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Vaccine conjugates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#1
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919632/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-and-an-mf59-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-after-concomitant-vaccination-in-%C3%A2-60-year-old-adults
#2
Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Hak Jun Hyun, Yu Bin Seo, Jacob Lee, Seong-Heon Wie, Min Joo Choi, Won Suk Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Jae Won Yun, Jin Gu Yun, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines could be an efficient strategy to increase vaccine uptake among older adults. Nevertheless, immune interference and safety issues have been a concern when more than one vaccines are administered at the same time. METHODS: Subjects aged ⩾60years were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive MF59-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MF59-aTIV)+13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) (Group 1), PCV13 alone (Group 2), or MF59-aTIV alone (Group 3)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918383/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-similarly-designed-observational-studies
#3
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear due to a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions, and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7-CRM) use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from ten AOM etiology studies of similar design the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917323/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-prevalent-invasive-multi-drug-resistant-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Rehab H Bahy, Hayam M Hamouda, Amal S Shahat, Aymen S Yassin, Magdy A Amin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious invasive infections, such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in addition to mild upper respiratory tract infections. Protection from pneumococcal diseases is thought to be mediated mainly by serotype-specific antibodies to capsular antigens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of sugars (polysaccharides) from the capsule of the bacterium S. pneumoniae that are conjugated to a carrier protein. Three pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, each directed against a group of serotypes, are registered in Egypt; however, local vaccine production is required to cover the most prevalent serotypes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913998/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-past-present-and-future
#5
Alison Spellman, Shou-Ching Tang
Immunotherapy has shown promise in many solid tumors including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer with an evolving role in breast cancer. Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies including immune checkpoint inhibition, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, vaccinations, antibody-drug conjugates, and identifying other emerging interventions targeting the tumor microenvironment. Increasing efficacy of these treatments in breast cancer patients requires identification of better biomarkers to guide patient selection; recognizing when to initiate these therapies in multi-modality treatment plans; establishing novel assays to monitor immune-mediated responses; and creating combined systemic therapy options incorporating conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and endocrine therapy...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912986/a-phase-iii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-study-to-evaluate-the-immune-response-and-the-correlation-with-nasopharyngeal-carriage-after-immunization-of-university-students-with-a-quadrivalent-meningococcal-acwy-glycoconjugate-or-serogroup-b-meningococcal
#6
Robert C Read, Peter Dull, Xilian Bai, Kate Nolan, Jamie Findlow, Rohit Bazaz, Annett Kleinschmidt, Maggie McCarthy, Huajun Wang, Daniela Toneatto, Ray Borrow
BACKGROUND: University students have high rates of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Interruption of carriage acquisition is an important mechanism of vaccines for inducing herd protection. 4CMenB and MenACWY-CRM vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic against meningococcal serogroups B and ACWY respectively in younger age groups, and also to elicit a modest impact on meningococcal carriage in vaccinated students. However, vaccine responses in university students and the impact of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers on meningococcal carriage are undetermined...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#7
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905836/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-post-vaccine-era
#8
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
A breakthrough infection occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Turkey are previously described. A breakthrough infection is defined as IPD in a child who had received ≥1 PCV-7 or PCV-13 and for which the pneumococcal isolate was a vaccine serotype. During one year period, among six patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, two patients were considered to have a vaccine failure with serotype 19F. Antibiotic resistance results were remarkable; macrolide resistance were observed in all strains except one, and high and intermediate penicillin resistance were determined in two strains...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#9
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903558/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-routine-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-the-uk-a-comparison-of-the-phid-cv-vaccine-and-the-pcv-13-vaccine-using-a-markov-model
#10
Emmanuelle Delgleize, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Eleni Theodorou, Nicolas Van de Velde
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902652/circulating-antibody-1-and-2-years-after-vaccination-with-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-preterm-compared-with-term-infants
#11
Federico Martinón-Torres, Jacek Wysocki, Kimberly J Center, Hanna Czajka, Ewa Majda-Stanislawska, Felix Omeñaca, Ana Concheiro-Guisan, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Leszek Szenborn, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Peter C Giardina, Gang Sun, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Alejandra Gurtman
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have lower short-term immune responses to vaccination than term infants, but patterns of antibody persistence in preterm infants over longer periods are not well established. This study assessed the persistence of antibody response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in formerly preterm versus term infants. METHODS: In total, 100 preterm and 100 term infants received PCV13 with routine vaccines at ages 2, 3, 4, and 12 months...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899227/challenges-to-estimating-vaccine-impact-using-hospitalization-data
#12
Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Roger Lustig, Esra Kürüm, Christian A W Bruhn, Daniel M Weinberger
Because the real-world impact of new vaccines cannot be known before they are implemented in national programs, post-implementation studies at the population level are critical. Studies based on analysis of hospitalization rates of vaccine-preventable outcomes are typically used for this purpose. However, estimates of vaccine impact based on hospitalization data are particularly prone to confounding, as hospitalization rates are tightly linked to changes in the quality, access and use of the healthcare system, which often occur simultaneously with introduction of new vaccines...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#13
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889249/analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-isolated-from-middle-ear-fluid-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-government-subsidies-for-pneumococcal-and-h-%C3%A2-influenzae-type-b-vaccines-in-japan
#14
Tadashi Hoshino, Noriko Takeuchi, Chie Fukasawa, Shoko Hirose, Hideyuki Okui, Hiroko Sato, Mari Sato, Yukiko Arimoto, Atsuko Nakano, Naruhiko Ishiwada
This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887623/generation-of-protective-immunity-against-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection-by-immunization-with-a-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-combined-with-scaa-antigen
#15
Na-Young Ha, Hyun Mu Shin, Prashant Sharma, Hyun Ah Cho, Chan-Ki Min, Hong-Il Kim, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Jae-Seung Kang, Ik-Sang Kim, Myung-Sik Choi, Young Keun Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZNP) has been applied in various biomedical fields. Here, we investigated the usage of ZNP as an antigen carrier for vaccine development by combining a high affinity peptide to ZNP. RESULTS: A novel zinc oxide-binding peptide (ZBP), FPYPGGDA, with high affinity to ZNP (K a  = 2.26 × 10(6) M(-1)) was isolated from a random peptide library and fused with a bacterial antigen, ScaA of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885442/patterns-and-trends-of-pediatric-bloodstream-infections-a-7-year-surveillance-study
#16
N Buetti, A Atkinson, L Kottanattu, J Bielicki, J Marschall, A Kronenberg
We characterize the epidemiology of pediatric bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Switzerland. We analyzed pathogen distribution and resistance patterns in monomicrobial and polymicrobial BSIs in children from 2008 to 2014 using data from the Swiss antibiotic resistance centre (ANRESIS). A confirmatory statistical analysis was performed comparing pathogens and resistance across 20 acute care hospitals. We identified 3,067 bacteremia episodes, of which 1,823 (59 %) were considered true BSI episodes. Overall, S...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881489/kinetics-of-meningococcal-serogroup-c-specific-functional-antibody-levels-up-to-15-years-after-a-single-immunization-with-a-meningococcal-serogroup-c-conjugate-vaccine-during-adolescence
#17
Susanne P Stoof, Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Debbie M van Rooijen, Richarda M de Voer, Fiona R M van der Klis, Greet J Boland, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Peter F Teunis
BACKGROUND: Adolescent vaccination is now considered the key factor to offer direct protection against meningococcal disease but also to reduce carriage and transmission and in this way establish herd protection. This study estimated age-dependent patterns in functional meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody kinetics after primary MenC conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in adolescents. METHODS: Serum samples (n=1676) were drawn between 2006-2011 from individuals aged 9-18 years at time of primary MenCC vaccination in 2002...
November 23, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#18
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879152/preparation-and-immunogenicity-of-gold-glyco-nanoparticles-as-antipneumococcal-vaccine-model
#19
Maria Vetro, Dodi Safari, Silvia Fallarini, Korrie Salsabila, Martina Lahmann, Soledad Penadés, Luigi Lay, Marco Marradi, Federica Compostella
AIM: Nanotechnology-based fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines are promising alternatives to classic polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines. We have prepared gold glyco-nanoparticles (GNP) bearing two synthetic carbohydrate antigens related to serotypes 19F and 14 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated their immunogenicity in vivo. RESULTS: A tetrasaccharide fragment of serotype 14 (Tetra-14), a trisaccharide fragment of serotype 19F (Tri-19F), a T-helper peptide and d -glucose were loaded onto GNP in different ratios...
November 23, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873210/synthetic-glycan-microarrays
#20
Felix Broecker, Peter H Seeberger
Structurally diverse glycans are expressed by all animate beings and exert diverse biological functions through specific interactions with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). In humans, glycan-GBP interactions are implicated in many disease-relevant processes in development, infection and immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens. Recent progress in chemical synthesis, including automated glycan assembly, has facilitated access to complex glycans that cannot be isolated from biological material. Glycan immobilization on microarrays allows rapid, multiplexed glycan-GBP interaction studies to reveal biological functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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