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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737858/the-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-turkish-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#1
Halil Özdemir, Caner Yıldız, Selin Nar Ötgün, Hatice Erkol, Adem Karbuz, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Tuğçe Tural Kara, Ayşegül Gözalan, Rıza Durmaz, Ergin Çiftçi, Derya Aysev, Erdal İnce
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective single-center study was to determine the changings in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in children with IPD after the period (1 to 7 years) of vaccination with PCV7 (2008) and PCV13 (2011). POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 39 Turkish children with IPD between ages 1 month and 18 years in Ankara, Turkey. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified using standard laboratory procedures from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, and other sterile body fluids and tissues...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737627/direct-and-indirect-effectiveness-of-the-ten-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-carriage-in-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#2
Arto A Palmu, Maija Toropainen, Tarja Kaijalainen, Lotta Siira, Mika Lahdenkari, Heta Nieminen, Ritva K Syrjänen, Terhi M Kilpi, Jukka Jokinen
Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) vaccine trial was designed to evaluate effectiveness of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10, GSK). We conducted two satellite studies to evaluate PHiD-CV10 effectiveness against pneumococcal carriage in FinIP-vaccinated children (long-term direct and indirect effectiveness combined) and in their unvaccinated siblings (indirect effectiveness within the family).FinIP was a cluster-randomized trial, where >47000 children <19 months of age were recruited 2009-2010...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#3
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737468/economic-evaluations-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-vaccine-a-systematic-review
#4
Bunchai Chongmelaxme, Maythika Hammanee, Wariya Phooaphirak, Surachai Kotirum, Raymond Hutubessy, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines but only China and Thailand have not used Hib vaccination in their national immunization programs. This systematic review aimed to update published economic evaluations of Hib vaccinations and to determine factors that potentially affected their cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Searching was performed from the inception until December 2015 using 13 databases: CAB direct; CEA registry; EconLit; EMBASE; E-library; NHSEED; PAHO; POPLINE; PubMed; Redalyc project; RePEc; SciELO and WHOLIS...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735760/first-characterization-of-immunogenic-conjugates-of-vi-negative-salmonella-typhi-o-specific-polysaccharides-with-repa-protein-for-vaccine-development
#5
M Salman, F St Michael, A Ali, A Jabbar, C Cairns, A C Hayes, M Rahman, M Iqbal, A Haque, A D Cox
Efficacious typhoid vaccines for young children will significantly reduce the disease burden in developing world. The Vi polysaccharide based conjugate vaccines (Vi-rEPA) against Salmonella Typhi Vi positive strains has shown high efficacy but may be ineffective against Vi negative S. Typhi. In this study, for the first time, we report the synthesis and evaluation of polysaccharide-protein conjugates of Vi negative S. Typhi as potential vaccine candidates. Four different conjugates were synthesized using recombinant exoprotein A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (rEPA) and human serum albumin (HSA) as the carrier proteins, using either direct reductive amination or an intermediate linker molecule, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729954/clinical-streptococcal-isolates-distinct-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-but-containing-the-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-tts-gene-and-expressing-serotype-37-capsular-polysaccharide
#6
Carmen L Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Karen Broughton, Ulf Schaefer, Matthew Hannah, David J Litt, Norman K Fry
The major virulence factor of the pneumococcus, and target for conjugate vaccines, is the polysaccharide capsule, which is usually encoded by the highly variable cps locus. Serotype 37 is an unusual pneumococcal type in which the single β-glucosyltransferase gene responsible for serotype capsule production (tts) is located outside of the capsular operon region. Using a previously described automated whole genome sequence (WGS)-based serotyping bioinformatics tool, PneumoCaT, we identified and investigated seven clinical isolates (three from blood cultures) of non-pneumococcal streptococci containing a highly homologous tts and included them in a study panel of 20 isolates which included a 11 further clinical isolates of S...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#7
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729018/sustained-reduction-in-vaccine-type-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-despite-waning-effects-of-a-catch-up-campaign-in-kilifi-kenya-a-mathematical-model-based-on-pre-vaccination-data
#8
John Ojal, Stefan Flasche, Laura L Hammitt, Donald Akech, Moses C Kiti, Tatu Kamau, Ifedayo Adetifa, Markku Nurhonen, J Anthony G Scott, Kari Auranen
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Kenya introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine together with a catch-up campaign for children aged <5years in Kilifi County. In a post-vaccination surveillance study based in Kilifi, there was a substantial decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, given the continued circulation of the vaccine serotypes it is possible that vaccine-serotype disease may re-emerge once the effects of the catch-up campaign wear off. METHODS: We developed a compartmental, age-structured dynamic model of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease for three serotype groups: the 10-valent vaccine serotypes and two groups of non-vaccine serotypes based on their susceptibility to mutual competition...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#9
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719502/safety-of-quadrivalent-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-2-10-years
#10
Sara Y Tartof, Lina S Sy, Bradley K Ackerson, Rulin C Hechter, Mendel Haag, Jeffrey M Slezak, Yi Luo, Christine A Fischetti, Harp S Takhar, Yan Miao, Zendi Solano, Steven J Jacobsen, Hung-Fu Tseng
BACKGROUND: Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for children, adolescents, and adults at increased risk of meningococcal disease. In 2011, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, GSK) was approved for children aged 2-10 years in the U.S. Although no safety concerns arose from clinical trials, it remains important to monitor its safety in routine clinical settings. METHODS: Kaiser Permanente Southern California members 2-10 years old who received MenACWY-CRM between September 2011 and September 2014 were included...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#11
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719496/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-aged-6-to-17-years-in-india-an-open-label-trial
#12
Sharad Agarkhedkar, Christine Juergens, Krishnamurthy Balasundaram, Shalaka Agarkhedkar, Vani Sundaraiyer, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Mark W Cutler, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
In an open-label study in India, 200 healthy participants aged 6-17 years received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). PCV13 elicited robust functional antibody immune responses. No adverse events were reported by caregivers at the 1-month follow-up visit. The immunogenicity results together with the known favorable risk-benefit profile of PCV13 support extension of the indication to this age group in India.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02034877.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716556/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-pneumococcal-invasive-diseases-in-italian-children-and-insight-into-evolution-of-pneumococcal-population-structure
#13
Romina Camilli, Fabio D'Ambrosio, Maria Del Grosso, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Maria Grazia Caporali, Martina Del Manso, Giovanni Gherardi, Fortunato D'Ancona, Annalisa Pantosti
BACKGROUND: The use of PCV7 for children immunization was gradually implemented in the Italian regions starting from 2006 and was replaced by PCV13 in 2010-2011. In this study we aimed to assess the PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in Italian children under 5years old. METHODS: All IPD cases in children from 5 Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia, A. P. Bolzano, A. P. Trento, and Piemonte) reported through the nationwide surveillance system during 2008-2014 were included in this study...
July 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712384/the-epidemiology-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-older-adults-in-the-post-pcv-era-has-there-been-a-herd-effect
#14
M Corcoran, I Vickers, J Mereckiene, S Murchan, S Cotter, M Fitzgerald, M McElligott, M Cafferkey, D O'Flanagan, R Cunney, H Humphreys
The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007-2008 to 2015-2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001)...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711389/population-genetic-structure-antibiotic-resistance-capsule-switching-and-evolution-of-invasive-pneumococci-before-conjugate-vaccination-in-malawi
#15
Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Cheryl P Andam, Rebecca A Gladstone, Maaike Alaerts, Patrick Musicha, Chikondi Peno, Naor Bar-Zeev, Arox W Kamng'ona, Anmol M Kiran, Chisomo L Msefula, Lesley McGee, Robert F Breiman, Aras Kadioglu, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, William P Hanage, Stephen D Bentley, Dean B Everett
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections cause a high death toll in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) but the recently rolled out pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) will reduce the disease burden. To better understand the population impact of these vaccines, comprehensive analysis of large collections of pneumococcal isolates sampled prior to vaccination is required. Here we present a population genomic study of the invasive pneumococcal isolates sampled before the implementation of PCV13 in Malawi...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711388/impact-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-children
#16
Jesus Ruiz-Contreras, Juan Picazo, Juan Casado-Flores, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo, Enrique Otheo, Cristina Méndez, María Del Amo, César Balseiro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children. METHODS: Children younger than 15years of age attending 27 hospitals in the Region of Madrid with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis were identified in a prospective surveillance study, from 2007 to 2015. Clinical data, neurological sequelae, pneumococcal vaccination status, serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and four cases of pneumococcal meningitis were identified, 63 during the period of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2007-April 2010) and 41 during the period of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2010-April 2015)...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711387/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-children%C3%A2-5years-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-india-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jyotsana Singh, Suba Sundaresan, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into India's universal immunization program...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704347/pneumococcal-vaccination-among-medicare-beneficiaries-occurring-after-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-recommendation-for-routine-use-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-and-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-for-adults-aged
#18
Carla L Black, Walter W Williams, Rob Warnock, Tamara Pilishvili, David Kim, Jeffrey A Kelman
On September 19, 2014, CDC published the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation for the routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) among adults aged ≥65 years, to be used in series with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) (1). This replaced the previous recommendation that adults aged ≥65 years should be vaccinated with a single dose of PPSV23. As a proxy for estimating PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years before and after implementation of these revised recommendations, CDC analyzed claims for vaccination submitted for reimbursement to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)...
July 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702311/the-evidence-for-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-as-a-causative-agent-of-childhood-pneumonia
#19
EDITORIAL
Mary P E Slack
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in children prior to the introduction of Hib-conjugate vaccines. The widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccines has resulted in a significant decline in the number of cases of invasive Hib disease, including bacteraemic pneumonia, in areas where the vaccine has been implemented. In many countries, non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHI) is now the most common cause of invasive haemophilus infection in all ages. NTHI are a recognized cause of bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic pneumonia in children and in adults...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702308/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-middle-income-countries
#20
REVIEW
Serena Tricarico, Hannah C McNeil, David W Cleary, Michael G Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N Faust, Johanna M C Jefferies, Paul J Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen, Marie-Louise Newell, Nuala McGrath, C Patrick Doncaster, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Jeremy S Webb, Stuart C Clarke
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income countries (MICs) are trailing in the widespread use of PCVs. We review the status of PCV implementation, and discuss any needs and gaps related to low levels of PCV implementation in MICs, with analysis of possible solutions to strengthen the PCV implementation process in MICs...
2017: Pneumonia
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