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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734634/immediate-implant-placement-the-fate-of-the-buccal-crest-a-retrospective-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study
#1
E Groenendijk, T A Staas, F E J Graauwmans, E Bronkhorst, L Verhamme, T Maal, G J Meijer
This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710687/disaggregation-and-reaggregation-of-zebrafish-retinal-cells-for-the-analysis-of-neuronal-layering
#2
Megan K Eldred, Leila Muresan, William A Harris
The reaggregation of dissociated cells to form organotypic structures provides an in vitro system for the analysis of the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of tissue architecture. The retina, an outgrowth of the forebrain, is a precisely layered neural tissue, yet the mechanisms underlying layer formation are largely unexplored. Here we describe the protocol to dissociate, re-aggregate, and culture zebrafish retinal cells from a transgenic, Spectrum of Fates, line where all main cell types are labelled with a combination of fluorescent proteins driven by fate-specific promoters...
July 15, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686586/quantifying-transcription-factor-dna-binding-in-single-cells-in-vivo-with-photoactivatable-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy
#3
Ziqing Winston Zhao, Melanie D White, Yanina D Alvarez, Jennifer Zenker, Stephanie Bissiere, Nicolas Plachta
Probing transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions remains challenging in complex in vivo systems such as mammalian embryos, especially when TF copy numbers and fluorescence background are high. To address this difficulty, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be combined with the use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to achieve selective photoactivation of a subset of tagged TF molecules. This approach, termed paFCS, enables FCS measurements within single cell nuclei inside live embryos, and obtains autocorrelation data of a quality previously only attainable in simpler in vitro cell culture systems...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680130/surface-chemistry-for-cytosolic-gene-delivery-and-photothermal-transgene-expression-by-gold-nanorods
#4
Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Kelly Kawabata Galbraith, Junko Kurisu, Hiroshi Imahori, Tatsuya Murakami, Mineko Kengaku
Light-inducible gene regulation has great potential for remote and noninvasive control of the fate and function of target cells. One method to achieve such control is delivery of heat shock protein (HSP) promoter-driven protein expression vectors and photothermal heaters into the cells, followed by activation by illumination. In this study, we show that gold nanorods (AuNRs) functionalized with two conventional lipids, oleate and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), are capable of efficient transfection and quick photoactivation of the HSP promoter...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667865/engineering-cell-identity-establishing-new-gene-regulatory-and-chromatin-landscapes
#5
REVIEW
Chuner Guo, Samantha A Morris
Cellular reprogramming can be achieved by ectopically expressing transcription factors that directly convert one differentiated cell type into another, bypassing embryonic states. A number of different cell types have been generated by such 'direct lineage reprogramming' methods, but their practical utility has been limited because, in most protocols, the resulting populations are often partially differentiated or incompletely specified. Here, we review mechanisms of lineage reprogramming by pioneer transcription factors, a unique class of transcriptional regulators that has the capacity to engage with silent chromatin to activate target gene regulatory networks...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#6
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646766/gaps-in-aquatic-toxicological-studies-of-microplastics
#7
REVIEW
Ali Karami
The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#8
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629112/european-demonstration-program-on-the-effect-based-and-chemical-identification-and-monitoring-of-organic-pollutants-in-european-surface-waters
#9
Zuzana Tousova, Peter Oswald, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Ludek Blaha, Melis Muz, Meng Hu, Werner Brack, Martin Krauss, Carolina Di Paolo, Zsolt Tarcai, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert, Sanja Koprivica, Marijan Ahel, Jennifer E Schollée, Juliane Hollender, Marc J-F Suter, Anita O Hidasi, Kristin Schirmer, Manoj Sonavane, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Francois Brion, Jean Froment, Ana Catarina Almeida, Kevin Thomas, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Sara Tufi, Xiyu Ouyang, Pim Leonards, Marja Lamoree, Victoria Osorio Torrens, Annemieke Kolkman, Merijn Schriks, Petra Spirhanzlova, Andrew Tindall, Tobias Schulze
Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589361/the-aid-cre-ert2-model-a-tool-for-monitoring-b-cell-immune-responses-and-generating-selective-hybridomas
#10
Simon Le Gallou, Takuya Nojima, Daisuke Kitamura, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud
Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the hallmark of B cells engaged in an immune response in germinal centers. We designed an inducible fate-mapping reporter mouse in which AID-expressing B cells could be timely and irreversibly marked, by knockin at the Aicda locus of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. This mouse model allows notably for the long-term follow-up of memory B cells and plasma cells engaged in an immune response. We describe here a protocol to generate hybridomas from small memory subsets that can be easily traced and identified in this mouse line through Cre-activated fluorescent reporters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580167/sequential-emt-met-induces-neuronal-conversion-through-sox2
#11
Songwei He, Jinlong Chen, Yixin Zhang, Mengdan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Yuan Li, Hao Sun, Lilong Lin, Ke Fan, Lining Liang, Chengqian Feng, Fuhui Wang, Xiao Zhang, Yiping Guo, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
Direct neuronal conversion can be achieved with combinations of small-molecule compounds and growth factors. Here, by studying the first or induction phase of the neuronal conversion induced by defined 5C medium, we show that the Sox2-mediated switch from early epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to late mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) within a high proliferation context is essential and sufficient for the conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to TuJ(+) cells. At the early stage, insulin and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced cell proliferation, early EMT, the up-regulation of Stat3 and Sox2, and the subsequent activation of neuron projection...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570967/meta-analysis-of-radiocesium-contamination-data-in-japanese-forest-trees-over-the-period-2011-2013
#12
REVIEW
M-A Gonze, P Calmon
The fate and dispersion of radiocesium in forests affected by the Fukushima atmospheric fallouts have been efficiently characterized by Japanese scientists thanks to monitoring surveys of radioactive contents in contaminated soil, water, and vegetation samples at numerous sites. In this paper, we carry out a meta-analysis of the field surveys conducted over the period 2011-2013 in evergreen coniferous and deciduous broadleaf forests of Fukushima or neighboring prefectures. The review focuses on contamination data acquired in tree vegetation - about 1500 spatio-temporal measurements of concentrations, inventories and depuration fluxes - with a particular interest for organs that were directly exposed to the atmospheric fallouts and subjected to depuration mechanisms (foliage, branches and outer bark)...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560692/engineering-kidney-cells-reprogramming-and-directed-differentiation-to-renal-tissues
#13
REVIEW
Michael M Kaminski, Jelena Tosic, Roman Pichler, Sebastian J Arnold, Soeren S Lienkamp
Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons...
July 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552233/advanced-imaging-of-transplant-survival-fate-differentiation-and-integration
#14
Nadja Van Camp, Elsa Diguet, Philippe Hantraye
Stem cell-based therapy trials for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease are being actively prepared both at the preclinical and clinical level. Preclinical validation of these stem cell transplantations necessitates to implement a translational continuum to take one pluripotent stem cell through the point of "first-in-man" clinical trial. Main steps along this translational continuum include stem cell GMP production, in vitro optimization of differentiation protocols necessary to direct stem cells to the desired neuronal phenotype, and evaluation of functional efficacy in animal models including large animal models...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550199/comprehensive-approach-for-identifying-the-t-cell-subset-origin-of-cd3-and-cd28-antibody-activated-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells
#15
Michael Schmueck-Henneresse, Bilal Omer, Thomas Shum, Haruko Tashiro, Maksim Mamonkin, Natalia Lapteva, Sandhya Sharma, Lisa Rollins, Gianpietro Dotti, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Cliona M Rooney
The outcome of therapy with chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is strongly influenced by the subset origin of the infused T cells. However, because polyclonally activated T cells acquire a largely CD45RO(+)CCR7(-) effector memory phenotype after expansion, regardless of subset origin, it is impossible to know which subsets contribute to the final T cell product. To determine the contribution of naive T cell, memory stem T cell, central memory T cell, effector memory T cell, and terminally differentiated effector T cell populations to the CD3 and CD28-activated CAR-modified T cells that we use for therapy, we followed the fate and function of individually sorted CAR-modified T cell subsets after activation with CD3 and CD28 Abs (CD3/28), transduction and culture alone, or after reconstitution into the relevant subset-depleted population...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#16
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482328/green-synthesized-cds-nano-pesticides-toxicity-on-young-instars-of-malaria-vectors-and-impact-on-enzymatic-activities-of-the-non-target-mud-crab-scylla-serrata
#17
Vasu Sujitha, Kadarkarai Murugan, Devakumar Dinesh, Amuthvalli Pandiyan, Rajasekar Aruliah, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kandasamy Kalimuthu, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Akon Higuchi, Al Thabiani Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Currently, nano-formulated mosquito larvicides have been widely proposed to control young instars of malaria vector populations. However, the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is scarcely known, with special reference to the impact of nanoparticles on enzymatic activity of non-target aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we synthesized CdS nanoparticles using a green protocol relying on the cheap extract of Valoniopsis pachynema algae. CdS nanoparticles showed high toxicity on young instars of the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and A...
April 25, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477131/noncanonical-atm-activation-and-signaling-in-response-to-transcription-blocking-dna-damage
#18
Jurgen A Marteijn, Wim Vermeulen, Maria Tresini
Environmental genotoxins and metabolic byproducts generate DNA lesions that can cause genomic instability and disrupt tissue homeostasis. To ensure genomic integrity, cells employ mechanisms that convert signals generated by stochastic DNA damage into organized responses, including activation of repair systems, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptotic mechanisms. DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways coordinate these responses and determine cellular fates in part, by transducing signals that modulate RNA metabolism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472697/occurrence-and-fate-of-illicit-drugs-and-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-from-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-costa-rica
#19
Ana Causanilles, Clemens Ruepert, María Ibáñez, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Pim de Voogt
Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central America, Costa Rica, with the aim of extending this knowledge to new world regions. This work is the first to report wastewater-based epidemiological data on the use of illicit drugs in this region of the world. Composite wastewater samples from the influents of two different wastewater treatment facilities and surface water samples from surrounding areas were collected applying the best practice protocol and analysed to investigate the occurrence and fate of selected illicit drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468615/epithelial-ciliated-beating-cells-essential-for-ex-vivo-ali-culture-growth
#20
Delphine Gras, Aurélie Petit, Jérémy Charriot, Lucie Knabe, Khuder Alagha, Anne Sophie Gamez, Céline Garulli, Arnaud Bourdin, Pascal Chanez, Nicolas Molinari, Isabelle Vachier
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Pinpointing factors associated with ALI culture success would help researchers gain further insight into epithelial progenitor behavior...
May 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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