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Vaccine conjugates

Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Sujith Subesinghe, Katie Bechman, Andrew I Rutherford, David Goldblatt, James B Galloway
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination is a key strategy to reduce infection risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is advocated in internationally recognized rheumatology society guidelines. The aim was to evaluate to the effect of antirheumatic drugs on influenza and pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and metaanalysis comparing the humoral response to influenza (pandemic and seasonal trivalent subunit vaccines) and pneumococcal (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines) vaccination in adult patients with RA treated with antirheumatic drugs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Yasuko Shoji, Scott Patterson, Wendy Watson, Chris Webber, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1-2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin, the onset of ISRs over 14 days was explored in 8 adult studies with 19 cohorts. Subjects received PCV13 with aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 , n = 5667) or without AlPO4 (n = 304); 109 subjects received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Kelli A Davis, Kristin M Klohonatz, Darcy S O Mora, Hannah M Twenter, Peter E Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C Eckery, Jason E Bruemmer
Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant...
March 6, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Umut Gazi, Djursun Karasartova, Ibrahim Tayfun Sahiner, Ayse Semra Gureser, Ozgur Tosun, Mehmet Kursat Derici, Mete Dolapci, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
AIM: Splenectomised patients are associated with lifelong risk of fatal overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which is mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Today OPSI cases can still be reported even in patients with appropriate vaccination. In our study, the levels of vaccine-specific memory B- and T cells were compared between control and splenectomised patients to enlighten the underlying reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy and 14 post-traumatic splenectomised individuals were vaccinated with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Zhilin Chen, James Moon, Wei Cheng
The number and spacing of B-cell epitopes on antigens have a profound impact on the activation of B cells and elicitation of antibody responses, the quantitative aspects of which may be utilized for rational design of vaccines. Ni-chelating liposomes have been widely used as protein carriers in experimental studies of vaccine delivery, owing to the convenience and versatility of this conjugation chemistry. However, the epitope number per particle as well as the stability of protein conjugation on liposomes remain far less characterized...
March 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Chenghe Xiong, Shaojie Feng, Yin Qiao, Zhongwu Guo, Guofeng Gu
A highly convergent and efficient strategy was developed for the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 capsular polysaccharide containing multiple glucuronic acid units. After oligoglucosides were effectively and stereoselectively assembled, the designated glucose units were regioselectively oxidized to glucuronic acid in one step at the final synthetic stage, which helped avoid difficult glycosylations involving glucuronic acid. The target oligosaccharides had a free amino group at the reducing end and varied caps at the non-reducing end to enable further modification and structure-activity relationship study...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yujuan Chen, Fengjiao Yuan, Xian Jiang, Qing Lv, Na Luo, Changyang Gong, Chunting Wang, Li Yang, Gu He
Recently, tumor immunotherapy has achieved great progress in the treatment of hematological and solid neoplasms. The DC vaccines, KLH-conjugated vaccines or glycosylated peptide vaccines can efficiently induce immune responses against tumors. In the current study, we have discovered cholesteryl PADRE-EGFRvIII epitope-conjugated lipopeptide self-assembled micelles as a potential self-adjuvant vaccine against cutaneous melanoma. The lipopeptide vaccines were synthesized using a standard solid phase peptide synthesis method, and these vaccines could elicit both a humoral and a cellular immune response to EGFRvIII positive melanoma cells...
March 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
John M Hickey, Vishal M Toprani, Kawaljit Kaur, Ravi P N Mishra, Akshay Goel, Natalia Oganesyan, Andrew Lees, Robert Sitrin, Sangeeta B Joshi, David B Volkin
CRM197 , a single amino acid mutant of diphtheria toxoid, is a commonly used carrier protein in commercial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. In this study, CRM197 proteins from three different expression systems and five different manufacturers were obtained for an analytical comparability assessment using a wide variety of physicochemical and in vitro antigenic binding assays. A comprehensive analysis of the five CRM197 molecules demonstrate that recombinant CRM197 's expressed in heterologous systems (E...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Arto A Palmu, Kari Auranen, J Pekka Nuorti, Maija Toropainen, Lotta Siira, Mikko J Virtanen, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen
BACKGROUND: The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. The impact of PCV10 vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vaccine-eligible children has been high. We evaluated the long-term impact of PCV10 vaccination against IPD in vaccine-eligible and older, unvaccinated children six years after PCV10 introduction with a special focus on cross-protection against PCV10-related serotypes (serotypes in the same serogroups as the PCV10 types)...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Miriam Palacios, Ricardo Tampe, Miguel Del Campo, Ta-Ying Zhong, Mercedes N López, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, María Inés Becker
Conjugation to carrier proteins is a way to improve the immunogenicity of peptides. Such is the case for peptides mimicking carbohydrate tumor-associated antigens in cancer vaccine development. The most used protein for this purpose is the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) from Megathura crenulata. Its limited bioavailability has prompted interest in finding new candidates; nevertheless, it is not known whether other hemocyanins might be equally efficient as carrier of carbohydrate peptide mimotopes to promotes anti-tumor responses...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Ashley C Banyard, Christophe Prehaud, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Colin P D Birch, Tim H Szeto, Monique Lafon, Anthony R Fooks, Julian K-C Ma
Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
Sally A F El-Sahrigy, Azza M O Abdel Rahman, Dalia Y Samaha, Nesrine A Mohamed, Sally M Saber, Hala A Talkhan, Ghada A Ismail, Essam M Ibraheem, Emad M Riad
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a huge worldwide burden, despite extensive vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is inadequate to protect the human population against TB. This underscore the critical necessitate to develop an improved TB vaccine, based on a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses during mycobacterial infection. AIM OF THE WORK: To examine whether the exogenous addition of IFN-β could improve dendritic cell (DC) response to Mycobacterium bovis (M...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Claire Dendle, Rhonda L Stuart, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Anne Balloch, John Kanellis, Johnathan Ling, Megan Kummrow, Chelsea Moore, Karin Thursky, Jim Buttery, Kim Mulholland, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen Holdsworth, William R Mulley
BACKGROUND: Conjugated pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for kidney transplant recipients however their immunogenicity and potential to trigger allograft rejection though generation of de-novo anti-human leucocyte antigen antibodies has not been well studied. METHODS: Clinically stable kidney transplant recipients participated in a prospective cohort study and received a single dose of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-pneumococcal IgG was measured for the 13 vaccine serotypes pre and post vaccination and functional anti-pneumococcal IgG for 4 serotypes post-vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Heidi M Soeters, Amy Blain, Tracy Pondo, Brooke Doman, Monica M Farley, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Lisa Miller, Susan Petit, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Ann Thomas, Shelley M Zansky, Xin Wang, Elizabeth C Briere
Background: Following Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine introduction in the 1980s, Hib disease in young children dramatically decreased and epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae changed. Methods: Active surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease was conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the age and race distribution of the US population. Results: During 2009-2015, the estimated mean annual incidence of invasive H...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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