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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#1
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629112/european-demonstration-program-on-the-effect-based-and-chemical-identification-and-monitoring-of-organic-pollutants-in-european-surface-waters
#2
Zuzana Tousova, Peter Oswald, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Ludek Blaha, Melis Muz, Meng Hu, Werner Brack, Martin Krauss, Carolina Di Paolo, Zsolt Tarcai, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert, Sanja Koprivica, Marijan Ahel, Jennifer E Schollée, Juliane Hollender, Marc J-F Suter, Anita O Hidasi, Kristin Schirmer, Manoj Sonavane, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Francois Brion, Jean Froment, Ana Catarina Almeida, Kevin Thomas, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Sara Tufi, Xiyu Ouyang, Pim Leonards, Marja Lamoree, Victoria Osorio Torrens, Annemieke Kolkman, Merijn Schriks, Petra Spirhanzlova, Andrew Tindall, Tobias Schulze
Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589361/the-aid-cre-ert2-model-a-tool-for-monitoring-b-cell-immune-responses-and-generating-selective-hybridomas
#3
Simon Le Gallou, Takuya Nojima, Daisuke Kitamura, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud
Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the hallmark of B cells engaged in an immune response in germinal centers. We designed an inducible fate-mapping reporter mouse in which AID-expressing B cells could be timely and irreversibly marked, by knockin at the Aicda locus of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. This mouse model allows notably for the long-term follow-up of memory B cells and plasma cells engaged in an immune response. We describe here a protocol to generate hybridomas from small memory subsets that can be easily traced and identified in this mouse line through Cre-activated fluorescent reporters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580167/sequential-emt-met-induces-neuronal-conversion-through-sox2
#4
Songwei He, Jinlong Chen, Yixin Zhang, Mengdan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Yuan Li, Hao Sun, Lilong Lin, Ke Fan, Lining Liang, Chengqian Feng, Fuhui Wang, Xiao Zhang, Yiping Guo, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
Direct neuronal conversion can be achieved with combinations of small-molecule compounds and growth factors. Here, by studying the first or induction phase of the neuronal conversion induced by defined 5C medium, we show that the Sox2-mediated switch from early epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to late mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) within a high proliferation context is essential and sufficient for the conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to TuJ(+) cells. At the early stage, insulin and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced cell proliferation, early EMT, the up-regulation of Stat3 and Sox2, and the subsequent activation of neuron projection...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570967/meta-analysis-of-radiocesium-contamination-data-in-japanese-forest-trees-over-the-period-2011-2013
#5
REVIEW
M-A Gonze, P Calmon
The fate and dispersion of radiocesium in forests affected by the Fukushima atmospheric fallouts have been efficiently characterized by Japanese scientists thanks to monitoring surveys of radioactive contents in contaminated soil, water, and vegetation samples at numerous sites. In this paper, we carry out a meta-analysis of the field surveys conducted over the period 2011-2013 in evergreen coniferous and deciduous broadleaf forests of Fukushima or neighboring prefectures. The review focuses on contamination data acquired in tree vegetation - about 1500 spatio-temporal measurements of concentrations, inventories and depuration fluxes - with a particular interest for organs that were directly exposed to the atmospheric fallouts and subjected to depuration mechanisms (foliage, branches and outer bark)...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560692/engineering-kidney-cells-reprogramming-and-directed-differentiation-to-renal-tissues
#6
REVIEW
Michael M Kaminski, Jelena Tosic, Roman Pichler, Sebastian J Arnold, Soeren S Lienkamp
Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons...
July 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552233/advanced-imaging-of-transplant-survival-fate-differentiation-and-integration
#7
Nadja Van Camp, Elsa Diguet, Philippe Hantraye
Stem cell-based therapy trials for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease are being actively prepared both at the preclinical and clinical level. Preclinical validation of these stem cell transplantations necessitates to implement a translational continuum to take one pluripotent stem cell through the point of "first-in-man" clinical trial. Main steps along this translational continuum include stem cell GMP production, in vitro optimization of differentiation protocols necessary to direct stem cells to the desired neuronal phenotype, and evaluation of functional efficacy in animal models including large animal models...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550199/comprehensive-approach-for-identifying-the-t-cell-subset-origin-of-cd3-and-cd28-antibody-activated-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells
#8
Michael Schmueck-Henneresse, Bilal Omer, Thomas Shum, Haruko Tashiro, Maksim Mamonkin, Natalia Lapteva, Sandhya Sharma, Lisa Rollins, Gianpietro Dotti, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Cliona M Rooney
The outcome of therapy with chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is strongly influenced by the subset origin of the infused T cells. However, because polyclonally activated T cells acquire a largely CD45RO(+)CCR7(-) effector memory phenotype after expansion, regardless of subset origin, it is impossible to know which subsets contribute to the final T cell product. To determine the contribution of naive T cell, memory stem T cell, central memory T cell, effector memory T cell, and terminally differentiated effector T cell populations to the CD3 and CD28-activated CAR-modified T cells that we use for therapy, we followed the fate and function of individually sorted CAR-modified T cell subsets after activation with CD3 and CD28 Abs (CD3/28), transduction and culture alone, or after reconstitution into the relevant subset-depleted population...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482328/green-synthesized-cds-nano-pesticides-toxicity-on-young-instars-of-malaria-vectors-and-impact-on-enzymatic-activities-of-the-non-target-mud-crab-scylla-serrata
#10
Vasu Sujitha, Kadarkarai Murugan, Devakumar Dinesh, Amuthvalli Pandiyan, Rajasekar Aruliah, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kandasamy Kalimuthu, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Akon Higuchi, Al Thabiani Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Currently, nano-formulated mosquito larvicides have been widely proposed to control young instars of malaria vector populations. However, the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is scarcely known, with special reference to the impact of nanoparticles on enzymatic activity of non-target aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we synthesized CdS nanoparticles using a green protocol relying on the cheap extract of Valoniopsis pachynema algae. CdS nanoparticles showed high toxicity on young instars of the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and A...
April 25, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477131/noncanonical-atm-activation-and-signaling-in-response-to-transcription-blocking-dna-damage
#11
Jurgen A Marteijn, Wim Vermeulen, Maria Tresini
Environmental genotoxins and metabolic byproducts generate DNA lesions that can cause genomic instability and disrupt tissue homeostasis. To ensure genomic integrity, cells employ mechanisms that convert signals generated by stochastic DNA damage into organized responses, including activation of repair systems, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptotic mechanisms. DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways coordinate these responses and determine cellular fates in part, by transducing signals that modulate RNA metabolism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472697/occurrence-and-fate-of-illicit-drugs-and-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-from-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-costa-rica
#12
Ana Causanilles, Clemens Ruepert, María Ibáñez, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Pim de Voogt
Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central America, Costa Rica, with the aim of extending this knowledge to new world regions. This work is the first to report wastewater-based epidemiological data on the use of illicit drugs in this region of the world. Composite wastewater samples from the influents of two different wastewater treatment facilities and surface water samples from surrounding areas were collected applying the best practice protocol and analysed to investigate the occurrence and fate of selected illicit drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468615/epithelial-ciliated-beating-cells-essential-for-ex-vivo-ali-culture-growth
#13
Delphine Gras, Aurélie Petit, Jérémy Charriot, Lucie Knabe, Khuder Alagha, Anne Sophie Gamez, Céline Garulli, Arnaud Bourdin, Pascal Chanez, Nicolas Molinari, Isabelle Vachier
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Pinpointing factors associated with ALI culture success would help researchers gain further insight into epithelial progenitor behavior...
May 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465586/oxidation-of-protein-bound-methionine-in-photofrin-photodynamic-therapy-treated-human-tumor-cells-explored-by-methionine-containing-peptide-enrichment-and-quantitative-proteomics-approach
#14
Ya-Ju Hsieh, Kun-Yi Chien, I-Fang Yang, I-Neng Lee, Chia-Chun Wu, Tung-Yung Huang, Jau-Song Yu
In Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT), cell fate can be modulated by the subcellular location of Photofrin. PDT triggers oxidative damage to target cells, including the methionine (Met) oxidation of proteins. Here, we developed a new Met-containing peptide enrichment protocol combined with SILAC-based quantitative proteomics, and used this approach to explore the global Met oxidation changes of proteins in PDT-treated epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells preloaded with Photofrin at the plasma membrane, ER/Golgi, or ubiquitously...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448485/assessment-of-engineered-cells-using-cellnet-and-rna-seq
#15
Arthur H Radley, Remy M Schwab, Yuqi Tan, Jeesoo Kim, Emily K W Lo, Patrick Cahan
CellNet is a computational platform designed to assess cell populations engineered by either directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) or direct conversion, and to suggest specific hypotheses to improve cell fate engineering protocols. CellNet takes as input gene expression data and compares them with large data sets of normal expression profiles compiled from public sources, in regard to the extent to which cell- and tissue-specific gene regulatory networks are established. CellNet was originally designed to work with human or mouse microarray expression data for 21 cell or tissue (C/T) types...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447574/optimized-longitudinal-monitoring-of-stem-cell-grafts-in-mouse-brain-using-a-novel-bioluminescent-near-infrared-fluorescent-fusion-reporter
#16
Laura Mezzanotte, Juvita Delancy Iljas, Ivo Que, Alan Chan, Eric Kaijzel, Rob Hoeben, Clemens Löwik
<p>Biodistribution and fate of transplanted stem cells via longitudinal monitoring has been successfully achievedin the last decade using optical imaging. However, sensitive longitudinal imaging of transplanted stem cells in deep tissue like the brain remains challenging not only due to low light penetration but because of other factors such as low or inferior expression levels of optical reporters in stem cells and stem cell death after transplantation. Here we describe an optimized imaging protocol for sensitive long term monitoring of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) expressing a novel bioluminescent/near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) fusion reporter transplanted in mouse brain cortex...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412566/removal-mechanisms-of-benzotriazoles-in-duckweed-lemna-minor-wastewater-treatment-systems
#17
Georgia Gatidou, Maria Oursouzidou, Aimilia Stefanatou, Athanasios S Stasinakis
The fate of five benzotriazoles (1H-benzotriazole, BTR; 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 4TTR; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 5TTR; xylytriazole, XTR and 5-chlorobenzotriazole, CBTR) was studied in batch and continuous-flow Lemna minor systems and the role of different mechanisms on their removal was evaluated. Single and joint toxicity experiments were initially conducted using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) protocol 221 and no inhibition on specific growth rate of Lemna minor was observed for concentrations up to 200μgL(-1)...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404796/tuning-cancer-fate-the-unremitting-role-of-host-immunity
#18
REVIEW
B Calì, B Molon, A Viola
Host immunity plays a central and complex role in dictating tumour progression. Solid tumours are commonly infiltrated by a large number of immune cells that dynamically interact with the surrounding microenvironment. At first, innate and adaptive immune cells successfully cooperate to eradicate microcolonies of transformed cells. Concomitantly, surviving tumour clones start to proliferate and harness immune responses by specifically hijacking anti-tumour effector mechanisms and fostering the accumulation of immunosuppressive immune cell subsets at the tumour site...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374539/comparative-assessment-of-the-thermal-tolerance-of-spotted-stemborer-chilo-partellus-lepidoptera-crambidae-and-its-larval-parasitoid-cotesia-sesamiae-hymenoptera-braconidae
#19
Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behaviour and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the partcipants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368778/monitoring-the-fate-and-behavior-of-tio2-nanoparticles-simulated-in-a-wwtp-with-industrial-dye-stuff-effluent-according-to-oecd-303a
#20
Lwazi C Mahlalela, Jane C Ngila, Langelihle N Dlamini
The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several consumer products has led to them finding their way into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some of these NPs have photocatalytic properties, thus providing a possible solution to textile industries to photodegrade dyes from their wastewater. Thus, the interaction of NPs with industrial dye effluents is inevitable. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline for testing of chemical 303A was employed to study the fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in industrial dye-stuff effluent...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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