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Ketogenic diet study group

A Goday, D Bellido, I Sajoux, A B Crujeiras, B Burguera, P P García-Luna, A Oleaga, B Moreno, F F Casanueva
UNLABELLED: Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Basilio Moreno, Ana B Crujeiras, Diego Bellido, Ignacio Sajoux, Felipe F Casanueva
The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support...
September 13, 2016: Endocrine
Dongmei Wang, Ellen S Mitchell
Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats...
2016: PloS One
Simone M Dustin, Carl E Stafstrom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. METHODS: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29-35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA)...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Yan Jiang, Yuqiang Lu, Mengmeng Jia, Xiaohang Wang, Zhengxiang Zhang, Qun Hou, Baohui Wang
The ketogenic diet (KD) controls seizure and improves cognition in patients with drug refractory epilepsy. However, few experimental models have shown this neuroprotective effect on cognition. In this study, we investigated the cognitive protective effects of KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled rats. We used two relatively low-stress behavioral assessment methods, the novel object recognition (NOR) task and the novel placement recognition (NPR) task, to reveal impairment in item and spatial memory, respectively...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
Sheida Shaafi, Safa Najmi, Hamed Aliasgharpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Saeed Sadigh-Etemad, Mahdi Farhoudi, Negar Baniasadi
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD), high in fat and low in carbohydrate and protein, provides sufficient protein but insufficient carbohydrates for all the metabolic needs of the body. KD has been known as a therapeutic manner intractable epilepsy. In recent years, the effectiveness of KD drew attention to the treatment of some other disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study has evaluated the efficacy of KD on motor function in Parkinsonian model of rat and compared it with pramipexole...
April 3, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Yu-Chi Liu, Jia Wei Audrey Lee, Susannah T Bellows, John A Damiano, Saul A Mullen, Samuel F Berkovic, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer, Michael S Hildebrand
AIM: Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A1, encoding glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), lead to dysfunction of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. Ten percent of cases with hypoglycorrhachia (fasting cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] glucose <2.2mmol/L) do not have mutations. We hypothesized that GLUT1 deficiency could be due to non-coding SLC2A1 variants. METHOD: We performed whole exome sequencing of one proband with a GLUT1 phenotype and hypoglycorrhachia negative for SLC2A1 sequencing and copy number variants...
June 6, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Dominique M IJff, Debby Postulart, Danielle A J E Lambrechts, Marian H J M Majoie, Reina J A de Kinderen, Jos G M Hendriksen, Silvia M A A Evers, Albert P Aldenkamp
PURPOSE: The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in childhood because of the beneficial effect on seizure reduction. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess cognition and aspects of behavior during the first 4months of a randomized controlled study in children and adolescents. METHODS: Participants from a tertiary epilepsy center were randomized to a KD group (intervention) or a care-as-usual (CAU) group (control)...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Rainer J Klement, Colin E Champ, Christoph Otto, Ulrike Kämmerer
BACKGROUND: Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. METHODS: We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD)...
2016: PloS One
Tian Tian, Li-Li Li, Shu-Qi Zhang, Hong Ni
The divalent cation zinc is associated with cortical plasticity. However, the mechanism of zinc in the pathophysiology of cortical injury-associated neurobehavioral damage following neonatal seizures is uncertain. We have previously shown upregulated expression of ZnT-3; MT-3 in hippocampus of neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures, which was restored by pretreatment with ketogenic diet (KD). In this study, utilizing a novel "twist" seizure model by coupling early-life flurothyl-induced seizures with later exposure to penicillin, we further investigated the long-term effects of KD on cortical expression of zinc homeostasis-related genes in a systemic scale...
May 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Prathima Nandivada, Gillian L Fell, Amy H Pan, Vania Nose, Pei-Ra Ling, Bruce R Bistrian, Mark Puder
Dietary strategies to alter the immune response to acute inflammation have the potential to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. A eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD), composed predominantly of fat with very small amounts of carbohydrate, can provide adequate caloric support while minimizing spikes in blood glucose and reducing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an EKD on glycemic control and the inflammatory response after acute endotoxemia in mice. Mice received either an EKD or a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) for 4 weeks...
June 2016: Lipids
Daniel de Luis, Joan Carles Domingo, Olatz Izaola, Felipe F Casanueva, Diego Bellido, Ignacio Sajoux
A VLCK diet supplemented with DHA, commercially available, was tested against an isocaloric VLCK diet without DHA. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of DHA supplementation in classic cardiovascular risk factors, adipokine levels, and inflammation-resolving eicosanoids. A total of obese patients were randomized into two groups: a group supplemented with DHA (n = 14) (PnK-DHA group) versus a group with an isocaloric diet free of supplementation (n = 15) (control group). The follow-up period was 6 months...
April 27, 2016: Endocrine
John M Scichilone, Kalyan Yarraguntla, Ana Charalambides, Jacob P Harney, David Butler
For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jessica L Verpeut, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Nicholas T Bello
Prolonged consumption of ketogenic diets (KD) has reported neuroprotective benefits. Several studies suggest KD interventions could be useful in the management of neurological and developmental disorders. Alterations in the Engrailed (En) genes, specifically Engrailed 2 (En2), have neurodevelopmental consequences and produce autism-related behaviors. The following studies used En2 knockout (KO; En2(-/-)), and wild-type (WT; En2(+/+)), male mice fed either KD (80% fat, 0.1% carbohydrates) or control diet (CD; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrates)...
July 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
D A J E Lambrechts, R J A de Kinderen, J S H Vles, A J A de Louw, A P Aldenkamp, H J M Majoie
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) during the first 4 months of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in refractory epilepsy patients aged 1-18 years. METHODS: Children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy, not eligible for epilepsy surgery, were included. Following 1 month at baseline, patients were randomized to either the KD or to care as usual (CAU).Primary outcome is the proportion of patients with at least 50% reduction in seizure frequency at 4 months...
March 29, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Xiaoyu Zhang, Juliang Qin, Yihan Zhao, Jueping Shi, Rong Lan, Yunqiu Gan, Hua Ren, Bing Zhu, Min Qian, Bing Du
The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar...
April 2016: Nutrition Research
Rainer J Klement, Reinhart A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Based on promising preclinical data, ketogenic diets (KDs) have been proposed as supplementary measures for cancer patients undergoing standard-of-care therapy. However, data is still scarce on the tolerability and effects of KDs on cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Here we present six cases of patients who underwent RT and concurrently consumed a self-administered KD in our clinic within a busy community hospital setting. METHODS: All patients were followed prospectively with measurements of blood parameters, quality of life and body weight and composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Matthias S Klein, Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Hans J Vogel, Jane Shearer
The microbiota, the entirety of microorganisms residing in the gut, is increasingly recognized as an environmental factor in the maintenance of health and the development of disease. The objective of this analysis was to model in vivo interactions between gut microbiota and both serum and liver metabolites. Different genotypic models (C57BL/6 and BTBR(T+tf/j) mice) were studied in combination with significant dietary manipulations (chow vs ketogenic diets) to perturb the gut microbiota. Diet rather than genotype was the primary driver of microbial changes, with the ketogenic diet diminishing total bacterial levels...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Kirsty Martin, Cerian F Jackson, Robert G Levy, Paul N Cooper
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD), being high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been suggested to reduce seizure frequency. It is currently used mainly for children who continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Recently, there has been interest in less restrictive KDs including the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the use of these diets has extended into adult practice. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for efficacy and tolerability from randomised controlled trials regarding the effects of KD and similar diets...
February 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kamila Castro, Diego Baronio, Ingrid Schweigert Perry, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo, Carmem Gottfried
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Its etiology is still unknown, but different environmental factors during pregnancy, such as exposure to valproic acid (VPA), are associated with high incidence of ASD in children. In this context, prenatal exposure to VPA in rodents has been used as a reliable model of ASD. Ketogenic diet (KD) is an alternative therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy; however, the effects of this approach in ASD-like behavior need to be evaluated...
February 9, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
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