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Speech acoustics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443053/perceptual-improvement-of-lexical-tones-in-infants-effects-of-tone-language-experience
#1
Feng-Ming Tsao
To learn words in a tonal language, tone-language learners should not only develop better abilities for perceiving consonants and vowels, but also for lexical tones. The divergent trend of enhancing sensitivity to native phonetic contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrast is theoretically essential to evaluate effects of listening to an ambient language on speech perception development. The loss of sensitivity in discriminating lexical tones among non-tonal language-learning infants was apparent between 6 and 12 months of age, but only few studies examined trends of differentiating native lexical tones in infancy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441230/cochlear-implantation-in-adults-with-asymmetric-hearing-loss-benefits-of-bimodal-stimulation
#2
Maarten Caspar van Loon, Cas Smits, Conrad F Smit, Erik F Hensen, Paul Merkus
OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the outcome of cochlear implantation in addition to hearing aid use in patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Seven adults with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss, i.e., less than 30% aided speech recognition in their worst hearing ear and 60 to 85% speech recognition in their best hearing ear...
April 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439232/mapping-the-speech-code-cortical-responses-linking-the-perception-and-production-of-vowels
#3
William L Schuerman, Antje S Meyer, James M McQueen
The acoustic realization of speech is constrained by the physical mechanisms by which it is produced. Yet for speech perception, the degree to which listeners utilize experience derived from speech production has long been debated. In the present study, we examined how sensorimotor adaptation during production may affect perception, and how this relationship may be reflected in early vs. late electrophysiological responses. Participants first performed a baseline speech production task, followed by a vowel categorization task during which EEG responses were recorded...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424605/white-matter-integrity-and-treatment-based-change-in-speech-performance-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Karen Chenausky, Julius Kernbach, Andrea Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We investigated the relationship between imaging variables for two language/speech-motor tracts and speech fluency variables in 10 minimally verbal (MV) children with autism. Specifically, we tested whether measures of white matter integrity-fractional anisotropy (FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and frontal aslant tract (FAT)-were related to change in percent syllable-initial consonants correct, percent items responded to, and percent syllable insertion errors (from best baseline to post 25 treatment sessions)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421015/music-and-its-inductive-power-a-psychobiological-and-evolutionary-approach-to-musical-emotions
#5
Mark Reybrouck, Tuomas Eerola
The aim of this contribution is to broaden the concept of musical meaning from an abstract and emotionally neutral cognitive representation to an emotion-integrating description that is related to the evolutionary approach to music. Starting from the dispositional machinery for dealing with music as a temporal and sounding phenomenon, musical emotions are considered as adaptive responses to be aroused in human beings as the product of neural structures that are specialized for their processing. A theoretical and empirical background is provided in order to bring together the findings of music and emotion studies and the evolutionary approach to musical meaning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420788/reconstructing-the-spectrotemporal-modulations-of-real-life-sounds-from-fmri-response-patterns
#6
Roberta Santoro, Michelle Moerel, Federico De Martino, Giancarlo Valente, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub, Elia Formisano
Ethological views of brain functioning suggest that sound representations and computations in the auditory neural system are optimized finely to process and discriminate behaviorally relevant acoustic features and sounds (e.g., spectrotemporal modulations in the songs of zebra finches). Here, we show that modeling of neural sound representations in terms of frequency-specific spectrotemporal modulations enables accurate and specific reconstruction of real-life sounds from high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response patterns in the human auditory cortex...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418532/auditory-environment-across-the-life-span-of-cochlear-implant-users-insights-from-data-logging
#7
Tobias Busch, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96 years). They covered over 2.4 million hr of implant use and indicated how much time the CI users had spent in various acoustical environments...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412598/effect-of-two-isolated-vocal-facilitating-techniques-glottal-fry-and-yawn-sigh-on-the-phonation-of-female-speech-language-pathology-students-a-pilot-study
#8
I Meerschman, E D'haeseleer, T Catry, B Ruigrok, S Claeys, K Van Lierde
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two isolated vocal facilitating techniques, glottal fry and yawn-sigh, on the phonation of vocally healthy female speech-language pathology (SLP) students. STUDY DESIGN: A multigroup pretest-posttest design was used. METHODS: A group of thirty-six healthy female SLP students with a mean age of 18.1 years were assigned into three groups: a glottal fry group (practicing the facilitating technique glottal fry across 18 weeks, n=12), a yawn-sigh group (practicing the facilitating technique yawn-sigh across 18 weeks, n=12) and a control group (receiving no facilitating techniques, n=12)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412441/noise-robust-cortical-tracking-of-attended-speech-in-real-world-acoustic-scenes
#9
Søren Asp Fuglsang, Torsten Dau, Jens Hjortkjær
Selectively attending to one speaker in a multi-speaker scenario is thought to synchronize low-frequency cortical activity to the attended speech signal. In recent studies, reconstruction of speech from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data has been used to decode which talker a listener is attending to in a two-talker situation. It is currently unclear how this generalizes to more complex sound environments. Behaviorally, speech perception is robust to the acoustic distortions that listeners typically encounter in everyday life, but it is unknown whether this is mirrored by a noise-robust neural tracking of attended speech...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409649/lexical-stress-contrast-marking-in-fluent-and-non-fluent-aphasia-in-spanish-the-relationship-between-acoustic-cues-and-compensatory-strategies
#10
Lorraine Baqué
This study sought to investigate stress production in Spanish by patients with Broca's (BA) and conduction aphasia (CA) as compared to controls. Our objectives were to assess whether: a) there were many abnormal acoustic correlates of stress as produced by patients, b) these abnormalities had a phonetic component and c) ability for articulatory compensation for stress marking was preserved. The results showed abnormal acoustic values in both BA and CA's productions, affecting not only duration but also F0 and intensity cues, and an interaction effect of stress pattern and duration on intensity cubes in BA, but not in CA or controls...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406848/clinical-validation-of-a-sound-processor-upgrade-in-direct-acoustic-cochlear-implant-subjects
#11
Eugen Kludt, Christiane D'hondt, Thomas Lenarz, Hannes Maier
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the investigation were to evaluate the effect of a sound processor upgrade on the speech reception threshold in noise and to collect long-term safety and efficacy data after 2½ to 5 years of device use of direct acoustic cochlear implant (DACI) recipients. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed as a mono-centric, prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients implanted with a direct acoustic cochlear implant...
April 14, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406683/evaluating-the-sources-and-functions-of-gradiency-in-phoneme-categorization-an-individual-differences-approach
#12
Efthymia C Kapnoula, Matthew B Winn, Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards, Bob McMurray
During spoken language comprehension listeners transform continuous acoustic cues into categories (e.g., /b/ and /p/). While long-standing research suggests that phonetic categories are activated in a gradient way, there are also clear individual differences in that more gradient categorization has been linked to various communication impairments such as dyslexia and specific language impairments (Joanisse, Manis, Keating, & Seidenberg, 2000; López-Zamora, Luque, Álvarez, & Cobos, 2012; Serniclaes, Van Heghe, Mousty, Carré, & Sprenger-Charolles, 2004; Werker & Tees, 1987)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403279/acoustic-analysis-of-speech-intonation-pattern-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Ana Gabriela Olivati, Francisco Baptista Assumpção, Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze prosodic elements of speech segments of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and compare with the control group, using an acoustic analysis. Methods: Speech recordings were performed with a sample of individuals with ASD (n = 19) and with typical development (n = 19) of the male gender, age range: 8-33 years. The prosody questionnaire ALIB (Brazilian Linguistic Atlas) was used as script, which contains interrogative, affirmative and imperative sentences...
April 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397801/english-phonology-and-an-acoustic-language-universal
#14
Yoshitaka Nakajima, Kazuo Ueda, Shota Fujimaru, Hirotoshi Motomura, Yuki Ohsaka
Acoustic analyses of eight different languages/dialects had revealed a language universal: Three spectral factors consistently appeared in analyses of power fluctuations of spoken sentences divided by critical-band filters into narrow frequency bands. Examining linguistic implications of these factors seems important to understand how speech sounds carry linguistic information. Here we show the three general categories of the English phonemes, i.e., vowels, sonorant consonants, and obstruents, to be discriminable in the Cartesian space constructed by these factors: A factor related to frequency components above 3,300 Hz was associated only with obstruents (e...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395561/acoustic-and-perceptual-effects-of-magnifying-interaural-difference-cues-in-a-simulated-binaural-hearing-aid
#15
Tobias de Taillez, Giso Grimm, Birger Kollmeier, Tobias Neher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of an algorithm designed to enhance or magnify interaural difference cues on speech signals in noisy, spatially complex conditions using both technical and perceptual measurements. To also investigate the combination of interaural magnification (IM), monaural microphone directionality (DIR), and binaural coherence-based noise reduction (BC). DESIGN: Speech-in-noise stimuli were generated using virtual acoustics. A computational model of binaural hearing was used to analyse the spatial effects of IM...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395319/speech-rate-normalization-and-phonemic-boundary-perception-in-cochlear-implant-users
#16
Brittany N Jaekel, Rochelle S Newman, Matthew J Goupell
Purpose: Normal-hearing (NH) listeners rate normalize, temporarily remapping phonemic category boundaries to account for a talker's speech rate. It is unknown if adults who use auditory prostheses called cochlear implants (CI) can rate normalize, as CIs transmit degraded speech signals to the auditory nerve. Ineffective adjustment to rate information could explain some of the variability in this population's speech perception outcomes. Method: Phonemes with manipulated voice-onset-time (VOT) durations were embedded in sentences with different speech rates...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394938/words-from-spontaneous-conversational-speech-can-be-recognized-with-human-like-accuracy-by-an-error-driven-learning-algorithm-that-discriminates-between-meanings-straight-from-smart-acoustic-features-bypassing-the-phoneme-as-recognition-unit
#17
Denis Arnold, Fabian Tomaschek, Konstantin Sering, Florence Lopez, R Harald Baayen
Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%), without making use of phone or word form representations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389383/flexible-rapid-and-automatic-neocortical-word-form-acquisition-mechanism-in-children-as-revealed-by-neuromagnetic-brain-response-dynamics
#18
Eino Partanen, Alina Leminen, Stine de Paoli, Anette Bundgaard, Osman Skjold Kingo, Peter Krøjgaard, Yury Shtyrov
Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored...
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384803/a-diagnostic-marker-to-discriminate-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-from-speech-delay-ii-validity-studies-of-the-pause-marker
#19
Lawrence D Shriberg, Edythe A Strand, Marios Fourakis, Kathy J Jakielski, Sheryl D Hall, Heather B Karlsson, Heather L Mabie, Jane L McSweeny, Christie M Tilkens, David L Wilson
Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and neurogenetic CAS, adult-onset apraxia of speech and primary progressive apraxia of speech, and idiopathic speech delay. Results: Adjusted for questionable specificity disagreements with a pediatric Mayo Clinic diagnostic standard, the estimated sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of the PM were 86...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384779/a-diagnostic-marker-to-discriminate-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-from-speech-delay-i-development-and-description-of-the-pause-marker
#20
Lawrence D Shriberg, Edythe A Strand, Marios Fourakis, Kathy J Jakielski, Sheryl D Hall, Heather B Karlsson, Heather L Mabie, Jane L McSweeny, Christie M Tilkens, David L Wilson
Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical utility of a diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech, including evaluation of the present proposal. An overview is given of the Speech Disorders Classification System, including extensions completed in the same approximately 3-year period in which the PM was developed...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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