anesthetized, domestic swine underwent severe hemorrhage and liver injury resulting in cardiac arrest...
February 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
S S Petrikov, V I Kartavenko, S A Badygov, E V Klychnikova, K G Rak
It is a clinical case of successful correction of hemostasis disorder in hemorrhagic shock. This case demonstrates the need to perform advanced tests that assess hemostatic system in patients with ongoing bleeding. Using of thromboelastography helped us to make a comprehensive assessment of hemostatic system that allowed to detect the point of application of drugs and substitution therapy. Coagulation disorder was treated by intravenous injection of Ca2+. In this case the cause of hypocalcemia was combination offactors such as electrolytes losing during massive bleeding and progressing metabolic acidosis...
July 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Lucia Stefanini, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Platelets are critical for hemostasis, i.e., the body's ability to prevent blood loss at sites of vascular injury. They patrol the vasculature in a quiescent, non-adhesive state for approximately 10 days, after which they are removed from circulation by phagocytic cells of the reticulo-endothelial system. At sites of vascular injury, they promptly shift to an activated, adhesive state required for the formation of a hemostatic plug. The small GTPase RAP1 is a critical regulator of platelet adhesiveness. Our recent studies demonstrate that the antagonistic balance between the RAP1 regulators, CalDAG-GEFI and RASA3, is critical for the modulation of platelet adhesiveness, both in circulation and at sites of vascular injury...
January 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Marco Atteritano, Antonino Catalano, Domenico Santoro, Antonino Lasco, Salvatore Benvenga
Recent pooled analyses have shown that strontium ranelate increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism and non-fatal myocardial infarction, but no explanations were given. The aim of our study was to assess the effects a 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate on hemostasis factors and markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty osteoporotic postmenopausal women received orally strontium ranelate 2 g daily, plus calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Forty postmenopausal osteopenic women matched for age, menopausal age, and body mass index served as controls and received orally calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months...
July 2016: Endocrine
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