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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769398/cleavage-blastomere-deletion-and-transplantation-to-test-cell-fate-commitment-in-xenopus
#1
Sally A Moody
Fate maps identify the precursors of an organ, and tracing the members of a blastomere lineage over time shows how its descendants come to populate that organ. The fates of the individual blastomeres of the two- to 32-cell Xenopus embryo have been fully mapped to reveal which cells are the major contributors to various cell types, tissues, and organs. However, because these fate maps were produced in the normal embryo, they do not reveal whether a precursor blastomere is competent to give rise to additional tissues or is already committed to its fate-mapped repertoire of descendants...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769392/cleavage-blastomere-explant-culture-in-xenopus
#2
Sally A Moody
The individual blastomeres of Xenopus two- to 32-cell embryos have been fate mapped. This work identified the precursors of most of the embryonic cell types, tissues and organs; however, the maps do not reveal the cell interactions or signaling pathways that are required for establishing cell fates. This protocol describes an explant culture approach for culturing blastomeres in isolation to test whether a cell's fate has been determined. Cleavage blastomeres can be cultured in a simple salt medium without added factors because they contain intracellular yolk platelets, which provide an intrinsic energy source...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749669/in-silico-analysis-of-single-cell-rna-sequencing-data-from-3-and-7-days-old-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-to-identify-their-differentially-expressed-genes-and-transcriptional-regulators
#3
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are at the basis of spermatogenesis process, are valuable cells with different applications in biotechnology and regenerative medicine. Understanding the molecular basis of SSC self-renewal and differentiation at various developmental stages of the male organism is crucial to find key factors in the SSCs fate and function. Therefore, this study was aimed to use single-cell RNA-sequencing dataset analysis for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their regulators in 3 and 7 days old mouse-derived single SSCs (mSSCs)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745799/sweat-from-gland-to-skin-surface-production-transport-and-skin-absorption
#4
Nicola Margaret Gerrett, Katy E Griggs, Bernard Redortier, Thomas Voelcker, Narihiko Kondo, George Havenith
By combining galvanic skin conductance (GSC), stratum corneum hydration (HYD) and regional surface sweat rate (RSR) measurements at the arm, thigh, back and chest, we closely monitored the passage of sweat from gland to skin surface. Through a varied exercise-rest protocol, sweating was increased slowly and decreased in 16 male and female human participants (25.3 {plus minus} 4.7 yrs, 174.6 {plus minus} 10.1 cm, 71.3 {plus minus} 12.0 kg, 53.0 {plus minus} 6.8 ml∙kg∙min-1 ). ∆GSC and HYD increased prior to RSR, indicating pre-secretory sweat gland activity and skin hydration...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740078/osmotic-modulation-of-chromatin-impacts-on-efficiency-and-kinetics-of-cell-fate-modulation
#5
A F Lima, G May, J Colunga, S Pedreiro, A Paiva, L Ferreira, T Enver, F J Iborra, R Pires das Neves
Chromatin structure is a major regulator of transcription and gene expression. Herein we explore the use of osmotic modulation to modify the chromatin structure and reprogram gene expression. In this study we use the extracellular osmotic pressure as a chromatin structure and transcriptional modulator. Hyposmotic modulation promotes chromatin loosening and induces changes in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity. The chromatin decondensation opens space for higher amounts of DNA engaged RNA Pol II. Hyposmotic modulation constitutes an alternative route to manipulate cell fate decisions...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734117/nkx6-1-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-reporter-lines-for-isolation-and-analysis-of-functionally-relevant-neuronal-and-pancreas-populations
#6
Shailesh Kumar Gupta, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Anna K Ringgaard, Himjyot Jaiswal, Luyan Song, Benoit Hastoy, Camilla Ingvorsen, Amir Taheri-Ghahfarokhi, Björn Magnusson, Marcello Maresca, Rikke R Jensen, Nicola L Beer, Johannes J Fels, Lars G Grunnet, Melissa K Thomas, Anna L Gloyn, Ryan Hicks, Mark I McCarthy, Mattias Hansson, Christian Honoré
Recent studies have reported significant advances in the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to clinically relevant cell types such as the insulin producing beta-like cells and motor neurons. However, many of the current differentiation protocols lead to heterogeneous cell cultures containing cell types other than the targeted cell fate. Genetically modified human pluripotent stem cells reporting the expression of specific genes are of great value for differentiation protocol optimization and for the purification of relevant cell populations from heterogeneous cell cultures...
April 23, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710651/considerations-of-nano-qsar-qspr-models-for-nanopesticide-risk-assessment-within-the-european-legislative-framework
#7
REVIEW
Juan José Villaverde, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Carmen López-Goti, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
The European market for pesticides is currently legislated through the well-developed Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. This regulation promotes the competitiveness of European agriculture, recognizing the necessity of safe pesticides for human and animal health and the environment to protect crops against pests, diseases and weeds. In this sense, nanotechnology can provide a tremendous opportunity to achieve a more rational use of pesticides. However, the lack of information regarding nanopesticides and their fate and behavior in the environment and their effects on human and animal health is inhibiting rapid nanopesticide incorporation into European Union agriculture...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709713/differential-retention-of-pollen-grains-on-clothing-and-the-effectiveness-of-laboratory-retrieval-methods-in-forensic-settings
#8
Julia C Webb, Harriet A Brown, Hannah Toms, Anne E Goodenough
Forensic palynology has been important in criminal investigation since the 1950s and often provides evidence that is vital in identifying suspects and securing convictions. However, for such evidence to be used appropriately, it is necessary to understand the factors affecting taphonomic variability (i.e. the variability in the fate of pollen grains before they are found during forensic examination). Here, we test the relative amount of pollen retained on clothing after a period of simulated light or heavy wear based on pollen and fabric characteristics...
April 15, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696633/generation-of-reporter-hescs-by-targeting-egfp-at-the-cd144-locus-to-facilitate-the-endothelial-differentiation
#9
Zhiqing Hu, Yong Wu, Miaojin Zhou, Xiaolin Wang, Jialun Pang, Zhuo Li, Mai Feng, Yanchi Wang, Qian Hu, Junya Zhao, Xionghao Liu, Lingqian Wu, Desheng Liang
Reporter embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with tissue-specific reporter genes may contribute to optimizing the differentiation conditions in vitro as well as trafficking transplanted cells in vivo. To optimize and monitor endothelial cell (EC) differentiation specifically, here we targeted the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene at the junction of 5'UTR and exon2 of the endothelial specific marker gene CD144 using TALENs in human ESCs (H9) to generate a EGFP-CD144-reporter ESC line. The reporter cells expressed EGFP and CD144 increasingly and specifically without unexpected effects during the EC differentiation...
April 25, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693936/cardiac-point-of-care-using-ultrasound
#10
Mitsuharu Kodaka
Patients with cardiac disease have high mortality rates, mainly owing to shock. Therefore, evaluation of cardiac function is one of the most challenging issues in the intensive and critical care unit. Cardiac point-of-care tests using ultrasound, such as focus assessed transthoracic echo (FATE) and rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH). are useful for diagnosis and initial care of such patients. The author will introduce first a basic FATE protocol of how to scan from position 1-4, including subcostal 4-chamber, apical 4-chamber, parasternal long and short axis, and pleural scanning...
May 2017: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689092/effects-of-bioturbation-on-environmental-dna-migration-through-soil-media
#11
Christopher M Prosser, Bryan M Hedgpeth
Extracting and identifying genetic material from environmental media (i.e. water and soil) presents a unique opportunity for researchers to assess biotic diversity and ecosystem health with increased speed and decreased cost as compared to traditional methods (e.g. trapping). The heterogeneity of soil mineralogy, spatial and temporal variations however present unique challenges to sampling and interpreting results. Specifically, fate/transport of genetic material in the terrestrial environment represents a substantial data gap...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672857/bags-versus-flasks-a-comparison-of-cell-culture-systems-for-the-production-of-dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapies
#12
REVIEW
Natalie Fekete, Ariane V Béland, Katie Campbell, Sarah L Clark, Corinne A Hoesli
In recent years, cell-based therapies targeting the immune system have emerged as promising strategies for cancer treatment. This review summarizes manufacturing challenges related to production of antigen presenting cells as a patient-tailored cancer therapy. Understanding cell-material interactions is essential because in vitro cell culture manipulations to obtain mature antigen-producing cells can significantly alter their in vivo performance. Traditional antigen-producing cell culture protocols often rely on cell adhesion to surface-treated hydrophilic polystyrene flasks...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666250/developmentally-inspired-programming-of-adult-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-toward-stable-chondrogenesis
#13
Paola Occhetta, Sebastien Pigeot, Marco Rasponi, Boris Dasen, Arne Mehrkens, Thomas Ullrich, Ina Kramer, Sabine Guth-Gundel, Andrea Barbero, Ivan Martin
It is generally accepted that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are default committed toward osteogenesis. Even when induced to chondrogenesis, hMSCs typically form hypertrophic cartilage that undergoes endochondral ossification. Because embryonic mesenchyme is obviously competent to generate phenotypically stable cartilage, it is questioned whether there is a correspondence between mesenchymal progenitor compartments during development and in adulthood. Here we tested whether forcing specific early events of articular cartilage development can program hMSC fate toward stable chondrogenesis...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660396/analysis-of-clinical-management-of-infected-breast-implants-and-of-factors-associated-to-successful-breast-pocket-salvage-in-infections-occurring-after-breast-reconstruction
#14
Simonetta Franchelli, Marianna Pesce, Ilaria Baldelli, Anna Marchese, Pierluigi Santi, Andrea De Maria
OBJECTIVES: Considerable efforts have been devoted so far to improve salvage procedures of infected breast implants in absence of defined guidelines or validated clinical protocols. Within a cohort of prospectively recruited patients who underwent breast reconstruction, we performed a retrospective review of proven implant infections in order to describe factors contributing to management success. METHODS: We collected data in 1293 consecutive patients who underwent two stage (expander+ prosthesis) breast reconstruction with at least 12 months of follow-up...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659381/methodological-aspects-for-preclinical-evaluation-of-gadolinium-presence-in-brain-tissue-critical-appraisal-and-suggestions-for-harmonization-a-joint-initiative
#15
Philippe Robert, Thomas Frenzel, Cécile Factor, Gregor Jost, Marlène Rasschaert, Gunnar Schuetz, Nathalie Fretellier, Janina Boyken, Jean-Marc Idée, Hubertus Pietsch
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are pharmaceuticals that have been approved for 30 years and used daily in millions of patients worldwide. Their clinical benefits are indisputable. Recently, unexpected long-term presence of Gd in the brain has been reported by numerous retrospective clinical studies and confirmed in preclinical models particularly after linear GBCA (L-GBCA) compared with macrocyclic GBCA (M-GBCA). Even if no clinical consequences of Gd presence in brain tissue has been demonstrated so far, in-depth investigations on potential toxicological consequences and the fate of Gd in the body remain crucial to potentially adapt the clinical use of GBCAs, as done during the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis crisis...
April 13, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656561/advances-in-controlling-differentiation-of-adult-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653249/directing-neuronal-cell-fate-in-vitro-achievements-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
R J M Riemens, D L van den Hove, M Esteller, R Delgado-Morales
Human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology and direct somatic cell reprogramming have opened up a promising new avenue in the field of neuroscience. These recent advances allow researchers to obtain virtually any cell type found in the human brain, making it possible to produce and study functional neurons in laboratory conditions for both scientific and medical purposes. Although distinct approaches have shown to be successful in directing neuronal cell fate in vitro, their refinement and optimization, as well as the search for alternative approaches, remains necessary to help realize the full potential of the eventually derived neuronal populations...
April 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649735/a-review-of-analytical-procedures-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-medically-important-veterinary-antibiotics-in-environmental-water-sample-preparation-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#18
REVIEW
Chansik Kim, Hong-Duck Ryu, Eu Gene Chung, Yongseok Kim, Jae-Kwan Lee
Medically important (MI) antibiotics are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration as drugs containing certain active antimicrobial ingredients that are used for the treatment of human diseases or enteric pathogens causing food-borne diseases. The presence of MI antibiotic residues in environmental water is a major concern for both aquatic ecosystems and public health, particularly because of their potential to contribute to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In this article, we present a review of global trends in the sales of veterinary MI antibiotics and the analytical methodologies used for the simultaneous determination of antibiotic residues in environmental water...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629394/organotypic-explants-of-the-embryonic-rodent-hippocampus-an-accessible-system-for-transgenesis
#19
Archana Iyer, Lakshmi Subramanian, Shubha Tole
This protocol describes the technique of ex-vivo electroporation to target embryonic hippocampal progenitors in an organotypic slice preparation. This technique allows gene perturbation for examining developmental processes in the embryonic hippocampus while retaining the environment and connectivity of the cells. Gene perturbation can include Cre-mediated recombination, RNAi-mediated knockdown, gene overexpression, or a combination of any of these. Ex-vivo electroporation can be performed at a wide range of embryonic stages, giving temporal control to the experimenter...
March 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625068/chromatin-accessibility-dynamics-during-chemical-induction-of-pluripotency
#20
Shangtao Cao, Shengyong Yu, Dongwei Li, Jing Ye, Xuejie Yang, Chen Li, Xiaoshan Wang, Yuanbang Mai, Yue Qin, Jian Wu, Jiangping He, Chunhua Zhou, He Liu, Bentian Zhao, Xiaodong Shu, Chuman Wu, Ruiping Chen, Waiyee Chan, Guangjin Pan, Jiekai Chen, Jing Liu, Duanqing Pei
Despite its exciting potential, chemical induction of pluripotency (CIP) efficiency remains low and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the development of an efficient two-step serum- and replating-free CIP protocol and the associated chromatin accessibility dynamics (CAD) by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC)-seq. CIP reorganizes the somatic genome to an intermediate state that is resolved under 2iL condition by re-closing previously opened loci prior to pluripotency acquisition with gradual opening of loci enriched with motifs for the OCT/SOX/KLF families...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
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