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fate protocol

Brigham J Hartley, Kristen J Brennand
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can theoretically yield limitless supplies of cells fated to any cell type that comprise the human organism, making them a new tool by which to potentially overcome caveats in current biomedical research. In vitro derivation of central nervous system (CNS) cell types has the potential to provide material for drug discovery and validation, safety and toxicity assays, cell replacement therapy and the elucidation of previously unknown disease mechanisms. However, current two-dimensional (2D) CNS differentiation protocols do not faithfully recapitulate the spatial organization of heterogeneous tissue, nor the cell-cell interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, or specific physiological functions generated within complex tissue such as the brain...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Serban San-Marina, Ayushman Sharma, Stephen G Voss, Jeffrey R Janus, Grant S Hamilton
Importance: Nasal reconstruction in patients who are missing a significant amount of structural nasal support remains a difficult challenge. One challenge is the deficiency of cartilage left within the nose as a consequence of rhinectomy or a midline destructive disease. Historically, the standard donor source for large quantities of native cartilage has been costal cartilage. Objective: To enable the development of protocols for new mesenchymal stem cell technologies as alternative procedures with reduced donor site morbidity, risk of infection and extrusion...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Alessia Deglincerti, Fred Etoc, M Cecilia Guerra, Iain Martyn, Jakob Metzger, Albert Ruzo, Mijo Simunovic, Anna Yoney, Ali H Brivanlou, Eric Siggia, Aryeh Warmflash
Fate allocation in the gastrulating embryo is spatially organized as cells differentiate into specialized cell types depending on their positions with respect to the body axes. There is a need for in vitro protocols that allow the study of spatial organization associated with this developmental transition. Although embryoid bodies and organoids can exhibit some spatial organization of differentiated cells, methods that generate embryoid bodies or organoids do not yield consistent and fully reproducible results...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Aileen R Helsel, Jon M Oatley
In mammals, the activities of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation for continual spermatogenesis throughout a male's reproductive lifetime. At present, the defining characteristics of SSCs and mechanisms controlling their fate decisions are not well understood. Transplantation is a definitive functional measure of stem cell capacity for male germ cells that can be used as an assay to provide an unequivocal quantification of the SSC content in an experimental cell population. Here, we discuss the procedure for mice and provide protocols for preparing donor germ cell suspensions from testes directly or primary cultures of spermatogonia for transplantation, enriching for SSCs, preparing recipient males, microinjection into recipient testes, and considerations for experimental design...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
F Varenne, J Botton, C Merlet, H Hillaireau, F-X Legrand, G Barratt, C Vauthier
In vivo fate of nanomaterials is influenced by the particle size among other parameters. Thus, Health Agencies have identified the size of nanomaterial as an essential physicochemical property to characterize. This parameter can be explored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) that is described in the ISO standard 22412:2008(E) and is one of the methods recognized by Health Agencies. However, no protocol of DLS size measurement has been validated over a large range of size so far. In this work, we propose an extension of validation of a protocol of size measurement by DLS previously validated with certified reference materials (CRM) at 60 and 203nm...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jinming Li, Wayne Yuk-Wai Lee, Tianyi Wu, Jianbin Xu, Kunyu Zhang, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Rui Li, Gang Li, Liming Bian
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold considerable potential for regenerative medicine, but their application is limited by the lack of an efficient method to control differentiation and track the migration of implanted cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocarrier based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for controlling differentiation and long-term tracking of hMSCs. The UCNPs are conjugated with the peptide (Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp, CRGD) and the differentiation-inducing kartogenin (KGN) via a photocaged linker on the surface, and the obtained UCNP nanocarrier can be efficiently uptaken by hMSCs...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Rui Liu, Zuoliang He, Jiefang Sun, Jingfu Liu, Guibin Jiang
Plasmonic catalysis is an emerging process that utilizes surface plasmon resonance (SPR) process to harnesses solar energy for the promotion of catalyzed reactions. In most cases, SPR generated hot electrons (HEs) play an indispensable role in this solar-chemical energy shift process. Therefore, understanding the effectiveness of the HEs in promoting chemical reactions, and identifying the key factors that contribute to this utilization efficiency is of profound importance. Herein, the authors outline an in situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy protocol to track the fate of HEs...
September 27, 2016: Small
Lucie Bielská, Ivana Hovorková, Jan Kuta, Jiří Machát, Jakub Hofman
Artificial soil (AS) is used in soil ecotoxicology as a test medium or reference matrix. AS is prepared according to standard OECD/ISO protocols and components of local sources are usually used by laboratories. This may result in significant inter-laboratory variations in AS properties and, consequently, in the fate and bioavailability of tested chemicals. In order to reveal the extent and sources of variations, the batch equilibrium method was applied to measure the sorption of 2 model compounds (phenanthrene and cadmium) to 21 artificial soils from different laboratories...
September 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Frédérique Brockly, Marc Piechaczyk, Guillaume Bossis
SUMO is a ubiquitin-like protein that is covalently conjugated to numerous cellular proteins to modify their function and fate. Although large progresses have been made in the identification of SUMOylated proteins, the molecular consequences of their SUMOylation are generally unknown. This is, most often, due to the low abundance of SUMOylated proteins in the cell, usually less than 1 % of a given protein being modified at steady state. To gain insights into the role of specific SUMOylation targets, SUMO conjugation can be reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sa Cai, Lei Han, Qiang Ao, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum
: : Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins...
September 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Liyang Gao, Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Junchao Kong, Zhijun Liu, Yonghua Chen, Rui Huang, Jiaqi Chu, Juanhua Quan, Rong Zeng
The ability to generate neural progenitor cells from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) has provided an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases. To establish a method for this purpose, we characterized the early neural markers of hUC-MSCs-derived cells under different conditions. We found that neither the elimination of signals for alternative fate nor N2 supplement was sufficient to differentiate hUC-MSCs into neural precursor cells, but the GSK3 inhibitor SB216763 could promote an efficient neural commitment of hUC-MSCs...
September 7, 2016: Human Cell
Jisook Moon, Sigrid C Schwarz, Hyun-Seob Lee, Jun Mo Kang, Young-Eun Lee, Bona Kim, Mi-Young Sung, Günter Höglinger, Florian Wegner, Jin Su Kim, Hyung-Min Chung, Sung Woon Chang, Kwang Yul Cha, Kwang-Soo Kim, Johannes Schwarz
: : We have developed a good manufacturing practice for long-term cultivation of fetal human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells. The generation of human dopaminergic neurons may serve as a tool of either restorative cell therapies or cellular models, particularly as a reference for phenotyping region-specific human neural stem cell lines such as human embryonic stem cells and human inducible pluripotent stem cells. We cultivated 3 different midbrain neural progenitor lines at 10, 12, and 14 weeks of gestation for more than a year and characterized them in great detail, as well as in comparison with Lund mesencephalic cells...
September 2, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Ian J Huggins, David Brafman, Karl Willert
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may revolutionize medical practice by providing: (a) a renewable source of cells for tissue replacement therapies, (b) a powerful system to model human diseases in a dish, and (c) a platform for examining efficacy and safety of novel drugs. Furthermore, these cells offer a unique opportunity to study early human development in vitro, in particular, the process by which a seemingly uniform cell population interacts to give rise to the three main embryonic lineages: ectoderm, endoderm...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sujuan Guo, Kevin J Pridham, Zhi Sheng
Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cellular components are degraded to fuel cells for longer survival during stress. Hence, autophagy plays a vital role in determining cell fate and is central for homeostasis and pathogenesis of many human diseases including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It has been well established that autophagy is important for the leukemogenesis as well as drug resistance in CML. Thus, autophagy is an intriguing therapeutic target. However, current approaches that detect autophagy lack reliability and often fail to provide quantitative measurements...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
John P M van Duynhoven, Doris M Jacobs
In human nutritional science progress has always depended strongly on analytical measurements for establishing relationships between diet and health. This field has undergone significant changes as a result of the development of NMR and mass spectrometry methods for large scale detection, identification and quantification of metabolites in body fluids. This has allowed systematic studies of the metabolic fingerprints that biological processes leave behind, and has become the research field of metabolomics. As a metabolic profiling technique, NMR is at its best when its unbiased nature, linearity and reproducibility are exploited in well-controlled nutritional intervention and cross-sectional population screening studies...
August 2016: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Parul Choudhary, Heather Booth, Alex Gutteridge, Beata Surmacz, Irene Louca, Juliette Steer, Julie Kerby, Paul John Whiting
: : Development of efficient and reproducible conditions for directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types is important not only to understand early human development but also to enable more practical applications, such as in vitro disease modeling, drug discovery, and cell therapies. The differentiation of stem cells to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in particular holds promise as a source of cells for therapeutic replacement in age-related macular degeneration...
August 24, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Michael D West, Igor Nasonkin, David Larocca, Karen B Chapman, Francois Binette, Hal Sternberg
The complexity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) fate represents both opportunity and challenge. In theory, all somatic cell types can be differentiated from hPSCs, opening the door to many opportunities in transplant medicine. However, such clinical applications require high standards of purity and identity, that challenge many existing protocols. This underscores the need for increasing precision in the description of cell identity during hPSC differentiation. We highlight one salient example, namely, the numerous published reports of hPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
Marta Boccazzi, Davide Lecca, Davide Marangon, Fabio Guagnini, Maria P Abbracchio, Stefania Ceruti
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, also called NG2 cells) are scattered throughout brain parenchyma, where they function as a reservoir to replace lost or damaged oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. The hypothesis that, under some circumstances, OPCs can actually behave as multipotent cells, thus generating astrocytes and neurons as well, has arisen from some in vitro and in vivo evidence, but the molecular pathways controlling this alternative fate of OPCs are not fully understood. Their identification would open new opportunities for neuronal replace strategies, by fostering the intrinsic ability of the brain to regenerate...
August 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Christopher Y Chen, Alex Plocik, Nickesha C Anderson, Daniel Moakley, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn Dundes, Chelsea Lassiter, Brenton R Graveley, Laura Grabel
The generation of inhibitory interneuron progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is of great interest due to their potential use in transplantation therapies designed to treat central nervous system disorders. The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a transient embryonic structure in the ventral telencephalon that is a major source of cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneuron progenitors. These progenitors migrate tangentially to sites in the cortex and differentiate into a variety of interneuron subtypes, forming local synaptic connections with excitatory projection neurons to modulate activity of the cortical circuitry...
August 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Caroline Kubaczka, Hubert Schorle
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) arise as a consequence of the first cell fate decision in mammalian development. They can be cultured in vitro, retaining the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all subtypes of the trophoblast lineage, equivalent to the in vivo stem cell population giving rise to the fetal portion of the placenta. Therefore, TSCs offer a unique model to study placental development and embryonic versus extra-embryonic cell fate decision in vitro. From the blastocyst stage onwards, a distinct epigenetic barrier consisting of DNA methylation and histone modifications tightly separates both lineages...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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