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Vaccine conjugates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441513/antibody-persistence-following-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#1
Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Lee H Harrison, Bianca Ferreira, Daniela Menna-Barreto, Raquel Bernardo Nana de Castro, Giselle Pereira da Silva, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita F Abreu, Lucimar G Milagres, Cristina B Hofer
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected individuals (HIVI) are threatened by meningococcal infection and presented lower response to vaccines. Data are scarce on long-term persistence of human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) after a meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in HIVI youth; the authors aimed to describe this persistence in HIVI. METHODS: HIVI and HIV uninfected individuals (HIVU), aged 2-18 years, CD4 >15% were recruited. Seroprotection (hSBA ≥1:4) at baseline and at 12-18 months after immunization was evaluated and the association of the different factors with the long-term persistence was calculated using logistic regression...
April 22, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439022/structure-of-a-protective-epitope-of-group-b-streptococcus-type-iii-capsular-polysaccharide
#2
Filippo Carboni, Roberto Adamo, Monica Fabbrini, Riccardo De Ricco, Vittorio Cattaneo, Barbara Brogioni, Daniele Veggi, Vittoria Pinto, Irene Passalacqua, Davide Oldrini, Rino Rappuoli, Enrico Malito, Immaculada Y Ros Margarit, Francesco Berti
Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438972/position-of-o-acetylation-within-the-capsular-repeat-unit-impacts-the-biological-properties-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-33a-and-33f
#3
Brady L Spencer, Jamil S Saad, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) produces many capsule types that differ in their abilities to evade host immune recognition. To explain these serotype-dependent protective capacities, many studies have investigated capsular thickness or the interaction of the capsule with complement proteins, but the effects of small chemical modifications of the capsule on its function have not been studied. One small chemical modification found frequently among pneumococcal capsules is O-acetylation. Pneumococcal serotype 33A has two membrane-bound O-acetyltransferase genes, wciG and wcjE A 33A wcjE-deficient variant, 33F, occurs naturally and is increasing in prevalence in the wake of widespread conjugate vaccine use, but no wciG-deficient variants have been reported...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438407/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-against-serogroup-c-meningococci-in-the-region-of-valencia-spain-impact-of-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination
#4
Lina Pérez-Breva, Raquel Abad-Torreblanca, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Beneito, Joan Puig-Barberà, Sara Alemán-Sánchez, Nuria Morant-Talamante, Macrina Sastre-Cantón, Julio A Vázquez-Moreno, Javier Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccination programs provide direct and indirect protection against meningococcal disease. However, a decrease in the antibodies could affect herd immunity. We conducted a seroprevalence study to assess the immunity in subjects 8-12years after different MCCV vaccination programs were launched and evaluated the impact of vaccination on seroprotection. METHODS: Seroepidemiological study conducted from October 2010 to April 2012 in the region of Valencia, Spain...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437722/effective-active-vaccination-against-methamphetamine-in-female-rats
#5
J D Nguyen, P T Bremer, C S Hwang, S A Vandewater, K C Collins, K M Creehan, K D Janda, M A Taffe
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies directed against methamphetamine (MA) abuse have shown success in rodent models, however only a limited number of studies have investigated active vaccination in female mice and none in female rats. It is critical to determine if potential immunotherapeutic strategies generalize across sex, particularly for drugs that may produce significant sex-differences on behavioral or physiological endpoints. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were initially vaccinated with keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or an anti-methamphetamine-KLH conjugate (MH6-KLH) three times over five weeks and implanted with radiotelemetry devices to assess locomotor activity and body temperature responses to MA...
April 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#6
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432276/identification-of-common-immunodominant-antigens-of-eimeria-tenella-eimeria-acervulina-and-eimeria-maxima-by-immunoproteomic-analysis
#7
Lianrui Liu, Xinmei Huang, Jianhua Liu, Wenyu Li, Yihong Ji, Di Tian, Lu Tian, Xinchao Yang, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiangrui Li, Xiaokai Song
Clinical chicken coccidiosis is mostly caused by simultaneous infection of several Eimeria species, and host immunity against Eimeria is species-specific. It is urgent to identify common immunodominant antigen of Eimeria for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. In this study, sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Western bot analysis was performed on the yielded 2DE gel using antisera of E. tenella E. acervulina and E...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#8
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429891/comparison-of-immunization-rates-of-adults-ages-65-years-and-older-managed-within-two-nurse-practitioner-owned-clinics-with-national-immunization-rates
#9
Wendy L Wright, Elise Morrell, Jennie Lee, Norma Graciela Cuellar, Patricia White
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adults ages ≥65 years are at increased risk for infectious diseases. Ensuring these individuals are fully vaccinated is imperative. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunization rates of adults ages ≥65 years managed by nurse practitioners (NPs) and compare the results with national immunization rates and Healthy People 2020 goals. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults ages ≥65 years was obtained from two NP-managed clinics...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429115/comparison-of-the-tolerability-of-newly-introduced-childhood-vaccines-in-the-netherlands
#10
Jeanet M Kemmeren, Nicoline At van der Maas, Hester E de Melker
In 2011, the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) and universal hepatitis B vaccination has been introduced in the Netherlands. A questionnaire study was conducted to assess the tolerability of DTaP-IPV-Hib + PCV7 (PCV7-cohort), DTaP-IPV-Hib + PCV10 (PCV10-cohort), and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB + PCV10 (HepB-cohort). Parents were asked to report in questionnaires local reactions and systemic adverse events (AEs) before and after vaccination of their infant at 2, 3, 4, and 11 months of age...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428066/effects-of-gold-nanoparticle-based-vaccine-size-on-lymph-node-delivery-and-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#11
Sukmo Kang, Sukyung Ahn, Jeewon Lee, Jinyong Kim, Minsuk Choi, Vipul Gujrati, Hyungjun Kim, Jinjoo Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Sangyong Jon
Although it has been shown that the size of nanoparticle-based vaccines is a key determining factor for the induction of immune responses, few studies have provided detailed analyses of thresholds or critical sizes of nanoparticle vaccines. Here we report effects of the size of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based vaccines on their efficiency of delivery to lymph nodes (LNs) and induction of CD8(+) T-cell responses. We further propose a threshold size of GNPs for use as an effective vaccine. To examine the effects of GNP size, we synthesized GNPs with diameters of 7, 14 and 28nm, and then conjugated them with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#12
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425818/immunization-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-according-to-different-schedules-in-infants-in-south-africa-a-phase-iii-trial
#13
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Marta Moreira, Nadia van Niekerk, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan Pablo Yarzabal, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exists to assess differences between various infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedules. In this trial, we evaluated immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (phid-cv) administered using 3 different immunization schedules in HIV unexposed-uninfected infants in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this phase iii, open, single-center, controlled study (clinicaltrials...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424198/pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharide-immunity-in-the-elderly
#14
Hugh Adler, Daniela M Ferreira, Stephen B Gordon, Jamie Rylance
Immunity against pneumococcal infections is impaired in older people, and current vaccines are poorly protective against pneumococcal disease in this population. Naturally-acquired immunity against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides develops during childhood and is robust in young adults, but deteriorates with advanced age. In particular, antibody levels and function are reduced in older people. Pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for people over 65 years of age. However, the benefits of polysaccharide and protein-conjugated vaccines in this population are small, due to both serotype replacement and incomplete protection against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal disease...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422567/evaluation-of-serotypes-5-and-8-capsular-polysaccharides-in-protection-against-staphylococcus-aureus-in-murine-models-of-infection
#15
Brian L Cheng, Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Fan Zhao, Jean C Lee, Christopher P Montgomery, Brian Luna, Brad Spellberg, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections, including soft tissue and skin infections and bacteremia. However, efforts to develop an effective vaccine against S. aureus infections have not been successful. We evaluated serotypes 5 and 8 capsule polysaccharides (CP) CRM197 conjugates as vaccine candidates in murine models of bacteremia, lethal sepsis, and skin infection. The conjugate vaccines elicited a good antibody response, and active immunization of CP5-CRM or CP8-CRM conjugates protected against staphylococcal bacteremia...
April 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420056/treatment-with-belimumab-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-does-not-impair-antibody-response-to-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#16
J Nagel, T Saxne, P Geborek, A A Bengtsson, S Jacobsen, C Svaerke Joergensen, J-Å Nilsson, L Skattum, A Jönsen, M C Kapetanovic
Background/purpose The objective of this study was to explore the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and belimumab given in addition to standard of care therapy on 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) response. Methods Forty-seven systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 21 healthy controls were immunized with a single dose of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Forty systemic lupus erythematosus patients were treated with traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs, 11 of those received belimumab in addition, and 32 patients were treated with concomitant prednisolone...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419083/pneumococcal-vaccination-and-efficacy-in-patients-with-heterotaxy-syndrome
#17
Pei-Lan Shao, Mei-Hwan Wu, Jou-Kou Wang, Hui-Wen Hsu, Li-Min Huang, Shuenn-Nan Chiu
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines, including pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV), are important in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease. We analyzed the pneumococcal vaccination rate, efficacy and durability in patients with heterotaxy. METHODS: All patients with heterotaxy and CCHD who were followed at our institution between 2010 and 2015 were included. Pneumococcal vaccine status and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414696/decrease-in-pneumococcal-otitis-media-cultures-with-concomitant-increased-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-era
#18
Basel Jabarin, Jacob Pitaro, Tzilia Lazarovitch, Haim Gavriel, Limor Muallem-Kalmovich, Ephraim Eviatar, Tal Marom
OBJECTIVE: To study the change in the incidence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) in cultures obtained from children with otitis media (OM) during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) era. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Secondary medical care center. PATIENTS: Children less than 8 years who presented with OM and had positive pneumococcal cultures during January 1, 2007 to December 12, 2014 were identified...
April 13, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414567/disease-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-y-old-in-china-a-population-based-survey
#19
Yan Li, Zhijie An, Dapeng Yin, Yanmin Liu, Zhuoying Huang, Yujie Ma, Hui Li, Qi Li, Huaqing Wang
BACKGROUND: To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS: Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012...
April 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411454/synthesis-and-immunogenicity-of-pg-tb1-monovalent-glycoconjugate
#20
Xin Meng, Chuanming Ji, Chao Su, Di Shen, Yaxin Li, Peijie Dong, Ding Yuan, Mengya Yang, Song Bai, Demei Meng, Zhenchuan Fan, Yang Yang, Peng Yu, Tao Zhu
A PG-tb1 hapten from the West Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall has been efficiently synthesized and conjugated to CRM197 in a simple way as linker-equipped carbohydrate by applying squaric acid chemistry for an original neoglycoprotein, creating a potent T-dependent conjugate vaccine. The intermediate monoester can be easily purified and the degree of incorporation can be monitored by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. After administered systemically in mice without any adjuvant, the conjugate induced high antigen-specific IgG levels in serum...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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