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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735366/further-validation-of-the-affective-bias-test-for-predicting-antidepressant-and-pro-depressant-risk-effects-of-pharmacological-and-social-manipulations-in-male-and-female-rats
#1
Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Sarah A Stuart, Michael Mendl, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Affective biases are hypothesised to contribute to the cause and treatment of mood disorders. We have previously found that affective biases, associated with learning and memory, are observed following acute treatments with a range of antidepressant and pro-depressant manipulations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test if similar biases are observed in male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. We also test whether the stress hormone, corticosterone, induces a negative bias in the affective bias test (ABT) consistent with its putative role in the development of depression...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735239/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-humensis-embryonic-development
#2
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735061/up-regulation-of-glur1-in-paraventricular-nucleus-and-greater-expressions-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-hypothalamus-of-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#3
Rong Li, Xia Zhao, Li Cai, Wan-Wan Gao
Converging evidence indicates that abnormal glutamatergic and synaptic systems may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Over-activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and is a prominent feature in depression. In this study, we examined the effect of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rats on the expression of AMPA subunit GluR1 protein in the hypothalamic PVN as well as on the expression of GluR1 and several synapse-related proteins in the hypothalamus...
July 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734909/prognostic-value-of-exercise-stress-echocardiography-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-aortic-valve-stenosis
#4
Coppelia Goublaire, Maria Melissopoulou, David Lobo, Naozumi Kubota, Constance Verdonk, Claire Cimadevilla, Isabelle Codogno, Eric Brochet, Alec Vahanian, David Messika-Zeitoun
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of mean pressure gradient (MPG) increase and peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) measured during exercise stress echocardiography in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: Exercise testing is recommended in asymptomatic AS patients, but the additional value of exercise-stress echocardiography, especially the prognostic value of MPG increase and peak SPAP, is still debated...
July 13, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734794/botulinum-toxin-a-is-effective-to-treat-tension-type-headache-caused-by-hemifacial-spasm
#5
Atsushi Mizuma, Eiichiro Nagata, Takashi Yasuda, Maiko Kouchi, Taira Nakayama, Kazunari Honma, Kentaro Tokuoka, Yasuhisa Kitagawa, Shigeru Nogawa, Shunya Takizawa
OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between hemifacial spasm (HFS; a form of cranio-cervical dystonia) and chronic primary headache, including tension-type headache (TTH). We also examined whether botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) therapy for HFS ameliorates concomitant TTH. METHODS: Fifty-one HFS patients receiving BoNT/A therapy were recruited. Patients' characteristics (including age, gender, chronic headache history, exercise habits, stiff neck, cervical spondylolysis history), stress factors, worsening/new onset of headache associated with HFS, and dose of BoNT/A were examined...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734719/coronoid-reconstruction-using-osteochondral-grafts-a-biomechanical-study
#6
Enrico Bellato, Youngbok Kim, James S Fitzsimmons, Lawrence J Berglund, Alexander W Hooke, Daniel R Bachman, Shawn W O'Driscoll
HYPOTHESIS: The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that coronoid deficiency in the setting of posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) must be reconstructed to restore articular contact pressures to normal and to compare 3 different osteochondral grafts for this purpose. METHODS: After creation of a anteromedial fracture, six cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and to passively flex the elbow...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733907/multiple-intracranial-aneurysms-a-direct-hemodynamic-comparison-between-ruptured-and-unruptured-vessel-malformations
#8
Philipp Berg, Oliver Beuing
PURPOSE: Despite numerous studies addressing the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms that have been published, the assessment thereof still remains challenging. Image-based simulations enable a precise prediction of patient-specific blood flow information. However, those approaches normally consider only small segments of the complete cerebral vasculature. METHODS: To test the validity of the consideration of single aneurysms in one computational setup, domains of the complete anterior and posterior circulations with multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIA) were simulated...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733885/a-simple-and-rapid-in-vitro-test-for-large-scale-screening-of-fungal-endophytes-from-drought-adapted-australian-wild-plants-for-conferring-water-deprivation-tolerance-and-growth-promotion-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-seedlings
#9
Khondoker M G Dastogeer, Hua Li, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam, Michael G K Jones, Stephen J Wylie
Some fungal endophytes confer novel phenotypes and enhance existing ones in plants, including tolerance to water deprivation stress. A range of fungal endophytes was isolated from wild Nicotiana plants growing in arid parts of northern Australia. These were screened for ability to enhance water deprivation stress tolerance by inoculating seedlings of the model plant N. benthamiana in two in vitro tests. Sixty-eight endophyte isolates were co-cultivated with N. benthamiana seedlings on either damp filter paper or on agar medium before being subjected to water deprivation...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733734/combined-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-analysis-of-mesh-mechanics-in-a-porcine-hernia-model
#10
Lindsey G Kahan, Spencer P Lake, Jared M McAllister, Wen Hui Tan, Jennifer Yu, Dominic Thompson, L Michael Brunt, Jeffrey A Blatnik
BACKGROUND: Hernia meshes exhibit variability in mechanical properties, and their mechanical match to tissue has not been comprehensively studied. We used an innovative imaging model of in vivo strain tracking and ex vivo mechanical analysis to assess effects of mesh properties on repaired abdominal walls in a porcine model. We hypothesized that meshes with dissimilar mechanical properties compared to native tissue would alter abdominal wall mechanics more than better-matched meshes. METHODS: Seven mini-pigs underwent ventral hernia creation and subsequent open repair with one of two heavyweight polypropylene meshes...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733586/study-of-microstructure-and-fracture-properties-of-blunt-notched-and-sharp-cracked-high-density-polyethylene-specimens
#11
Huanyu Pan, Sheila Devasahayam, Sri Bandyopadhyay
This paper examines the effect of a broad range of crosshead speed (0.05 to 100 mm/min) and a small range of temperature (25 °C and 45 °C) on the failure behaviour of high density polyethylene (HDPE) specimens containing a) standard size blunt notch and b) standard size blunt notch plus small sharp crack - all tested in air. It was observed that the yield stress properties showed linear increase with the natural logarithm of strain rate. The stress intensity factors under blunt notch and sharp crack conditions also increased linearly with natural logarithm of the crosshead speed...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733527/effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicines-on-the-occurrence-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-and-protection-of-arpe-19-retina-cells-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress
#12
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Te-Mao Li, Cheng-Hang Ko, Chi-Fung Cheng, Tsung-Jung Ho, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Ju-Pi Li, Shao-Mei Huang, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of acquired blindness. In Taiwan, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a popular adjunctive therapy. In this study, we investigated the CHM prescription patterns and their effects. We identified 23,701 subjects with type 2 diabetes in a database, and after matching for age and gender, 6,948 patients each were assigned to CHM and non-CHM groups. In the female subgroups, the cumulative retinopathy probability was lower for the CHM users than that for the CHM non-users (P < 0...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733449/mitochondrial-function-in-engineered-cardiac-tissues-is-co-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-elasticity-and-tissue-alignment
#13
Davi Marco Lyra-Leite, Allen Mariano Andres, Andrew Patrick Petersen, Nethika Ruvini Ariyasinghe, Nathan Cho, Jezell Athena Lee, Roberta A Gottlieb, Megan L McCain
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733237/a-critical-test-of-drosophila-anaesthetics-isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-are-benign-alternatives-to-cold-and-co2
#14
Heath A MacMillan, Mikkel Nørgård, Heidi J MacLean, Johannes Overgaard, Catherine J A Williams
Anaesthesia is often a necessary step when studying insects like the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies of Drosophila and other insects that require anaesthesia use either cold exposure or carbon dioxide exposure to induce a narcotic state. These anaesthetic methods are known to disrupt physiology and behavior with increasing exposure, and thus ample recovery time is required prior to experimentation. Here, we examine whether two halogenated ethers commonly used in vertebrate anaesthesia, isoflurane and sevoflurane, may serve as alternative means of insect anaesthesia...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733227/captivity-influences-immune-responses-stress-endocrinology-and-organ-size-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#15
Ashley C Love, Matthew B Lovern, Sarah E DuRant
Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733074/non-invasive-assessment-of-microvascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#16
Caroline Jaarsma, Hans Vink, Judith van Haare, Sebastiaan C A M Bekkers, Bart D van Rooijen, Walter H Backes, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J Crijns, Jurgen van Teeffelen, Simon Schalla
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the microvascular function in patients with microvascular angina (MVA) by assessing 1) the endothelial glycocalyx barrier properties using sublingual microscopy, and 2) the myocardial perfusion reserve using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: Sublingual microscopy was performed in 13 MVA patients (angina pectoris, ST-depression on treadmill testing, normal coronary angiogram) and compared with 2 control groups of 13 volunteers and 14 patients with known obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733038/ferulic-acid-reverses-depression-like-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-chronic-corticosterone-treatment-in-mice
#17
Ana Lúcia Bertarello Zeni, Anderson Camargo, Ana Paula Dalmagro
Corticosterone (CORT) treatment has been evidenced to develop a depression-like state in animals, that mimic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation implicated in the development of depression. The present study aimed to examine the ferulic acid (FA), a natural phenolic compound, antidepressant and antioxidant activities on the CORT chronic model. Mice orally treated with 20 mg/kg of CORT for 21 days were connsidered control group, while mice treated with FA (1 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for the last week of CORT treatment, as drug groups...
July 18, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732265/chronic-work-stress-and-decreased-vagal-tone-impairs-decision-making-and-reaction-time-in-jockeys
#18
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732117/identification-by-phenotypic-and-genetic-approaches-of-an-indigenous-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-wine-strain-with-high-desiccation-tolerance
#19
Marianna Zambuto, Rossana Romaniello, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Patrizia Romano, Sonia Votta, Angela Capece
During active dry yeast (ADY) production process, cells are exposed to multiple stresses, such as thermal, oxidative and hyperosmotic shock. Previously, by analyzing cells in exponential growth phase, we selected an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain, namely CD-6Sc, for its higher tolerance to desiccation and higher expression of specific desiccation stress-related genes in comparison to other yeast strains. In this study, we performed a desiccation treatment on stationary phase cells by comparing the efficacy of two different methods: a "laboratory dry test" in a small-scale (mild stress) and a treatment by spray-drying (severe stress), one of the most appropriate preservation method for yeasts and other micro-organisms...
July 21, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731935/predictive-value-of-the-water-drinking-test-and-the-risk-glaucomatous-visual-field-progression
#20
Carlos G De Moraes, Remo Susanna, Lisandro M Sakata, Marcelo Hatanaka
PURPOSE: The purpose of this is to test the hypothesis the intraocular pressure (IOP) peaks during a stress test [the water drinking test (WDT)] can estimate the risk of future visual field progression in treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Design: Prospective, longitudinal study. SETTING: Clinical practice. STUDY POPULATION: Treated POAG patients whose IOP was ≤18 mm Hg and who had no IOP-lowering interventions between the date of the WDT and the last eligible visual field...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
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