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Vaccine conjugates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100689/effectiveness-and-duration-of-protection-of-one-dose-of-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#1
Amanda C Cohn, Jessica R MacNeil, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Elizabeth R Zell, Brian Plikaytis, Xin Wang, Nancy E Messonnier
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal conjugate vaccines were licensed beginning in 2005 on the basis of serologic end points and recommended for use in adolescents. A single dose at age 11 to 12 years was expected to provide protection through late adolescence. We conducted a case-control evaluation of vaccine effectiveness (VE) and duration of protection of a meningococcal (groups A, C, W, and Y) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D). METHODS: Cases of culture- or polymerase chain reaction-confirmed serogroup A, C, W, and Y meningococcal disease among adolescents were identified through meningococcal disease surveillance sites in the United States from January 1, 2006, through August 31, 2013...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100596/genomic-epidemiology-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-pneumococci-with-non-vaccine-serotypes-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-usa
#2
Cheryl P Andam, Patrick K Mitchell, Alanna Callendrello, Qiuzhi Chang, Jukka Corander, Chrispin Chaguza, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, William P Hanage
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic resistant strains throughout the 2000s; however, disease caused by resistant non-vaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with 581 isolates from 2012-2013, collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099125/meningococcal-acwy-vaccine-uptake-and-awareness-among-student-freshers-enrolled-at-northern-ireland-universities
#3
Peter J A Moore, B Cherie Millar, John E Moore
A new MenACWY conjugate meningococcal vaccination programme was introduced in Northern Ireland (NI) in August 2015, for 13-18 year olds, as well as for first-time university entrants up to 25 years. This reflected the response made by Public Health England, due to the recent rapid increase of meningococcal group W (MenW) disease and on advice of the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI). The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the uptake of the MenACWY vaccine among first-time university students, (ii) vaccine and meningitis awareness, (iii) optimal communication modalities via a multidisciplinary team (MDT) model and (iv) current international vaccination policies relating to non-UK students...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097690/an-overview-of-structural-features-of-antibacterial-glycoconjugate-vaccines-that-influence-their-immunogenicity
#4
REVIEW
Farjana Khatun, Rachel J Stephenson, Istvan Toth
Bacterial cell-surface-derived or mimicked carbohydrate moieties that act as protective antigens are used in the development of antibacterial glycoconjugate vaccines. The carbohydrate antigen must have a minimum length or size to maintain the conformational structure of the antigenic epitope(s). The presence or absence of O-acetate, phosphate, glycerol phosphate and pyruvate ketal plays a vital role in defining the immunogenicity of the carbohydrate antigen. The nature of the carrier protein, spacer and conjugation pattern used to develop the glycoconjugate vaccine also defines its overall spatial orientation which in turn affects its avidity and selectivity of interaction with the desired target(s)...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093452/a-time-to-save
#5
Carol J Baker
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), characterized by Lancefield in 1933, was not recognized as a human pathogen until the early 1970s when it emerged and replaced Escherichia coli as the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis among neonates and young infants. This article briefly gives a personnel account of the discovery of clinical syndromes of GBS distinguished by age at onset, vertical mode of transmission for early-onset disease, meningeal tropism for GBS capsular (CPS) type III strains, and protective CPS epitopes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091576/adjuvant-and-carrier-protein-dependent-t-cell-priming-promotes-a-robust-antibody-response-against-the-plasmodium-falciparum-pfs25-vaccine-candidate
#6
Andrea J Radtke, Charles F Anderson, Nicolas Riteau, Kelly Rausch, Puthupparampil Scaria, Emily R Kelnhofer, Randall F Howard, Alan Sher, Ronald N Germain, Patrick Duffy
Humoral immune responses have the potential to maintain protective antibody levels for years due to the immunoglobulin-secreting activity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, many subunit vaccines under development fail to generate robust LLPC responses, and therefore a variety of strategies are being employed to overcome this limitation, including conjugation to carrier proteins and/or formulation with potent adjuvants. Pfs25, an antigen expressed on malaria zygotes and ookinetes, is a leading transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate for Plasmodium falciparum...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087987/nmr-line-fitting-quantification-of-polysaccharide-n-acylurea-based-modification-in-glycoconjugates-of-salmonella-typhi-vi-polysaccharide
#7
Raine Garrido, Jean Pierre Soubal, Leonid Torres, Ubel Ramirez, Vicente Vérez
The polysaccharides modification via carbodiimide reaction is one of most applied method for obtaining conjugated vaccines against Salmonella enterica. However, N-acylurea carbodiimide adduct generated in the process is a critical impurity in carbohydrate-based vaccines. A quantitative NMR method was developed for assessing the N-acylurea carbodiimide adduct impurity. The procedure was based on line-fitting facilities for processing the NMR signals on complex spectra. The method showed good linearity, accuracy and precision under inter-operator variation (relative standard deviation <5%)...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#8
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087148/immunogenicity-differences-of-a-15-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-pcv15-based-on-vaccine-dose-route-of-immunization-and-mouse-strain
#9
REVIEW
Ivette Caro-Aguilar, Lani Indrawati, Robin M Kaufhold, Christine Gaunt, Yuhua Zhang, Denise K Nawrocki, Cecilia Giovarelli, Michael A Winters, William J Smith, Jon Heinrichs, Julie M Skinner
Pneumococcal disease continues to be a medical need even with very effective vaccines on the market. Globally, there are extensive research efforts to improve serotype coverage with novel vaccines; therefore, conducting preclinical studies in different animal models becomes essential. The work presented herein focuses on evaluating a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15) in mice. Initially we evaluated several doses of PCV15 in Balb/c mice. The optimal vaccine dose was determined to be 0.4μg per pneumococcal polysaccharide (PS) (0...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087146/pcv13-vaccinated-children-still-carrying-pcv13-additional-serotypes-show-similar-carriage-density-to-a-control-group-of-pcv7-vaccinated-children
#10
Ron Dagan, Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Scott Patterson, David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Nurith Porat, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage rates, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may decrease carriage density in vaccinated individuals still carrying vaccine serotypes. However, reduction of carriage density has not been systematically studied. This study compared the effect of PCV13 versus PCV7 on carriage density of the serotypes in PCV13 that are not included in PCV7. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in southern Israel and included Jewish and Bedouin subjects...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#11
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#12
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070670/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-children-with-comorbidity
#13
Ellinor Sterky, Rutger Bennet, Ann Lindstrand, Margareta Eriksson, Anna Nilsson
: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to <5 years of age hospitalized with CAP and discharged with an ICD-10 code of J13-J18.9 between November 1, 2005, and April 30, 2007 (pre-vaccination period), and November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2012 (post-vaccination period), were eligible for this study...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067813/pneumococcal-colonization-in-the-familial-context-and-implications-for-anti-pneumococcal-immunization-in-adults-results-from-the-binocolo-project-in-sicily
#14
Fabio Tramuto, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Francesco Vitale, On Behalf Of The Binocolo Group
The spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae within families has been scarcely investigated so far. This feasibility study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in school-aged children and co-habiting relatives and to explore the potential link between the family environment and the sharing of pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine. Oropharyngeal samples of 146 subjects belonging to 36 different family groups were molecularly tested for pneumococcal detection and serotyping. The overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 65...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063328/long-term-persistence-of-inflammation-in-children-vaccinated-with-salmonella-conjugate-vaccine-is-associated-with-augmented-th9-th17-cytokine
#15
Chinnasamy Balaji, Vijayakumar Kevinkumar, Vivekanandhan Aravindhan
Vaccine induced serum cytokines not only serves as a biomarker of immunity but also serves as a reliable measure of inflammation. Long term persistence of inflammation can lead to metabolic derangement. Towards this end, in the present study, we measured levels of cytokines along with hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin) in children who have been vaccinated with Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine, 30months after vaccination. Vaccinated children showed a unique cytokine profile with suppressed Th1-Th2 and increased Th9-Th17 cytokines indicating immune polarization which was associated with decreased serum adiponectin (but not insulin or leptin) levels...
January 4, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062125/propensity-of-pneumococcal-carriage-serotypes-to-infect-the-lower-airways-of-children-with-chronic-endobronchial-infections
#16
Kim M Hare, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Susan Pizzutto, Helen L Petsky, Gabrielle B McCallum, Amanda J Leach
BACKGROUND: Chronic endobronchial infections in children are responsible for a high disease burden. Streptococcus pneumoniae is frequently isolated; however, few publications have described serotypes associated with non-invasive lower airway infection. METHODS: Paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from children undergoing bronchoscopy for chronic cough. NP swabs were also collected from asymptomatic children in otitis media surveillance studies (controls)...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061505/effectiveness-of-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv23-against-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-elderly-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Gerhard Falkenhorst, Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Eva Hummers-Pradier, Ole Wichmann, Christian Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060968/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-after-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-rhode-island-1997-2016
#18
Michael Gosciminski, Utpala Bandy, Karen Luther
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060409/immunization-of-mice
#19
Tomás Maira-Litrán
The selection of an appropriate immunization strategy depends largely on the properties of an antigen, including its nature, purity, solubility, and availability. This unit describes the critical steps in the production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against soluble molecules (such as proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, or hapten-conjugate vaccines), complex antigens (such as whole pathogens or outer membrane vesicles), and antigens embedded in or eluted from gel matrix following electrophoresis...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060295/the-isolation-differentiation-and-quantification-of-human-antibody-secreting-b-cells-from-blood-elispot-as-a-functional-readout-of-humoral-immunity
#20
Shiang-Jong Tzeng
The hallmark of humoral immunity is to generate functional ASCs, which synthesize and secrete Abs specific to an antigen (Ag), such as a pathogen, and are used for host defense. For the quantitative determination of the functional status of the humoral immune response of an individual, both serum Abs and circulating ASCs are commonly measured as functional readouts. In humans, peripheral blood is the most convenient and readily accessible sample that can be used for the determination of the humoral immune response elicited by host B cells...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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