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Vaccine conjugates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159320/immunogenicity-and-persistence-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-in-patients-with-untreated-smoldering-multiple-myeloma-smm-a-pilot-study
#1
Mathilde Bahuaud, Hélène Bodilis, Marion Malphettes, Anaïs Maugard Landre, Caroline Matondo, Didier Bouscary, Frédéric Batteux, Odile Launay, Jean-Paul Fermand
Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder that frequently progress to multiple myeloma (MM), a disease at high risk of pneumococcal infections. Moreover, if the polysaccharide vaccine is poorly immunogenic in MM, the 13-valent conjugated vaccine has never been tested in clonal plasma cell disorders. We evaluated its immunogenicity for 7 serotypes in 20 patients ≥ 50 years of age with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) pre and post routine-vaccination with PCV13. Concentrations of IgG specific for 7 serotypes were measured at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months after vaccination by standardized ELISA and an Opsonophagocytic Assay (OPA)...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159204/immune-response-to-vaccines-is-maintained-in-patients-treated-with-dimethyl-fumarate
#2
Christian von Hehn, Jonathan Howard, Shifang Liu, Ven Meka, Joe Pultz, Devangi Mehta, Claudia Prada, Soma Ray, Michael R Edwards, Sarah I Sheikh
Objectives: To investigate the immune response to vaccinations in patients with relapsing forms of MS treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) vs nonpegylated interferon (IFN). Methods: In this open-label, multicenter study, patients received 3 vaccinations: (1) tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) to test T-cell-dependent recall response, (2) pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent to test T-cell-independent humoral response, and (3) meningococcal (groups A, C, W-135, and Y) oligosaccharide CRM197 conjugate to test T-cell-dependent neoantigen response...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158139/expression-and-evaluation-of-recombinant-p32-protein-based-elisa-for-sero-diagnostic-potential-of-capripox-in-sheep-and-goats
#3
Gnanavel Venkatesan, Mahesh Kumar Teli, Muthu Sankar, Amit Kumar, M Dashprakash, Sargam Arya, Aparna Madhavan, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrisnan, Awadh Bihari Pandey
The study is aimed to develop and evaluate a recombinant P32 protein based ELISA for sero-monitoring and sero-surveillance using known and suspected serum samples for capripox from sheep and goats. Truncated P32 gene of goatpox virus (with an ORF of 750 bp) was expressed in E. coli BL-21 CodonPlus (DE3) cells using pET32a vector and characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis and confirmed by western blotting as 48 KDa Poly-His tagged fusion protein. The protein was purified under denaturing conditions using 8M urea and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting...
November 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155998/limited-impact-of-adolescent-meningococcal-acwy-vaccination-on-group-w-carriage-in-university-students
#4
Neil J Oldfield, Luke R Green, Julian Parkhill, Christopher D Bayliss, David P J Turner
Background: In the UK rising disease levels due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W clonal complex ST-11 (MenW:cc11) strains led to introduction of conjugate MenACWY vaccination for teenagers. We investigated the impact of immunization on carriage of targeted meningococci by whole genome sequencing of isolates recovered from a cohort of vaccinated university students. Methods: Strain designation data were extracted from whole genome sequence data. Genomes from carried and invasive MenW:cc11 were compared using a gene-by-gene approach...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153912/-acute-epiglottitis-due-to-haemophilus-influenzae-b-a-severe-consequence-of-increased-skepticism-about-vaccination
#5
J Doutau, C Bost-Bru, A Gayot, I Wroblewski, I Pelloux, T Debillon, A Millet
Acute epiglottis is a life-threatening disease in relation with the occurrence of an acute upper airway obstruction. Its incidence has fallen dramatically since the widespread introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We report the case of a 26-month-old child who was not fully immunized and presented acute upper airway respiratory distress with fever. The symptoms quickly evolved to a respiratory arrest condition with bradycardia, revealing epiglottitis due to Hib. Despite high immunization coverage with great efficacy and occurrence of herd immunity, this entity still exists because of the French population's skepticism of the routine vaccination schedule...
November 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152681/trichothecenes-immunomodulatory-effects-mechanisms-and-anti-cancer-potential
#6
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Anca Miron, Qianying Liu, Yun Wang, Dongxiao Su, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Kamil Kuca
Paradoxically, trichothecenes have both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory effects. The underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. Early studies show that dose, exposure timing, and the time at which immune function is assessed influence whether trichothecenes act in an immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory fashion. Recent studies suggest that the immunomodulatory function of trichothecenes is also actively shaped by competing cell-survival and death-signaling pathways. Autophagy may also promote trichothecene immunosuppression, although the mechanism may be complicated...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149704/gold-nanoparticles-as-an-adjuvant-influence-of-size-shape-and-technique-of-combination-with-cpg-on-antibody-production
#7
Lev A Dykman, Sergey A Staroverov, Alexander S Fomin, Vitaly A Khanadeev, Boris N Khlebtsov, Vladimir A Bogatyrev
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are advantageous as an adjuvant in the design of effective vaccines and in the preparation of high-affinity antibodies to haptens and complete antigens. Another method of activating immunocompetent cells with colloidal gold is to conjugate GNPs with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). We examined how the size and shape of GNPs and various combinations of GNPs and CpG ODNs 1826 affect the immune response. When animals were injected with a model antigen (BSA) coupled to gold nanospheres (diameters, 15 and 50nm), nanorods, nanoshells, and nanostars, the titers of the resultant antibodies differed substantially...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146381/impact-of-infant-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalization-in-all-ages-in-the-netherlands
#8
A M M van Deursen, T M Schurink-Van't Klooster, W H Man, J van de Kassteele, A B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, P C J L Bruijning-Verhagen, H E de Melker, E A M Sanders, M J Knol
BACKGROUND: The long-term impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on pneumonia hospitalizations in all age-groups varies between countries. In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented for newborns in 2006 and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. We assessed the impact of PCVs on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization rates in all age-groups. METHODS: A time series analysis using Poisson regression was performed on 155,994 CAP hospitalizations...
November 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146244/extending-antigen-release-from-particulate-vaccines-results-in-enhanced-antitumor-immune-response
#9
Chintan H Kapadia, Shaomin Tian, Jillian L Perry, David Sailer, J Christopher Luft, Joseph M DeSimone
Tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in an anti-tumor immune response. However, vaccination intended to elicit a potent CD8(+) T cell responses employing tumor-associated peptide antigens, are typically ineffective due to poor immunogenicity. Previously, we engineered a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel-based subunit vaccine for the delivery of an antigenic peptide and CpG (adjuvant) to elicit potent CTLs. In this study, we further examined the effect of antigen release kinetics on their induced immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145619/intranasal-immunization-with-an-attenuated-pep27-mutant-provides-protection-from-influenza-virus-and-secondary-pneumococcal-infections
#10
Seung Han Seon, Jung Ah Choi, Eunji Yang, Sukneung Pyo, Man Ki Song, Dong-Kwon Rhee
During influenza pandemics, secondary pneumococcal infections cause excessive mortality. However, the current pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine, PCV 13, provides only limited protection against secondary infection. Therefore, a more effective pneumococcal vaccine is required to protect against secondary pneumococcal infections. Here, intranasal immunization with an attenuated pneumococcal pep27 mutant provides protection from influenza virus infection, and also from secondary pneumococcal challenge...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134203/use-of-multiplex-quantitative-pcr-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-in-african-children
#11
Courtney P Olwagen, Peter V Adrian, Marta C Nunes, Michelle J Groome, Mark F Cotton, Avy Violari, Shabir A Madhi
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children induces shifts in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes. This study evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) on vaccine serotype (VT) colonization and whether the increase in nonvaccine serotype (NVT) was due to either unmasking of previously low-density-colonizing serotypes or increase in acquisition of NVT. A multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to evaluate VT and NVT nasopharyngeal colonization in archived swabs of PCV-vaccinated and PCV-unvaccinated African children at 9 and 15 to 16 months of age...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#12
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126310/current-epidemiology-and-trends-in-meningococcal-disease-united-states-1996-2015
#13
Jessica R MacNeil, Amy E Blain, Xin Wang, Amanda C Cohn
Background: In 2005, meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was recommended for routine use among adolescents aged 11-18 years. This report describes the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease and trends in meningococcal disease incidence following MenACWY introduction in the United States. Methods: Incidence rates and case-fatality ratios by age group and serogroup during 2006-2015 were calculated using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS); changes in incidence during this time were evaluated...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#14
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125809/burden-of-hospitalized-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-in-vietnam-malaysia-indonesia-and-the-republic-of-korea
#15
Kah Kee Tan, Duc Anh Dang, Ki Hwan Kim, Cissy Kartasasmita, Hwang Min Kim, Xu-Hao Zhang, Fakrudeen Shafi, Ta-Wen Yu, Emilio Ledesma, Nadia Meyer
BACKGROUND: Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). METHODS: Over a one or two-year period, children <5 years hospitalized with CAP were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Cases were matched to standardized definitions of suspected (S-CAP), confirmed (C-CAP), or bacterial CAP (B-CAP) used in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy study (COMPAS)...
November 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#16
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118167/invasive-disease-caused-simultaneously-by-dual-serotypes-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#17
Kedibone Ndlangisa, Mignon du Plessis, Mushal Allam, Nicole Wolter, Linda de Gouveia, Keith P Klugman, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca A Gladstone, Anne von Gottberg
There are at least 98 known pneumococcal serotypes. Invasive pneumococcal (IPD) disease is usually caused by a single serotype, and dual serotype IPD is rare. To assess factors associated with dual serotype IPD, patient information obtained through laboratory-based surveillance for IPD from 2005 through 2014 in South Africa was reviewed. Genomes of isolate pairs from co-infected individuals were sequenced to determine their molecular characteristics. For 30 (91%) of 33 patients with dual serotypes, one or both isolates were a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116892/lessons-from-the-meningitis-vaccine-project
#18
F Marc LaForce, Mamoudou Djingarey, Simonetta Viviani, Marie-Pierre Preziosi
From 2001 to 2017 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a Gates Foundation funded partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO), successfully developed, tested, licensed, and introduced an affordable new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(®), in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccine was well received, and from 2010 to 2016, over 260 million Africans have received a dose of the vaccine in campaigns largely directed at 1-29-year olds. The public health impact has been dramatic with the elimination of Group A meningococcal infections wherever the vaccine has been used at public health scale...
November 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115905/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-infant-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv-in-korea
#19
Xu-Hao Zhang, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Kyu-Bin Oh, Young Eun Lee, Chul-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) can cause invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM). Both the 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) are included in the National Immunization Program for infants in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 3+1 schedule of PHiD-CV versus that of PCV-13 for National Immunization Program in Korea...
November 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114884/dental-provider-practices-and-perceptions-regarding-adolescent-vaccination
#20
Allison L Naleway, Michelle L Henninger, Lisa A Waiwaiole, David M Mosen, Michael C Leo, Daniel J Pihlstrom
OBJECTIVE: To assess dental providers' clinical practices and perceptions regarding adolescent vaccinations. METHODS: We surveyed 234 dental providers in an integrated health care setting in Portland, Oregon, in March-April 2015. We assessed participants' knowledge of adolescent vaccines, barriers to recommending vaccines, and their perceived role in the promotion of vaccination and preventive medical care. RESULTS: Over 80 percent of respondents correctly identified influenza, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis, and human papillomavirus as vaccinations recommended for adolescents; 60 percent correctly identified meningococcal conjugate...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
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