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Vaccine conjugates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776921/determining-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-coverage-required-for-indirect-protection-against-vaccine-type-pneumococcal-carriage-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776750/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-dt-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-phase-i-trial-in-healthy-filipino-adults-and-children
#2
Maria Rosario Capeding, Samuel Teshome, Tarun Saluja, Khalid Ali Syed, Deok Ryun Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Yang Hee Kim, Jiwook Park, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Yun Chon, Sudeep Kothari, Seon-Young Yang, Dong Soo Ham, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hee-Seong Hwang, Ju-Hwan Mun, Julia Lynch, Jerome Kim, Hun Kim, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries where children aged 2-14 years bear the greatest burden. Vi polysaccharide is poorly immunogenic in children <2 years of age, and protection in adults is modest. The limitations of Vi polysaccharide vaccines can be overcome by conjugation of the Vi to a carrier protein. A typhoid conjugate vaccine composed of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) has been developed...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772538/targeting-fibroblast-activation-protein-in-cancer-prospects-and-caveats
#3
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, Michal Zubal, Lenka Kotackova, Aleksi Sedo
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase) is a serine protease with post-proline dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase enzymatic activity. FAP is upregulated in several tumor types, while its expression in healthy adult tissues is scarce. FAP molecule itself and FAP+ stromal cells play an important although probably context-dependent and tumor type-specific pathogenetic role in tumor progression. We provide an overview of FAP expression under both physiological and pathological conditions with focus on human malignancies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772472/postintroduction-study-of-cost-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccine-pcv10-from-public-sector-payer-s-perspective-in-the-state-of-santa-catarina-brazil
#4
Emil Kupek, Ilse Viertel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the routine immunization program for children younger than 5 years in Brazil by a postintroduction study. METHODS: Ecological study of prevaccine (2006-2009) versus postvaccine (2011-2014) period related the changes in mortality rate and hospitalization rate to direct cost of pneumonia treatment from the payer's perspective to estimate the cost effectiveness regarding lives saved, life-years gained, and disability-adjusted life-year for children younger than 5 years in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina...
May 14, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771596/safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-the-expec4v-jnj-63871860-vaccine-for-prevention-of-invasive-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-disease-a-phase-1-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-in-healthy-japanese-participants
#5
Megumi Inoue, Tetsuro Ogawa, Hiroshi Tamura, Yosuke Hagiwara, Yuki Saito, Darren Abbanat, Germie van den Dobbelsteen, Peter Hermans, Stefan Thoelen, Jan Poolman, Patricia Ibarra de Palacios
This Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of different doses of ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine (4-16µg Polysaccharide [PS]/serotype) in healthy Japanese participants, stratified into younger (≥20 to <50 years) or older age groups (≥50 years). Within each age group, participants were randomized to a single vaccination with 1 of 3 dose levels of ExPEC4V (4, 8 and 16 µg PS/serotype) or placebo. Safety and tolerability were the primary objectives; immunogenicity was secondary...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771109/the-therapeutic-pipeline-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#6
Lori L Burrows
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, designated by the World Health Organization as a critical priority for development of new therapeutics due to high levels of intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Other challenges include its versatility (it can persist in the environment and most strains are capable of causing disease in compromised hosts), robust efflux mechanisms that limit drug penetration, and the propensity to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. Novel therapeutics in development to prevent or treat P...
May 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#7
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765775/potential-impact-of-introducing-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-into-national-immunisation-programmes-an-economic-epidemiological-analysis-using-data-from-india
#8
Itamar Megiddo, Eili Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 105 000 child deaths in India annually. The planned introduction of the serotype-based pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is expected to avert child deaths, but the high cost of PCV relative to current vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme has been a concern. Cost-effectiveness studies from high-income countries are not readily comparable because of differences in the distribution of prevalent serotypes, population and health systems. We extended IndiaSim, our agent-based simulation model representative of the Indian population and health system, to model the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764836/subcellular-localization-of-antigen-dictates-delivery-of-cd4-t-cell-help-for-the-ctl-response-upon-therapeutic-dna-vaccination-into-the-skin
#9
Nikolina Bąbała, Astrid Bovens, Evert de Vries, Victoria Iglesias-Guimarais, Tomasz Ahrends, Matthew F Krummel, Jannie Borst, Adriaan D Bins
In a mouse model of therapeutic DNA vaccination, we studied how the subcellular localization of vaccine protein impacts antigen delivery to professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) and efficiency of CTL priming. Cytosolic, membrane-bound, nuclear, and secretory versions of ZsGreen fluorescent protein, conjugated to MHC class I and -II ovalbumin (OVA) epitopes were expressed in keratinocytes by DNA vaccination into the skin. ZsGreen-OVA versions reached B cells in the skin-draining lymph node (dLN) that proved irrelevant for CTL priming...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762678/using-statistical-anomaly-detection-models-to-find-clinical-decision-support-malfunctions
#10
Soumi Ray, Dustin S McEvoy, Skye Aaron, Thu-Trang Hickman, Adam Wright
Objective: Malfunctions in Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems occur due to a multitude of reasons, and often go unnoticed, leading to potentially poor outcomes. Our goal was to identify malfunctions within CDS systems. Methods: We evaluated 6 anomaly detection models: (1) Poisson Changepoint Model, (2) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model, (3) Hierarchical Divisive Changepoint (HDC) Model, (4) Bayesian Changepoint Model, (5) Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate (SHESD) Model, and (6) E-Divisive with Median (EDM) Model and characterized their ability to find known anomalies...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757386/impact-of-vaccine-stock-outs-on-infant-vaccination-coverage-a-hospital-based-survey-from-south-africa
#11
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755948/two-cases-of-acute-pneumococcal-purulent-arthritis
#12
Masafumi Seki, Bin Chang, Kengo Ohshima, Yuji Watanabe
We present two adult cases of pneumococcal severe arthritis one case with, and other case without pericarditis those occurred in one season. Both cases eventually recovered, and the isolated S. pneumoniae strains were serotype 12F and penicillin susceptible. The patients were not elderly and had no medical history including pneumonia and vaccination. Although S. pneumoniae is a relatively rare causative pathogen of arthritis and/or pericarditis recently, a greater number of cases may be expected as a result of serotype conversion due to the increased use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Japan...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755468/approaches-to-improve-chemically-defined-synthetic-peptide-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Brett J Hos, Elena Tondini, Sander I van Kasteren, Ferry Ossendorp
Progress made in peptide-based vaccinations to induce T-cell-dependent immune responses against cancer has invigorated the search for optimal vaccine modalities. Design of new vaccine strategies intrinsically depends on the knowledge of antigen handling and optimal epitope presentation in both major histocompatibility complex class I and -II molecules by professional antigen-presenting cells to induce robust CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses. Although there is a steady increase in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that bridges innate and adaptive immunology, many questions remain to be answered...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752315/formation-of-immune-complexes-with-a-tetanus-derived-b-cell-epitope-boosts-human-t-cell-responses-to-covalently-linked-peptides-in-an-ex-vivo-blood-loop-system
#14
Erika A K Fletcher, Wendy van Maren, Robert Cordfunke, Jasper Dinkelaar, Jeroen D C Codee, Gijs van der Marel, Cornelis J M Melief, Ferry Ossendorp, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Sara M Mangsbo
Enhancing T cell responses against both viral and tumor Ags requires efficient costimulation and directed delivery of peptide Ags into APCs. Long peptide vaccines are considered favorable vaccine moieties from a clinical perspective, as they can harbor more than one immunogenic epitope enabling treatment of a broader target population. In addition, longer peptides are not extracellularly loaded on MHC class I; rather, they require intracellular processing and will thereby be presented to T cells mainly by professional APCs, thereby avoiding the risk of tolerance induction...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752214/evaluation-of-pneumococcal-and-influenza-vaccination-coverage-in-rheumatology-patients-receiving-biological-therapy-in-a-regional-referral-hospital
#15
María Fernández-Prada, Anahy María Brandy-García, Omar Darío Rodríguez-Fonseca, Ismael Huerta-González, Federico Fernández-Noval, Carmen Martínez-Ortega
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination coverage for seasonal influenza and pneumococcus in rheumatology patients receiving biological treatment. To identify variables that predict vaccination adherence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study involved rheumatology patients who initiated biological therapy between 01/01/2016 and 12/31/2016 in a regional referral hospital. Variables included sociodemographic information, diagnostic data, treating physician, referral to the vaccine unit and vaccination against pneumococcus with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), as well as seasonal influenza (2016/17)...
May 8, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750768/dynamics-of-severe-and-non-severe-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-young-children-in-israel-following-pcv7-pcv13-introduction
#16
Daniel Glikman, Ron Dagan, Galia Barkai, Diana Averbuch, Alex Guri, Noga Givon-Lavi, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) resulted in a substantial reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. However, impact on non-severe IPD (mostly occult bacteremia) has not yet been fully elucidated.We assessed severe and non-severe IPD (SIPD and NSIPD, respectively) rate dynamics in children <5 years in Israel before and after PCV7/PCV13 implementation. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, nationwide surveillance...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748028/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-triggers-a-better-immune-response-than-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-randomized-study-by-the-swedish-cll-group
#17
Tobias Svensson, Magdalena Kättström, Ylva Hammarlund, Daniel Roth, P-O Andersson, Magnus Svensson, Ingmar Nilsson, Lars Rombo, Honar Cherif, Eva Kimby
AIM: To determine if patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) benefit from vaccination with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), Prevenar13®, compared to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), Pneumovax®, in terms of immune response. BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes substantial morbidity in patients with CLL, a group known to respond poorly to polysaccharide vaccines. Comparative studies with conjugated vaccines are lacking...
May 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746615/what-is-the-best-immunization-strategy-for-protecting-african-children-against-invasive-salmonella-disease
#18
Hyon Jin Jeon, Gi Deok Pak, Justin Im, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Amy Gassama Sow, Abdramane Soura Bassiahi, Nagla Gasmelseed, Karen H Keddy, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Frank Konings, Abraham Aseffa, John A Crump, Yun Chon, Robert F Breiman, Se Eun Park, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Hye Jin Seo, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Jason R Andrews, Ursula Panzner, Vera von Kalckreuth, Thomas F Wierzba, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Gordon Dougan, Myron M Levine, Joachim Hombach, Jerome H Kim, John D Clemens, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks
Background: The WHO recently prequalified a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), recommending its use in persons aged ≥6 months to 45 years residing in typhoid fever (TF)-endemic areas. We now need to consider how TCVs can have the greatest impact in the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Methods: The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) in 10 sub-Saharan African countries included blood culture-based surveillance in febrile people presenting at healthcare-facilities originating from defined catchment areas...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742893/synthesis-liposomal-formulation-and-immunological-evaluation-of-a-minimalistic-carbohydrate-%C3%AE-galcer-vaccine-candidate
#19
Felix Broecker, Sebastian Götze, Jonathan Hudon, Dominea C K Rathwell, Claney L Pereira, Pierre Stallforth, Anish Chakkumkal, Peter H Seeberger
Fully synthetic glycan-based vaccines hold great potential as preventive and therapeutic vaccines against infectious diseases as well as cancer. Here, we present a two-component platform based on the facile conjugation of carbohydrate antigens to α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to yield fully synthetic vaccine candidates. Formulation of a cancer-associated Tn antigen glycolipid model vaccine candidate into liposomes of different sizes and subsequent immunization of mice generated specific, high-affinity antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen with characteristics of T cell-dependent immunity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742644/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-neonates-prior-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-south-africa-2003-2008
#20
Krishnee Moodley, Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia, Cheryl Cohen, Susan Meiring, Sarona M Lengand, Linda De Gouveia, Claire von Mollendorf, Penny Crowther-Gibson, Vanessa Quan, Brian Eley, Gary Reubenson, Trusha Nana, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developing countries is poorly described. We provide a baseline description of neonatal IPD in South Africa, prior to implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009. METHODS: Data from children (age ≤ 2 years) with IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile specimen) from January 2003 - December 2008 were extracted from a national laboratory-based surveillance database...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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