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cholesterol ester storage disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374495/long-term-substrate-reduction-therapy-with-ezetimibe-alone-or-associated-with-statins-in-three-adult-patients-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#1
Maja Di Rocco, Livia Pisciotta, Annalisa Madeo, Marta Bertamino, Stefano Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease with a wide range of severity from Wolman Disease to Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease. Recently enzyme replacement therapy with sebelipase alpha has been approved by drug agencies for treatment of this lysosomal disease. Ezetimibe is an azetidine derivative which blocks Niemann Pick C1-Like 1 Protein; as its consequence, plasmatic concentration of low density lipoproteins and other apoB-containing lipoproteins, that are the substrate of lysosomal acid lipase, are decreased...
January 27, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358478/identification-of-rare-diseases-by-screening-a-population-selected-on-the-basis-of-routine-pathology-results-the-pathfinder-project-lysosomal-acid-lipase-cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-substudy
#2
Timothy M Reynolds, Clare Mewies, John Hamilton, Anthony S Wierzbicki
AIMS: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol ester storage associated with hepatic disease, cirrhosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. Its prevalence in the general population, patients with dyslipidaemia and raised transaminases is unclear. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of LALD from patients with abnormal results in laboratory databases. METHODS: Electronic laboratory databases were interrogated to identify from clinical biochemistry records patients with a phenotype of low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (≤0...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339442/specific-substrate-for-the-assay-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase
#3
Sophia Masi, Naveen Chennamaneni, Frantisek Turecek, C Ronald Scott, Michael H Gelb
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) causes Wolman disease and cholesterol ester storage disease. With the recent introduction of enzyme replacement therapy to manage LAL deficiency comes the need for a reliable assay of LAL enzymatic activity that can be applied to dried blood spots (DBS). METHODS: We prepared and tested a library of analogs of palmitoyl 4-methylumbelifferyl esters to find a highly active and specific substrate for LAL in DBS. The LAL assay was optimized leading to both LC-MS/MS and fluorometric assay of LAL...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246491/impact-of-loss-of-soat2-function-on-disease-progression-in-the-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mouse
#4
Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Stephen D Turley
Although only a small proportion of cholesterol in the body is esterified, in several diseases marked expansion of the esterified cholesterol (EC) pool occurs. These include Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) which both result from mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). The respective contributions that our three cholesterol esterifying enzymes make to EC production, especially in disorders like CESD, are not well defined. The current studies represent a detailed exploration of our earlier findings in young male LAL-deficient mice also missing sterol-O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2, also called ACAT2)...
December 12, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234937/-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-lal-d-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-options-in-an-underdiagnosed-disease
#5
REVIEW
S Synoracki, S Kathemann, K W Schmid, H Jastrow, H A Baba
BACKGROUND AND CLINICAL SETTING: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene. The accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in hepatocytes lead to hepatomegaly with progressive fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. Characteristically, patients have a hepatomegaly combined with high serum levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and in some cases triglyceride, whereas HDL-cholesterol is decreased. Histologically, hepatocytes show a microvesicular steatosis with typically ballooned Kupffer cells...
December 12, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228356/dietary-intervention-rescues-myopathy-associated-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Matthew A Summers, Thusitha Rupasinghe, Emily R Vasiljevski, Frances J Evesson, Kathy Mikulec, Lauren Peacock, Kate Gr Quinlan, Sandra T Cooper, Ute Roessner, David A Stevenson, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with complex symptomology. In addition to a predisposition to tumors, children with NF1 can present with reduced muscle mass, global muscle weakness, and impaired motor skills, which can have a significant impact on quality of life. Genetic mouse models have shown a lipid storage disease phenotype may underlie muscle weakness in NF1. Herein we confirm that biopsy specimens from six individuals with NF1 similarly manifest features of a lipid storage myopathy, with marked accumulation of intramyocellular lipid, fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltrates...
December 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888831/steryl-ester-synthesis-storage-and-hydrolysis-a-contribution-to-sterol-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Martina Korber, Isabella Klein, Günther Daum
Sterols are essential lipids of all eukaryotic cells, appearing either as free sterols or steryl esters. Besides other regulatory mechanisms, esterification of sterols and hydrolysis of steryl esters serve to buffer both an excess and a lack of free sterols. In this review, the esterification process, the storage of steryl esters and their mobilization will be described. Several model organisms are discussed but the focus was set on mammals and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The contribution of imbalanced cholesterol homeostasis to several human diseases, namely Wolman disease, cholesteryl ester storage disease, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, Niemann-Pick type C and Tangier disease is described...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401034/targeting-wolman-disease-and-cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-disease-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-development
#8
REVIEW
Francis Aguisanda, Natasha Thorne, Wei Zheng
Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) are lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) due to mutations in the LIPA gene. This enzyme is critical to the proper degradation of cholesterol in the lysosome. LAL function is completely lost in WD while some residual activity remains in CESD. Both are rare diseases with an incidence rate of less than 1/100,000 births for WD and approximate 2.5/100,000 births for CESD. Clinical manifestation of WD includes hepatosplenomegaly, calcified adrenal glands, severe malabsorption and a failure to thrive...
2017: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377426/alterations-in-endo-lysosomal-function-induce-similar-hepatic-lipid-profiles-in-rodent-models-of-drug-induced-phospholipidosis-and-sandhoff-disease
#9
Emmanuelle Lecommandeur, David Baker, Timothy M Cox, Andrew W Nicholls, Julian L Griffin
Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is characterized by an increase in the phospholipid content of the cell and the accumulation of drugs and lipids inside the lysosomes of affected tissues, including in the liver. Although of uncertain pathological significance for patients, the condition remains a major impediment for the clinical development of new drugs. Human Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by inherited defects of the β subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidases (Hex) A and B, leading to a large array of symptoms, including neurodegeneration and ultimately death by the age of 4 in its most common form...
July 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372558/fatty-acid-composition-in-serum-cholesterol-esters-and-phospholipids-is-linked-to-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-content-in-elderly-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Fredrik Rosqvist, Helena Bjermo, Joel Kullberg, Lars Johansson, Karl Michaëlsson, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and truncal fat predict cardiometabolic disease. Intervention trials suggest that saturated fatty acids (SFA), e.g. palmitic acid, promote abdominal and liver fat storage whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e.g. linoleic acid, prevent fat accumulation. Such findings require investigation in population-based studies of older individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships of serum biomarkers of PUFA intake as well as serum levels of palmitic acid, with abdominal and total adipose tissue content...
April 4, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322747/quantitation-of-the-rates-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cholesterol-synthesis-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice-before-and-during-treatment-with-ezetimibe
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jen-Chieh Chuang, Adam M Lopez, Stephen D Turley
Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides, contained within lipoproteins taken up by cells, are hydrolysed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. The resulting unesterified cholesterol (UC) is transported via Niemann-Pick type C2 and C1 into the cytosolic compartment where it enters a putative pool of metabolically active cholesterol that is utilized in accordance with cellular needs. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene encoding LAL, result in dramatic increases in tissue concentrations of EC, a hallmark feature of Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD)...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222836/presumptive-spontaneous-lysosomal-storage-like-disease-in-a-crl-cd1-icr-mouse
#12
Krista M Hernon, Tiffany L Whitcomb, Lori Davis, Timothy K Cooper
A clinically unremarkable 4.5-mo-old female Crl:CD1(ICR) VAF/Elite mouse was euthanized for scheduled sentinel processing. Gross necropsy findings included significant hepatosplenomegaly and visceral lymphadenomegaly, resulting in a preliminary gross diagnosis of lymphoma. Histology revealed florid accumulations of large, 'foamy' macrophages present in the bone marrow, small intestines, and viscera including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, uterus, and ovaries. The cytoplasm of these cells was abundant, stained pale blue with Wright-Giemsa and was periodic acid-Schiff positive...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#13
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
June 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105569/the-spectrum-of-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-in-greece
#14
Irene Mavridou, Evangelia Dimitriou, Marie T Vanier, Lluisa Vilageliu, Daniel Grinberg, Philippe Latour, Athina Xaidara, Lilia Lycopoulou, Sevasti Bostantjopoulou, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Helen Michelakakis
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. It is a cellular lipid trafficking disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and various sphingolipids in the lysosomes and late endosomes, and it exhibits a broad clinical spectrum. Today, over 420 disease-causing mutations have been identified in the NPC1 and the NPC2 genes. We present the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in 14 cases diagnosed in Greece during the last 28 years...
2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087919/presumptive-spontaneous-lysosomal-storage-like-disease-in-a-crl-cd1-icr-mouse
#15
Krista M
A clinically unremarkable 4.5-mo-old female Crl:CD1(ICR) VAF/Elite mouse was euthanized for scheduled sentinel processing.Gross necropsy findings included significant hepatosplenomegaly and visceral lymphadenomegaly, resulting in a preliminarygross diagnosis of lymphoma. Histology revealed florid accumulations of large, 'foamy' macrophages present in the bone marrow, small intestines, and viscera including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, uterus, and ovaries. The cytoplasm of these cells was abundant, stained pale blue with Wright-Giemsa and was periodic acid-Schiff positive...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905068/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-and-synthesis-of-the-storage-lipids-in-human-liver-derived-and-non-liver-cell-lines-by-lippia-alba-essential-oils
#16
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
January 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888692/mitochondrial-gsh-replenishment-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#17
Sandra Torres, Nuria Matías, Anna Baulies, Susana Nuñez, Cristina Alarcon-Vila, Laura Martinez, Natalia Nuño, Anna Fernandez, Joan Caballeria, Thierry Levade, Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Pablo Garcia-Rovés, Elisa Balboa, Silvana Zanlungo, Gemma Fabrías, Josefina Casas, Carlos Enrich, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, José C Fernández-Checa
Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878737/sebelipase-alfa-a-review-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#18
REVIEW
James E Frampton
Sebelipase alfa (Kanuma®, Kanuma™), the first commercially available recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), is approved in various countries worldwide, including those of the EU, the USA and Japan, as a long-term enzyme replacement therapy for patients diagnosed with LAL deficiency (LAL-D), an ultra-rare, autosomal recessive, progressive metabolic liver disease. In an ongoing study in nine infants presenting with early-onset LAL-D (Wolman disease), open-label treatment with sebelipase alfa significantly improved 1-year survival compared with historical controls...
December 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187581/use-of-bodipy-cholesterol-tf-chol-for-visualizing-lysosomal-cholesterol-accumulation
#19
Maarit Hölttä-Vuori, Erdinc Sezgin, Christian Eggeling, Elina Ikonen
Dipyrromethene difluoride-cholesterol (TopFluor-Cholesterol, TF-Chol) is a widely used cholesterol analogue due to its excellent fluorescence properties and considerable similarity with natural cholesterol in terms of membrane partitioning. However, the suitability of TF-Chol for detecting lysosomal cholesterol deposition has recently been questioned. Here, we highlight the fact that the method of lipid delivery and the analysis of time-point both affect the membrane distribution and labeling pattern of TF-Chol, similarly as with radiolabeled cholesterol...
September 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165836/disorders-of-lipid-metabolism-in-nephrotic-syndrome-mechanisms-and-consequences
#20
REVIEW
Nosratola D Vaziri
Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios...
July 2016: Kidney International
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