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Anorexia nervosa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#1
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218761/naturalistic-outcome-of-family-based-inpatient-treatment-for-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Inger Halvorsen, Deborah Lynn Reas, Jan-Vegard Nilsen, Øyvind Rø
BACKGROUND: Outpatient family-based treatment (FBT) is the best-documented treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), but research is scarce on FBT adapted to inpatient settings. AIM: The naturalistic outcome of inpatient FBT for adolescent AN was investigated. METHODS: Thirty-seven (65%) of 57 patients who received inpatient FBT at a tertiary adolescent eating disorders (ED) unit participated in a follow-up interview (mean 4.5 ± 1...
December 8, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#3
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215743/driven-exercise-in-the-absence-of-binge-eating-implications-for-purging-disorder
#4
Janet A Lydecker, Megan Shea, Carlos M Grilo
OBJECTIVE: Purging disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent purging without objectively large binge-eating episodes. PD has received relatively little attention, and questions remain about the clinical significance of "purging" by exercise that is driven or compulsive (i.e., as extreme compensatory or weight-control behavior). The little available research suggests that individuals who use exercise as a compensatory behavior might have less eating-disorder psychopathology than those who purge by vomiting or laxatives, but those studies have had smaller sample sizes, defined PD using low-frequency thresholds, and defined exercise without weight-compensatory or driven elements...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214796/grey-matter-correlates-of-autistic-traits-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214022/advancing-our-understanding-of-the-neurobiology-of-anorexia-nervosa-translation-into-treatment
#6
Lasse Bang, Janet Treasure, Øyvind Rø, Andreas Joos
A wealth of studies has investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa. In our letter to the editor, we point to a number of ways in which the advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa - focusing on neuroimaging studies of brain structure and function - can be translated into treatment. We point to how such advances can: inform psychological treatment, be implemented in psychoeducation, point to novel therapeutic targets, lead to the identification of biomarkers, and expand our vocabulary for how we think and talk about anorexia nervosa...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211319/clinical-implications-of-bone-marrow-adiposity
#7
REVIEW
Annegreet G Veldhuis-Vlug, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipocytes, collectively termed marrow adipose tissue (MAT), reside in the bone marrow in close contact to bone cells and hematopoietic cells. Marrow adipocytes arise from the mesenchymal stem cell and share their origin with the osteoblastst. Shifts in the lineage allocation of the mesenchymal stromal cell could potentially explain the association between increased MAT and increased fracture risk in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa and diabetes. Functionally, marrow adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as adiponectin, and cytokines, such as RANK-ligand and stem cell factor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210607/detection-of-anorexia-nervosa-in-primary-care
#8
Ashley Higgins, Stacey Cahn
In the years preceding diagnosis, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) attend more primary care appointments than their peers. Primary care physicians (PCPs) may be uniquely situated to detect AN in early manifestations. In this study, a sample of physicians was recruited online. Videotaped vignettes of a primary care appointment were shown to these participants, who were asked to diagnose the patient and could make a referral. 61.2% of participants identified an eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. However, of those, only 40% intended to refer for therapy...
December 6, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209500/examining-a-staging-model-for-anorexia-nervosa-empirical-exploration-of-a-four-stage-model-of-severity
#9
Sarah Maguire, Lois J Surgenor, Daniel Le Grange, Hubert Lacey, Ross D Crosby, Scott G Engel, Kirsty M Fromholtz, Bryony Bamford, Stephen Touyz
Background: An illness staging model for anorexia nervosa (AN) has received increasing attention, but assessing the merits of this concept is dependent on empirically examining a model in clinical samples. Building on preliminary findings regarding the reliability and validity of the Clinician Administered Staging Instrument for Anorexia Nervosa (CASIAN), the current study explores operationalising CASIAN severity scores into stages and assesses their relationship with other clinical features...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209435/diseases-potentially-related-to-flammer-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Katarzyna Konieczka, Carl Erb
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a prevalent and mostly benign condition. Subjects with FS seem to have a good life expectancy. Nevertheless, FS subjects are at increased risk for certain diseases, mainly when they are challenged by psychological stress or other stimuli such as coldness. FS is related to ocular diseases, such as normal-tension glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, central serous chorioretinopathy, optic nerve compartment syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, arterial or venous occlusions in the retina, and choroid and optic nerve head, despite the absence of classical vascular risk factors...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205410/eating-pathology-in-midlife-women-similar-or-different-to-younger-counterparts
#11
Paul E Jenkins, Tom Price
OBJECTIVE: This study examined potential similarities and differences between women with eating disorders (EDs) in midlife and their younger counterparts. METHOD: Seven hundred and three women assessed by a specialist eating disorder service were divided into three groups based on age (18-25, 25-40, and 40+) and compared on a number of clinical and demographic measures. Distribution of ED diagnoses was also examined between groups. RESULTS: Midlife women were less likely to receive a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and more likely to receive a diagnosis of binge-eating disorder than their younger counterparts...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204095/immune-disorders-in-anorexia
#12
REVIEW
Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska, Robert Słotwiński
Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200856/altered-microstructure-of-brain-white-matter-in-females-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Shao-Hua Hu, Hong Feng, Ting-Ting Xu, Hao-Rong Zhang, Zhi-Yong Zhao, Jian-Bo Lai, Dong-Rong Xu, Yi Xu
Objective: Structural studies have reported anorexia nervosa (AN) patients with abnormal gray matter in several brain regions and dysfunction in some connected neural circuits. However, the role of white matter (WM) in AN patients has rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to assess alterations in WM microstructure of the entire brain in females with AN using a voxel-based method on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Materials and methods: The study enrolled 8 female patients with AN and 14 age-matched females as controls (CW)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197752/cognitive-distortions-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Melina Andrea Del Pozo, Susanne Harbeck, Sabine Zahn, Sören Kliem, Christoph Kröger
Thought-shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion associated with eating disorders (ED). A similar distortion, thought-abandonment fusion (TAbF), is assumed to occur in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study the specificity of TSF in participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) and TAbF in participants with BPD was examined. 63 patients completed questionnaires assessing the manifestation of trait-TAbF and trait-TSF, as well as relevant psychopathology. Nonparametric conditional inference trees were used to test for cognitive disorder-specificity...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197118/reducing-the-stigma-associated-with-anorexia-nervosa-an-evaluation-of-a-social-consensus-intervention-among-australian-and-chinese-young-women
#15
Yuwen Yan, Elizabeth Rieger, Yiyun Shou
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effectiveness of a social consensus intervention in reducing stigma toward individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) among women from Australia and mainland China. Moreover, the different predictions of informational/normative social influence theory and the social identity approach in terms of the effectiveness of the social consensus intervention were investigated. METHOD: Participants were female students from the Australian National University (n = 97) and Central China Normal University (n = 76) who reported their levels of stigma toward a fictional character with AN before and after receiving normative information regarding the attitudes of others toward people with AN...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197104/the-effect-of-dronabinol-in-a-male-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa-suffering-from-severe-acute-urge-to-be-physically-active
#16
Holmer Graap, Yesim Erim, Georgios Paslakis
OBJECTIVE: A 27-year-old male suffering from chronic anorexia nervosa was admitted for inpatient psychotherapy suffering from severe urge to be physically active. METHODS: An off-label treatment with dronabinol was initiated, to reduce his symptoms related to that urge. Several attempts to reduce symptoms including intensive psychotherapy and several psychopharmacological agents had failed in the past. RESULTS: Following treatment with 7.5 mg dronabinol twice a day, the patient reported a significant reduction in his acute urge to be physically active...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194432/do-cannabinoids-constitute-a-therapeutic-alternative-for-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Tania Contreras, Gonzalo A Bravo-Soto, Gabriel Rada
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoids have been postulated as an alternative for anorexia nervosa. However, their actual clinical efficacy and safety are still discussed. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
December 1, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193481/instilling-hope-for-a-brighter-future-a-mixed-method-mentoring-support-program-for-individuals-with-and-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Lucie M Ramjan, Sarah Fogarty, Daniel Nicholls, Phillipa Hay
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of a 13-week mentoring program in providing social support to promote hope for recovery in anorexia nervosa. BACKGROUND: With no clear first line psychological treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, mentoring support programs, as an adjunct to treatment, may provide the social support necessary to promote hope for recovery. DESIGN: A mixed method study; Participatory action research...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189166/oxytocin-and-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-on-emerging-findings-and-perspectives
#19
Katrin Giel, Stephan Zipfel, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185363/do-hispanic-girls-develop-eating-disorders-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#20
Myanca Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders have become increasingly prevalent in North America. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder were previously thought to solely affect Caucasian women. However, contemporary research has studied the occurrence of this phenomenon in ethnic minority women, such as Latinas. METHODS: This article presents a critical review of 12 quantitative, prospective psychological research studies from the past 17 years. RESULTS: The authors in the reviewed literature identified bodily dissatisfaction, environmental influences, and acculturation as significant risk factors in the development of eating disorders in Hispanic girls and women...
January 1, 2017: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
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