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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653569/the-mutable-vaccine-for-mutable-viruses
#1
Marilia Cascalho, Samuel J Balin, Jeffrey L Platt
Mutable viruses, such as HIV, pose difficult obstacles to prevention and/or control by vaccination. Mutable viruses rapidly diversify in populations and in individuals, impeding development of effective vaccines. We devised the 'mutable vaccine' to appropriate the properties of mutable viruses that undermine conventional strategies. The vaccine consists of a DNA construct encoding viral antigen and regulatory sequences that upon delivery to B cells target the enzymatic apparatus of 'somatic hypermutation' causing the construct to mutate one million-times baseline rates and allowing production and presentation of antigen variants...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652020/development-of-a-realtime-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-influenza-a-h2-viruses
#2
Komissarov Andrey, Fadeev Artem, Kosheleva Anna, Grudinin Mikhail
Influenza and other acute respiratory infections are of great concern for public health, causing excessive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Influenza virus A(H2N2), which caused a pandemic of so called "Asian flu" in 1957 was expelled from the human population by the new pandemic virus subtype H3N2 in 1968, however, influenza A(H2) viruses continue to circulate in wild birds and poultry. The lack of immunity in human population and the continued circulation of influenza A(H2) among animals makes emergence of a new pandemic virus possible...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650722/optimized-dna-vaccine-enhanced-by-adjuvant-il28b-induces-protective-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#3
Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Yongqing Xu, Zeqiang Zhang, Rui Hua, Wei Liu, Chunlai Jiang, Yan Chen, Wenying Yang, Wei Kong
Antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccines. To optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gD2, we developed the gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. The gD2 and gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gD2ΔUL25 than by gD2. Therefore, gD2ΔUL25 was chosen to evaluate further using the IL28B adjuvant...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647845/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-vaccines-for-protecting-shrimp-against-viral-infection
#4
REVIEW
Shuying Feng, Chen Wang, Shu Hu, Qiongya Wu, Aifang Li
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been extensively investigated since the white spot disease outbreak in shrimp in 1990. These investigations have mainly focused on determining the function of viral structural proteins, and on utilizing the envelope proteins as subunit vaccines to protect the host. These studies have shown that a WSSV vaccine can be a practical and effective approach for controlling WSSV infection. The development of such a vaccine has become an intense focus of research in the field. This research has resulted in significant progress in the development of WSSV vaccines...
June 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#5
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646094/immune-mediated-effects-targeting-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-syngeneic-replicon-cell-transplantation-mouse-model
#6
Sepideh Levander, Fredrik Holmström, Lars Frelin, Gustaf Ahlén, Daniel Rupp, Gang Long, Ralf Bartenschlager, Matti Sällberg
OBJECTIVE: HCV is characterised by its ability to establish chronic infection in hepatocytes and to replicate in the presence of an inflammation. We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. DESIGN: A total of 5 million H-2(b) positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2(b)-restricted mice...
June 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645564/immunotherapy-holds-the-key-to-cancer-treatment-and-prevention-in-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-cmmrd-syndrome
#7
Harm Westdorp, Sigrid Kolders, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, I Jolanda M de Vries, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Gerty Schreibelt
Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#8
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644608/targeting-cpg-adjuvant-to-lymph-node-via-dextran-conjugate-enhances-anti-tumor-immunotherapy
#9
Weidong Zhang, Myunggi An, Jingchao Xi, Haipeng Liu
Nucleic acids based adjuvants recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) are potent immune system stimulants that can augment the anti-tumor immune responses in an antigen-specific manner. However, their clinical uses as vaccine adjuvants are limited primarily due to lack of accumulation in the lymph nodes, the anatomic sites where the immune responses are initiated. Here, we showed that chemical conjugation of type B CpG DNA, a TLR9 agonist to dextran polymer dramatically enhanced CpG's lymph node accumulation in mice...
June 23, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643547/rabies%C3%A2-%C3%A2-epidemiology-pathogenesis-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-a-comprehensive-review
#10
Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Mani Saminathan, Sanjay Kapoor, G B Manjunatha Reddy, Shibani Panda, Kuldeep Dhama
Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642849/aim2-co-immunization-with-vp1-is-associated-with-increased-memory-cd8-t-cells-and-mounts-long-lasting-protection-against-coxsackievirus-b3-challenge
#11
Liang Yin, Dafei Chai, Yan Yue, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
The recurrent Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection is the most important cause of intractable myocarditis which often leads to chronic myocarditis and even dilated cardiomyopathy. Therefore, enhanced DNA vaccines capable of memory CD8 T cells are essential for long-lasting immunological protection against CVB3 infection. In this study, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) was used as an adjuvant to enhance the induction of memory CD8 T cells elicited by VP1 (viral capsid protein 1) vaccine. Mice were intramuscularly injected with 50 μg AIM2 plasmid and equal amount of VP1 plasmid (pAIM2/pVP1) vaccine 4 times at 2 week-intervals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#12
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639100/sting-mediated-dna-sensing-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
While STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) has been shown to be essential for cytosolic DNA-triggered innate immune activation, accumulated evidence obtained from various studies suggested that an intrinsic relevance of STING-associated signaling in tumorigenesis can be observed. Also, several clinical trials using immunostimulatory adjuvants, particularly agonistic as well as non-agonistic ligands for STING, have revealed their therapeutic potential not only as vaccine adjuvants but also as anti-tumor agents...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634751/herpesviral-vectors-and-their-application-in-oncolytic-therapy-vaccination-and-gene-transfer
#14
REVIEW
Susanne M Bailer, Christina Funk, André Riedl, Zsolt Ruzsics
Herpesviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrate cells. Their high potential cloning capacity and the lifelong persistence of their genomes in various host cells make them attractive platforms for vector-based therapy. In this review, we would like to highlight recent advances of three major areas of herpesvirus vector development and application: (i) oncolytic therapy, (ii) recombinant vaccines, and (iii) large capacity gene transfer vehicles.
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634010/lamp-1-chimeric-dna-vaccines-enhance-the-antibody-response-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#15
Iang Rondón-Barragán, Reiko Nozaki, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo
DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633645/generation-of-populations-of-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-cells-using-dcs-transfected-with-dna-construct-encoding-her2-neu-tumor-antigen-epitopes
#16
Maria Kuznetsova, Julia Lopatnikova, Julia Khantakova, Rinat Maksyutov, Amir Maksyutov, Sergey Sennikov
BACKGROUND: Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient's body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered the main effectors in cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Approaches based on antigen presentation to CTLs by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently being intensively studied, because DCs are more efficient in tumor antigen presentation to T cells through their initiation of strong specific antitumor immune responses than other types of antigen-presenting cells...
June 20, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633549/an-update-on-zika-vaccine-developments
#17
Anna Durbin, Annelies Wilder-Smith
The devastating consequences of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection led to a global response directed toward a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ZIKV and to efforts at vaccine development. As a result, there are currently 45 ZIKV vaccine candidates in development. Areas covered: Both traditional (purified inactivated, live attenuated, viral-vectored, recombinant sub-unit) and novel (DNA, self-replicating RNA, mRNA) vaccine platforms are being utilized. For emergency use, vaccines that are appropriate for women of child-bearing age (including pregnant women) are being developed...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630385/low-dose-of-lenalidomide-enhances-nk-cell-activity-possible-implication-as-an-adjuvant
#18
Kiandokht Borhani, Taravat Bamdad, Tayebeh Hashempour
BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide, a synthetic immunomodulatory drug, has a wide range of features including anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative properties. To date, researchers have shown that lenalidomide is capable of ameliorating the immune system factors and antitumor responses. Most researchers have reported that lenalidomide enhances the immune response in certain cancer patients through several pathways including the stimulation of Natural Killer cells; notwithstanding, it is still crucial to investigate the effect of lenalidomide on the activity of NK cell cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#19
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629460/interaction-between-pasteurella-multocida-b-2-and-its-derivatives-with-bovine-aortic-endothelial-cell-baec
#20
Nuriqmaliza M Kamal, M Zamri-Saad, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Sarah Othman
BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida B:2 causes bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), leading to rapid fatalities in cattle and buffaloes. An attenuated derivative of P. multocida B:2 GDH7, was previously constructed through mutation of the gdhA gene and proved to be an effective live attenuated vaccine for HS. Currently, only two potential live attenuated vaccine candidates for HS are being reported; P. multocida B:2 GDH7 and P. multocida B:2 JRMT12. This study primarily aims to investigate the potential of P...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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