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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906529/the-effect-of-iloprost-and-sildenafil-alone-and-in-combination-on-myocardial-ischaemia-and-nitric-oxide-and-irisin-levels
#1
Suna Aydin, Tuncay Kuloglu, Suleyman Aydin, Meltem Yardim, Davut Azboy, Zeki Temizturk, Ali Kemal Kalkan, Mehmet Nesimi Eren
AIM: Insufficient oxygen supply to organs and tissues due to reduced arterial or venous blood flow results in ischaemia, during which, although ATP production stops, AMP and adenosine continue to be produced from ATP. The fate of irisin, which causes the production of heat instead of ATP during ischaemia, is unknown. Iloprost and sildenafil are two pharmaceutical agents that mediate the resumption of reperfusion (blood supply) via vasodilatation during ischaemic conditions. Our study aimed to explore the effects of iloprost and sildenafil on irisin levels in the heart, liver and kidney tissues and whether these pharmaceutical agents had any impact on serum irisin and nitric oxide levels in rats with induced experimental myocardial ischaemia...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#2
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886367/a-modular-platform-for-differentiation-of-human-pscs-into-all-major-ectodermal-lineages
#3
Jason Tchieu, Bastian Zimmer, Faranak Fattahi, Sadaf Amin, Nadja Zeltner, Shuibing Chen, Lorenz Studer
Directing the fate of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into different lineages requires variable starting conditions and components with undefined activities, introducing inconsistencies that confound reproducibility and assessment of specific perturbations. Here we introduce a simple, modular protocol for deriving the four main ectodermal lineages from hPSCs. By precisely varying FGF, BMP, WNT, and TGFβ pathway activity in a minimal, chemically defined medium, we show parallel, robust, and reproducible derivation of neuroectoderm, neural crest (NC), cranial placode (CP), and non-neural ectoderm in multiple hPSC lines, on different substrates independently of cell density...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871530/coupling-radiotracer-experiments-with-chemical-fractionation-for-the-estimation-of-respiratory-fluxes
#4
Toshihiro Obata, Laise Rosado-Souza, Alisdair R Fernie
Carbohydrates catabolized via respiratory processes are not only used for energy production but also for biosynthesis of cellular components including soluble molecules (sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and their derivatives) and insoluble macromolecules (proteins, starch, and cell wall). Radiotracer experiments using (14)C-labeled glucose provide a global picture of the fate of respired carbon in the metabolic network. This method is based on a chemical fractionation of biomolecules in (14)C-glucose fed plant materials and the subsequent determination of radioactivity in each fraction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860504/small-molecule-based-lineage-switch-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-and-functional-gabaergic-neurons
#5
Jihye Park, Nayeon Lee, Jaekwang Lee, Eun Kyung Choe, Min Kyung Kim, Jeonghoon Lee, Min Soo Byun, Myong-Wuk Chon, Seong Who Kim, C Justin Lee, Ju Han Kim, Jun Soo Kwon, Mi-Sook Chang
Cellular reprogramming using small molecules (SMs) without genetic modification provides a promising strategy for generating target cells for cell-based therapy. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are a desirable cell source for clinical application due to their self-renewal capacity, easy obtainability and the lack of safety concerns, such as tumor formation. However, methods to convert hADSCs into neural cells, such as neural stem cells (NSCs), are inefficient, and few if any studies have achieved efficient reprogramming of hADSCs into functional neurons...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858287/optimized-retroviral-transduction-of-mouse-t-cells-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-gene-function
#6
Makoto Kurachi, Junko Kurachi, Zeyu Chen, John Johnson, Omar Khan, Bertram Bengsch, Erietta Stelekati, John Attanasio, Laura M McLane, Michio Tomura, Satoshi Ueha, E John Wherry
Retroviral (RV) expression of genes of interest (GOIs) is an invaluable tool and has formed the foundation of cellular engineering for adoptive cell therapy in cancer and other diseases. However, monitoring of transduced T cells long term (weeks to months) in vivo remains challenging because of the low frequency and often poor durability of transduced T cells over time when transferred without enrichment. Traditional methods often require additional overnight in vitro culture after transduction. Moreover, in vitro-generated effector CD8(+) T cells enriched by sorting often have reduced viability, making it difficult to monitor the fate of transferred cells in vivo...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855574/genetic-studies-in-mice-directly-link-oocytes-produced-during-adulthood-to-ovarian-function-and-natural-fertility
#7
Ning Wang, Chonthicha Satirapod, Yasuyo Ohguchi, Eun-Sil Park, Dori C Woods, Jonathan L Tilly
Multiple labs have reported that mammalian ovaries contain oogonial stem cells (OSCs), which can differentiate into oocytes that fertilize to produce offspring. However, the physiological relevance of these observations to adult ovarian function is unknown. Here we performed targeted and reversible ablation of premeiotic germ cells undergoing differentiation into oocytes in transgenic mice expressing the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk), driven by the promoter of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), a germ cell-specific gene activated during meiotic commitment...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829063/small-molecule-induced-cellular-conversion
#8
Debojyoti De, Debasish Halder, Injae Shin, Kyeong Kyu Kim
Over the last decade, the development of methods to promote conversion of one type of cell to a specific type of another cell (or change of cell fate) has received great attention in basic biological research and therapeutic applications. A precise, reproducible and safe protocol for inducing this change is a prerequisite for cellular conversion. Although genetic manipulation, which relies on the introduction of specific genes into cells, is a promising approach, the results of initial investigations have highlighted serious safety concerns associated with forced ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects...
August 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825820/fate-of-a-stressed-therapeutic-antibody-tracked-by-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-folded-monomers-survive-aggregation
#9
Hiroshi Imamura, Akira Sasaki, Shinya Honda
Antibodies are therapeutic proteins that are becoming indispensable for the treatment of serious diseases. Their efficacies depend on their folded structures, the loss of which, through unfolding or aggregation, should be closely monitored during their manufacture, storage, and dosing for safe usage. In downstream processes, exposure of the crude antibody solution to acid, followed by neutralization, is an established standard protocol for antibody purification and inactivation of viruses in antibody preparations...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821477/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-pai-1-is-responsible-for-retaining-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-niche
#10
Takashi Yahata, Abd Aziz Ibrahim, Yukari Muguruma, Mesut Eren, Alexander M Shaffer, Nobuo Watanabe, Satoko Kaneko, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Takashi Dan, Noriaki Hirayama, Douglas E Vaughan, Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Ando
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the supportive stromal niche in bone marrow (BM); when needed, however, they are rapidly mobilized into the circulation, suggesting that HSPCs are intrinsically highly motile but are usually stayed in the niche. We questioned what determines the motility of HSPCs. Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced intracellular plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activation is responsible for keeping HSPCs in the BM niche. We found that the expression of PAI-1, a downstream target of TGF-β-signaling, was selectively augmented in niche-residing HSPCs...
August 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#11
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747097/tissue-engineering-strategies-to-improve-osteogenesis-in-the-juvenile-swine-alveolar-cleft-model
#12
Montserrat Caballero, Donna C Jones, Zhengyuan Shan, Sajjad Soleimani, John A van Aalst
Alveolar <b>(gumline)</b> clefts are the most common congenital bone defect in humans, affecting 1 in 700 live births. Treatment <b>to repair these bony</b> defects relies on autologous, <b>cancellous</b> bone transfer from the iliac crest. This harvest requires a second surgical site <b>with increased </b>surgical time associated with potential complications, <b>while providing only limited cancellous bone</b>. Improvements in treatment protocols that avoid these limitations would be beneficial to patients with clefts and other craniofacial bone defects...
July 26, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745620/identification-of-erythromyeloid-progenitors-and-their-progeny-in-the-mouse-embryo-by-flow-cytometry
#13
Lorea Iturri, Javier Saenz Coronilla, Yvan Lallemand, Elisa Gomez Perdiguero
Macrophages are professional phagocytes from the innate arm of the immune system. In steady-state, sessile macrophages are found in adult tissues where they act as front line sentinels of infection and tissue damage. While other immune cells are continuously renewed from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) located in the bone marrow, a lineage of macrophages, known as resident macrophages, have been shown to be self-maintained in tissues without input from bone marrow HSPCs. This lineage is exemplified by microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver and Langerhans cells in the epidermis among others...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734634/immediate-implant-placement-the-fate-of-the-buccal-crest-a-retrospective-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study
#14
E Groenendijk, T A Staas, F E J Graauwmans, E Bronkhorst, L Verhamme, T Maal, G J Meijer
This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710687/disaggregation-and-reaggregation-of-zebrafish-retinal-cells-for-the-analysis-of-neuronal-layering
#15
Megan K Eldred, Leila Muresan, William A Harris
The reaggregation of dissociated cells to form organotypic structures provides an in vitro system for the analysis of the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of tissue architecture. The retina, an outgrowth of the forebrain, is a precisely layered neural tissue, yet the mechanisms underlying layer formation are largely unexplored. Here we describe the protocol to dissociate, re-aggregate, and culture zebrafish retinal cells from a transgenic, Spectrum of Fates, line where all main cell types are labelled with a combination of fluorescent proteins driven by fate-specific promoters...
July 15, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686586/quantifying-transcription-factor-dna-binding-in-single-cells-in-vivo-with-photoactivatable-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy
#16
Ziqing Winston Zhao, Melanie D White, Yanina D Alvarez, Jennifer Zenker, Stephanie Bissiere, Nicolas Plachta
Probing transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions remains challenging in complex in vivo systems such as mammalian embryos, especially when TF copy numbers and fluorescence background are high. To address this difficulty, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can be combined with the use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to achieve selective photoactivation of a subset of tagged TF molecules. This approach, termed paFCS, enables FCS measurements within single cell nuclei inside live embryos, and obtains autocorrelation data of a quality previously only attainable in simpler in vitro cell culture systems...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680130/surface-chemistry-for-cytosolic-gene-delivery-and-photothermal-transgene-expression-by-gold-nanorods
#17
Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Kelly Kawabata Galbraith, Junko Kurisu, Hiroshi Imahori, Tatsuya Murakami, Mineko Kengaku
Light-inducible gene regulation has great potential for remote and noninvasive control of the fate and function of target cells. One method to achieve such control is delivery of heat shock protein (HSP) promoter-driven protein expression vectors and photothermal heaters into the cells, followed by activation by illumination. In this study, we show that gold nanorods (AuNRs) functionalized with two conventional lipids, oleate and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), are capable of efficient transfection and quick photoactivation of the HSP promoter...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667865/engineering-cell-identity-establishing-new-gene-regulatory-and-chromatin-landscapes
#18
REVIEW
Chuner Guo, Samantha A Morris
Cellular reprogramming can be achieved by ectopically expressing transcription factors that directly convert one differentiated cell type into another, bypassing embryonic states. A number of different cell types have been generated by such 'direct lineage reprogramming' methods, but their practical utility has been limited because, in most protocols, the resulting populations are often partially differentiated or incompletely specified. Here, we review mechanisms of lineage reprogramming by pioneer transcription factors, a unique class of transcriptional regulators that has the capacity to engage with silent chromatin to activate target gene regulatory networks...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#19
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646766/gaps-in-aquatic-toxicological-studies-of-microplastics
#20
REVIEW
Ali Karami
The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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