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cholesterol ester storage disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905068/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-and-synthesis-of-the-storage-lipids-in-human-liver-derived-and-non-liver-cell-lines-by-lippia-alba-essential-oils
#1
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888692/mitochondrial-gsh-replenishment-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#2
Sandra Torres, Nuria Matías, Anna Baulies, Susana Nuñez, Cristina Alarcon-Vila, Laura Martinez, Natalia Nuño, Anna Fernandez, Joan Caballeria, Thierry Levade, Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Pablo Garcia-Rovés, Elisa Balboa, Silvana Zanlungo, Gemma Fabrías, Josefina Casas, Carlos Enrich, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, José C Fernández-Checa
Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease...
November 20, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878737/sebelipase-alfa-a-review-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#3
James E Frampton
Sebelipase alfa (Kanuma(®), Kanuma™), the first commercially available recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), is approved in various countries worldwide, including those of the EU, the USA and Japan, as a long-term enzyme replacement therapy for patients diagnosed with LAL deficiency (LAL-D), an ultra-rare, autosomal recessive, progressive metabolic liver disease. In an ongoing study in nine infants presenting with early-onset LAL-D (Wolman disease), open-label treatment with sebelipase alfa significantly improved 1-year survival compared with historical controls...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187581/use-of-bodipy-cholesterol-tf-chol-for-visualizing-lysosomal-cholesterol-accumulation
#4
Maarit Hölttä-Vuori, Erdinc Sezgin, Christian Eggeling, Elina Ikonen
Dipyrromethene difluoride-cholesterol (TopFluor-Cholesterol, TF-Chol) is a widely used cholesterol analogue due to its excellent fluorescence properties and considerable similarity with natural cholesterol in terms of membrane partitioning. However, the suitability of TF-Chol for detecting lysosomal cholesterol deposition has recently been questioned. Here, we highlight the fact that the method of lipid delivery and the analysis of time-point both affect the membrane distribution and labeling pattern of TF-Chol, similarly as with radiolabeled cholesterol...
September 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165836/disorders-of-lipid-metabolism-in-nephrotic-syndrome-mechanisms-and-consequences
#5
REVIEW
Nosratola D Vaziri
Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios...
July 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965858/development-of-a-selective-activity-based-probe-for-glycosylated-lipa
#6
Adam G Schwaid, Wanida Ruangsiriluk, Allan R Reyes, Shawn Cabral, Francis Rajamohan, Meihua Tu, Jessica Ward, Philip A Carpino
Loss of LIPA activity leads to diseases such as Wolman's Disease and Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease. While it is possible to measure defects in LIPA protein levels, it is difficult to directly measure LIPA activity in cells. In order to measure LIPA activity directly we developed a LIPA specific activity based probe. LIPA is heavily glycosylated although it is unclear how glycosylation affects LIPA activity or function. Our probe is specific for a glycosylated form of LIPA in cells, although it labels purified LIPA regardless of glycosylation...
April 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960203/disorders-in-the-initial-steps-of-steroid-hormone-synthesis
#7
Walter L Miller
Steroidogenesis begins with cellular internalization of low-density lipoprotein particles and subsequent intracellular processing of cholesterol. Disorders in these steps include Adrenoleukodystrophy, Wolman Disease and its milder variant Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, and Niemann-Pick Type C Disease, all of which may present with adrenal insufficiency. The means by which cholesterol is directed to steroidogenic mitochondria remains incompletely understood. Once cholesterol reaches the outer mitochondrial membrane, its delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane is regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)...
March 6, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26602919/does-lysosomial-acid-lipase-reduction-play-a-role-in-adult-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Licia Polimeni, Giulia Tozzi, Francesco Violi, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26404254/weekly-treatment-of-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-improves-intracellular-cholesterol-levels-in-ldl-receptor-knockout-mice
#9
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L J Jeurissen, Patrick J van Gorp, Nathalie Vaes, Steven W M Olde Damink, Fons Verheyen, Ger H Koek, Dieter Lütjohann, Alena Grebe, Eicke Latz, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Two-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD) is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs)...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26385844/cholesterol-ester-storage-disease-with-a-novel-lipa-mutation-l264p-that-presented-massive-hepatomegaly-a-case-report
#10
Naomi Kuranobu, Jun Murakami, Ken Okamoto, Rei Nishimura, Kei Murayama, Ayumi Takamura, Toshiko Umeda, Yoshikatsu Eto, Susumu Kanzaki
Cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity, resulting in cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation. CESD patients have liver disease associated with mixed dyslipidemia leading to liver failure. We here report the case of an 11-year-old male CESD patient with a novel mutation who had the chief complaint of massive hepatomegaly. The patient's liver reached to his pelvis, and his spleen was 2 cm below the costal margin. The patient had elevated serum liver enzymes and mixed dyslipidemia...
March 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291497/cholesterol-trafficking-related-serum-lipoprotein-functions-in-children-with-cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease
#11
Francesca Zimetti, Elda Favari, Paola Cagliero, Maria Pia Adorni, Nicoletta Ronda, Renato Bonardi, Monica Gomaraschi, Laura Calabresi, Franco Bernini, Ornella Guardamagna
OBJECTIVE: Serum lipoproteins influence cell cholesterol content by delivering and removing cholesterol to/from cells, functions mainly exerted by LDL and HDL, respectively. Especially in the case of HDL, structure and composition are crucial for function, beyond serum levels. Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is caused by LIPA gene mutations and reduced activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and TG. CESD patients typically present dyslipidaemia, liver damage and premature atherosclerosis...
October 2015: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283692/prd125-a-potent-and-selective-inhibitor-of-sterol-o-acyltransferase-2-markedly-reduces-hepatic-cholesteryl-ester-accumulation-and-improves-liver-function-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice
#12
Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Kenneth S Posey, Taichi Ohshiro, Hiroshi Tomoda, Lawrence L Rudel, Stephen D Turley
In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD)...
November 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26221893/a-case-of-abdominal-pain-with-dyslipidemia-difficulties-diagnosing-cholesterol-ester-storage-disease
#13
S J Cameron, U Daimee, R C Block
Cholesterol ester storage disease is an exceptionally rare dyslipidemia with less than 150 cases reported in the medical literature. The diagnosis of Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is often missed by virtue of the fact that the symptoms mimic both inborn metabolic defects and hepatic steatosis. Patients with Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease usually present with atypical complaints including abdominal pain from altered gut motility. Blood analysis typically reveals abnormal liver function tests with coincident dyslipidemia...
2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26065284/-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-in-children-our-experience-and-a-novel-possibility-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#14
Danijela Petković Ramadža, Mario Ćuk, Karin Zibar, Marina Barić, Vladimir Sarnavka, Karmen Bilić, Ksenija Fumić, Jurica Vuković, Silvija Pušeljić, Marijana Ćorić, Ranka Štern Padovan, Marko Kralik, Ivo Barić
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with two distinct clinical phenotypes. Wolman disease is rapidly progressive with onset in early infancy. Complete enzyme deficiency results in massive accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in intestines, liver, spleen and other monocyte-macrophage system cells causing malabsorption, hepatosplenomegaly, liver failure and death in early infancy. Cholesterol ester storage disease may be diagnosed in childhood or later in life. It is characterized by chronic course and variable progression...
March 2015: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25818588/targeting-the-annexin-1-formyl-peptide-receptor-2-alx-pathway-affords-protection-against-bacterial-lps-induced-pathologic-changes-in-the-murine-adrenal-cortex
#15
Nicholas A P S Buss, Felicity N E Gavins, Patricia O Cover, Andrea Terron, Julia C Buckingham
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in a high proportion of patients with sepsis. Here, we provide new insights into the underlying adrenal pathology. Using a murine model of endotoxemia (LPS injection), we demonstrate that adrenal insufficiency is triggered early in the disease. LPS induced a local inflammatory response in the adrenal gland within 4 hours of administration, coupled with increased expression of mRNAs for annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the formyl peptide receptors [(Fprs) 1, 2, and 3], a loss of lipid droplets in cortical cells (index of availability of cholesterol, the substrate for steroidogenesis), and a failure to mount a steroidogenic response to ACTH...
July 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722898/novel-mutation-in-a-patient-with-cholesterol-ester-storage-disease
#16
Patrick Lin, Sheela Raikar, Jennifer Jimenez, Katrina Conard, Katryn N Furuya
Cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD) is a chronic liver disease that typically presents with hepatomegaly. It is characterized by hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein deficiency, and abnormal lipid deposition within multiple organs. It is an autosomal recessive disease that is due to a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity, which is coded by the lysosomal acid lipase gene (LIPA). We describe the case of a 5-year-old south Asian female incidentally found to have hepatomegaly, and subsequent workup confirmed the diagnosis of CESD...
2015: Case Reports in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25624737/novel-lipa-mutations-in-mexican-siblings-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#17
Yuritzi Santillán-Hernández, Enory Almanza-Miranda, Winnie W Xin, Kendrick Goss, Aurea Vera-Loaiza, María T Gorráez-de la Mora, Raul E Piña-Aguilar
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency is an under-recognized lysosomal disease caused by deficient enzymatic activity of LAL. In this report we describe two affected female Mexican siblings with early hepatic complications. At two months of age, the first sibling presented with alternating episodes of diarrhea and constipation, and later with hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, high levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein. Portal hypertension and grade 2 esophageal varices were detected at four years of age...
January 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25620107/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-human-lysosomal-acid-lipase-gene-lipa-mutation-responsible-for-cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-cesd-phenotype
#18
Francis Rajamohan, Allan R Reyes, Wanida Ruangsiriluk, Lise R Hoth, Seungil Han, Nicole Caspers, Meihua Tu, Jessica Ward, Ravi G Kurumbail
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a serine hydrolase which hydrolyzes cholesteryl ester and triglycerides delivered to the lysosomes into free cholesterol and free fatty acids. Mutations in the LAL gene (LIPA) result in accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in various tissues of the body, leading to pathological conditions such as Wolman's disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). CESD patients homozygous for His295Tyr (H295Y) mutation have less than 5% of normal LAL activity. To shed light on the molecular basis for this loss-of-function phenotype, we have generated the recombinant H295Y enzyme and studied its biophysical and biochemical properties...
June 2015: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25450374/deletion-of-sterol-o-acyltransferase-2-soat2-function-in-mice-deficient-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-lal-dramatically-reduces-esterified-cholesterol-sequestration-in-the-small-intestine-and-liver
#19
Adam M Lopez, Kenneth S Posey, Stephen D Turley
Sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2), also known as ACAT2, is the major cholesterol esterifying enzyme in the liver and small intestine (SI). Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in certain classes of plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease (WD) or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders...
November 7, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25345094/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-wolman-and-cholesteryl-ester-storage-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Anthony F Porto
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable...
September 2014: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
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