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Speech acoustics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102014/phonetic-analysis-during-treatment-with-rapid-maxillary-expander
#1
E Biondi, A Bandini, L Lombardo, S Orlandi, G Siciliani, C Manfredi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible changes and/or device-related impairments in phonetic habits produced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients scheduled for RME were divided into two groups: Group A (banded two-arm Hyrax) and Group B (banded four-arm Hyrax). Speech samples were collected at six time points, before, during and after RME removal. Acoustical analysis was performed using PRAAT and BioVoice analysis tools. Ten volunteers completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of patient's speech...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101650/speech-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-early-diagnostics-and-effects-of-medication-and-brain-stimulation
#2
REVIEW
L Brabenec, J Mekyska, Z Galaz, Irena Rektorova
Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096341/harmonic-template-neurons-in-primate-auditory-cortex-underlying-complex-sound-processing
#3
Lei Feng, Xiaoqin Wang
Harmonicity is a fundamental element of music, speech, and animal vocalizations. How the auditory system extracts harmonic structures embedded in complex sounds and uses them to form a coherent unitary entity is not fully understood. Despite the prevalence of sounds rich in harmonic structures in our everyday hearing environment, it has remained largely unknown what neural mechanisms are used by the primate auditory cortex to extract these biologically important acoustic structures. In this study, we discovered a unique class of harmonic template neurons in the core region of auditory cortex of a highly vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), across the entire hearing frequency range...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095079/the-use-of-ultrasound-in-the-study-of-articulatory-properties-of-vowels-in-clear-speech
#4
Jae Yung Song
Although the acoustic properties of clear speech have been extensively studied, its underlying articulatory details have not been well understood. The purpose of the present study is twofold: To examine the specific articulatory processes of clear speech using ultrasound and to investigate whether and how the type of listener (hard of hearing, normal hearing) and the lexical property of words (frequency) interact in the production of clear speech. To this end, we examined productions of /ɑ/, /æ/ and /u/ from 16 speakers of US English...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093574/an-acoustically-driven-vocal-tract-model-for-stop-consonant-production
#5
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to further develop a multi-tier model of the vocal tract area function in which the modulations of shape to produce speech are generated by the product of a vowel substrate and a consonant superposition function. The new approach consists of specifying input parameters for a target consonant as a set of directional changes in the resonance frequencies of the vowel substrate. Using calculations of acoustic sensitivity functions, these "resonance deflection patterns" are transformed into time-varying deformations of the vocal tract shape without any direct specification of location or extent of the consonant constriction along the vocal tract...
March 2017: Speech Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087124/the-acoustic-breathiness-index-abi-a-multivariate-acoustic-model-for-breathiness
#6
Ben Barsties V Latoszek, Youri Maryn, Ellen Gerrits, Marc De Bodt
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of voice quality is a major component of voice assessment. The aim of the present study was to develop a new multivariate acoustic model for the evaluation of breathiness. METHOD: Concatenated voice samples of continuous speech and the sustained vowel [a:] from 970 subjects with dysphonia and 88 vocally healthy subjects were perceptually judged for breathiness severity. Acoustic analyses were conducted on the same concatenated voice samples after removal of the non-voiced segments of the continuous speech sample...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077769/dog-directed-speech-why-do-we-use-it-and-do-dogs-pay-attention-to-it
#7
Tobey Ben-Aderet, Mario Gallego-Abenza, David Reby, Nicolas Mathevon
Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#8
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056148/the-interaction-of-lexical-characteristics-and-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Yi-Fang Chiu, Karen Forrest
Purpose: This study sought to investigate the interaction of speech movement execution with higher order lexical parameters. The authors examined how lexical characteristics affect speech output in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy control (HC) speakers. Method: Twenty speakers with PD and 12 healthy speakers read sentences with target words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. The formant transitions (F2 slopes) of the diphthongs in the target words were compared across lexical categories between PD and HC groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056139/children-s-use-of-semantic-context-in-perception-of-foreign-accented-speech
#10
Rachael Frush Holt, Tessa Bent
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly predictable from context. The same final words were presented in the low- and high-predictability sentences. Results: Word recognition scores were better in the high- than low-predictability contexts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054912/the-effect-of-conventional-and-transparent-surgical-masks-on-speech-understanding-in-individuals-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#11
Samuel R Atcherson, Lisa Lucks Mendel, Wesley J Baltimore, Chhayakanta Patro, Sungmin Lee, Monique Pousson, M Joshua Spann
BACKGROUND: It is generally well known that speech perception is often improved with integrated audiovisual input whether in quiet or in noise. In many health-care environments, however, conventional surgical masks block visual access to the mouth and obscure other potential facial cues. In addition, these environments can be noisy. Although these masks may not alter the acoustic properties, the presence of noise in addition to the lack of visual input can have a deleterious effect on speech understanding...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#12
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040035/infant-directed-speech-reduces-english-learning-infants-preference-for-trochaic-words
#13
Yuanyuan Wang, Christopher S Lee, Derek M Houston
Over the past couple of decades, research has established that (1) infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates speech, language, and cognitive development; and (2) infants are sensitive to the rhythmic structures in the ambient language. However, little is known about the role of IDS in infants' processing of rhythmic structures. Building on these two lines of research, whether IDS enhances infants' sensitivity to the predominant stress pattern (trochaic) in English was asked. To address this question, 9-month-old American infants were familiarized and tested with both trochaic (e...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040010/the-role-of-stress-and-word-size-in-spanish-speech-segmentation
#14
Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Beatriz Barragan, Ashley Adams, Visar Berisha, Megan McAuliffe, Robert Fromont
In English, the predominance of stressed syllables as word onsets aids lexical segmentation in degraded listening conditions. Yet it is unlikely that these findings would readily transfer to languages with differing rhythmic structure. In the current study, the authors seek to examine whether listeners exploit both common word size (syllable number) and stress cues to aid lexical segmentation in Spanish. Forty-seven Spanish-speaking listeners transcribed two-word Spanish phrases in noise. As predicted by the statistical probabilities of Spanish, error analysis revealed that listeners preferred two- and three-syllable words with penultimate stress in their attempts to parse the degraded speech signal...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039993/vowel-and-consonant-confusions-from-spectrally-manipulated-stimuli-designed-to-simulate-poor-cochlear-implant-electrode-neuron-interfaces
#15
Mishaela DiNino, Richard A Wright, Matthew B Winn, Julie Arenberg Bierer
Suboptimal interfaces between cochlear implant (CI) electrodes and auditory neurons result in a loss or distortion of spectral information in specific frequency regions, which likely decreases CI users' speech identification performance. This study exploited speech acoustics to model regions of distorted CI frequency transmission to determine the perceptual consequences of suboptimal electrode-neuron interfaces. Normal hearing adults identified naturally spoken vowels and consonants after spectral information was manipulated through a noiseband vocoder: either (1) low-, middle-, or high-frequency regions of information were removed by zeroing the corresponding channel outputs, or (2) the same regions were distorted by splitting filter outputs to neighboring filters...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039737/phonologic-and-acoustic-analysis-of%C3%A2-speech-following-glossectomy-and%C3%A2-the-effect-of-rehabilitation-on-speech-outcomes
#16
Jun Takatsu, Nobuhiro Hanai, Hidenori Suzuki, Masahiro Yoshida, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Seiya Tanaka, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Masahiko Yamamoto
PURPOSE: Changes in acoustic features in the perioperative phase for elucidating the mechanisms of articulation disorder and the effect of perioperative rehabilitation were studied prospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with 62 tongue cancer were divided into a partial glossectomy group (n = 40) and a reconstruction group (n = 22). Acoustic characteristics were analyzed during the preoperative and postoperative periods and after rehabilitation using the first and second formants of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/; the triangular vowel space area (tVSA); and the slopes of formant transitions...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035526/auditory-changes-in-acromegaly
#17
S Tabur, H Korkmaz, E Baysal, E Hatipoglu, I Aytac, E Akarsu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the changes involving auditory system in cases with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Otological examinations of 41 cases with acromegaly (uncontrolled n = 22, controlled n = 19) were compared with those of age and gender-matched 24 healthy subjects. Whereas the cases with acromegaly underwent examination with pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry for speech discrimination (SD), tympanometry, stapedius reflex evaluation and otoacoustic emission tests, the control group did only have otological examination and PTA...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029557/period-for-normalization-of-voice-acoustic-parameters-in-indian-pediatric-cochlear-implantees
#18
Jeena V Joy, Shweta Deshpande, Dr Neelam Vaid
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the duration required by children with cochlear implants to approximate the norms of voice acoustic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is retrospective. METHODS: Thirty children with cochlear implants (chronological ages ranging between 4.1 and 6.7 years) were divided into three groups, based on the postimplantation duration. Ten normal-hearing children (chronological ages ranging between 4 and 7 years) were selected as the control group...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029555/speech-adjustments-for-room-acoustics-and-their-effects-on-vocal-effort
#19
Pasquale Bottalico
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study are (1) to analyze the effects of the acoustical environment and the voice style on time dose (Dt_p) and fundamental frequency (mean f0 and standard deviation std_f0) while taking into account the effect of short-term vocal fatigue and (2) to predict the self-reported vocal effort from the voice acoustical parameters. METHODS: Ten male and ten female subjects were recorded while reading a text in normal and loud styles, in three rooms-anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant-with and without acrylic glass panels 0...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013040/affective-speech-prosody-perception-and-production-in-stroke-patients-with-left-hemispheric-damage-and-healthy-controls
#20
Joan H Leung, Suzanne C Purdy, Lynette J Tippett, Sylvia H S Leão
PURPOSE: 'Affective prosody' defines the supra-segmental features of speech that, when manipulated, can change the type and intensity of emotion conveyed by the speaker. Although the right hemisphere is predominantly linked to the processing of affective prosodic cues, existing literature also suggests that damage to the left hemisphere can result in similar deficits. This study aims to demonstrate, and add to the evidence, that patients with left-hemisphere injury experience difficulties with affective prosodic perception and production, measured via a new combination of assessments and analyses...
December 22, 2016: Brain and Language
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