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DNA vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546518/safety-immunogenicity-and-cross-species-protection-of-a-plasmid-dna-encoding-plasmodium-falciparum-sera5-polypeptide-microbial-epitopes-and-chemokine-genes-in-mice-and-olive-baboons
#1
Nyamongo Onkoba, Ruth M Mumo, Horace Ochanda, Charles Omwandho, Hastings S Ozwara, Thomas G Egwang
Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of strain-transcending malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species efficacy ofPlasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of Bacille-Calmette Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES plasmid vector backbone...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543299/low-occurrence-of-hbsag-but-high-frequency-of-transient-occult-hbv-infection-in-vaccinated-and-hbig-administered-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#2
Shan Zhou, Tingting Li, Jean-Pierre Allain, Bin Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li
The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3 to 36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542275/combination-of-the-immunization-with-the-sequence-close-to-the-consensus-sequence-and-two-dna-prime-plus-one-vlp-boost-generate-h5-hemagglutinin-specific-broad-neutralizing-antibodies
#3
Guiqin Wang, Renfu Yin, Paul Zhou, Zhuang Ding
Hemagglutinin (HA) head has long been considered to be able to elicit only a narrow, strain-specific antibody response as it undergoes rapid antigenic drift. However, we previously showed that a heterologous prime-boost strategy, in which mice were primed twice with DNA encoding HA and boosted once with virus-like particles (VLP) from an H5N1 strain A/Thailand/1(KAN)-1/2004 (noted as TH DDV), induced anti-head broad cross-H5 neutralizing antibody response. To explain why TH DDV immunization could generate such breadth, we systemically compared the neutralization breadth and potency between TH DDV sera and immune sera elicited by TH DDD (three times of DNA immunizations), TH VVV (three times of VLP immunizations), TH DV (one DNA prime plus one VLP boost) and TK DDV (plasmid DNA and VLP derived from another H5N1 strain, A/Turkey/65596/2006)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541628/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-and-attribution-to-cervical-cancer-and-precancerous-lesions-in-a-rural-chinese-population
#4
Xue Lian Zhao, Shang Ying Hu, Qian Zhang, Li Dong, Rui Mei Feng, Ross Han, Fang Hui Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genotype distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and its attribution to different grades of cervical lesions in rural China, which will contribute to type-specific HPV screening tests and the development of new polyvalent HPV vaccines among the Chinese population. METHODS: One thousand two hundred ninety-two subjects were followed based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study I (SPOCCS-I), and screened by HPV DNA testing (hybrid capture® 2 [HC2]), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and if necessary, directed or random colposcopy-guided quadrant biopsies...
July 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#5
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537062/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-and-impact-on-the-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-of-a-conserved-region-vaccine-mva-hivconsv-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-subjects
#6
REVIEW
Gemma Hancock, Sara Morón-López, Jakub Kopycinski, Maria C Puertas, Eleni Giannoulatou, Annie Rose, Maria Salgado, Emma-Jo Hayton, Alison Crook, Catharine Morgan, Brian Angus, Fabian Chen, Hongbing Yang, Javier Martinez-Picado, Tomas Hanke, Lucy Dorrell
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines may be key components of a curative strategy for HIV-1. We investigated whether a novel immunogen, HIVconsv, designed to re-direct T cell responses to conserved viral epitopes, could impact the HIV-1 reservoir in chronic antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated subjects when delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). METHODS: Nineteen virologically suppressed individuals were randomized to receive vaccinations with MVA.HIVconsv (5.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units, pfu, n = 8; 2...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536346/taking-a-stab-at-cancer-oncolytic-virus-mediated-anti-cancer-vaccination-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Amelia Sadie Aitken, Dominic Guy Roy, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault
Vaccines have classically been used for disease prevention. Modern clinical vaccines are continuously being developed for both traditional use as well as for new applications. Typically thought of in terms of infectious disease control, vaccination approaches can alternatively be adapted as a cancer therapy. Vaccines targeting cancer antigens can be used to induce anti-tumour immunity and have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy both pre-clinically and clinically. Various approaches now exist and further establish the tremendous potential and adaptability of anti-cancer vaccination...
January 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536329/-multilateral-strategies-utilizing-exosomes-for-cancer-therapy
#8
Nao Nishida-Aoki, Takahiro Ochiya
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532188/differential-amplification-of-marek-s-disease-cvi988-vaccine-and-of-wild-type-isolates-from-organs-of-commercial-chickens-using-single-or-duplexed-probes-in-real-time-pcr
#9
Irit Davidson, Amira Natour-Altoury, Israel Raibstein, Yaad Dahan
The DIVA test, based on the MDV pp38 gene was described by Baigent et al. (2016), using similar primers and alternate probes for virulent MDV-1 and the vaccine CVI988 virus. We now explored the assay applicability for commercial vaccines and for DNAs of commercial chickens, as former study employed tissue cultured prototype MDV strains and chicken tissue from experimental infection trials. DNA of chicken visceral organs and feathers of either vaccinated, or naturally-infected with virulent MDV-1 wild-type viruses was used for DIVA-PCR real-time PCR...
May 22, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#10
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530151/microneedles-for-vaccine-delivery-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#11
Chong In Shin, Seong Dong Jeong, N Sanoj Rejinold, Yeu-Chun Kim
Vaccine delivery to the skin using conventional needles is associated with needle-stick injuries and needle-phobia, which are all major obstacles to vaccination. The development of microneedles has enabled to overcome these limitations and as a result viral, DNA and bacterial vaccines have been studied for the delivery into the skin. Research has shown the superiority of microneedle vaccination over conventional needles in terms of immunogenicity, vaccine stability and dose-sparing abilities in animals and humans...
June 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527491/development-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-targeting-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-and-heat-stable-enterotoxins
#12
Chengru Zhu, Prashanth Setty, Edgar C Boedeker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by the production of heat labile (LT) and/or heat stable (ST) toxins, are major causes of diarrhea in animals, children in developing countries and to travelers. No broadly protective ETEC vaccine is available, largely because of the difficulty in inducing immunity to the small ST molecule. To take advantage of the demonstration (Liu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2013, 2010) that genetically produced fusions of mutant ST with LT subunits can induce effective immunity against both toxins, we engineered a live attenuated vaccine vector strain of E...
April 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527408/subcellular-localization-based-comparative-study-on-radioresistant-bacteria-a-novel-approach-to-mine-proteins-involve-in-radioresistance
#13
Divya Vishambra, Malay Srivastava, Kamal Dev, Varun Jaiswal
Radioresistant bacteria (RRB) are among the most radioresistant organisms and has a unique role in evolution. Along with the evolutionary role, radioresistant organisms play important role in paper industries, bioremediation, vaccine development and possibility in anti-aging and anti-cancer treatment. The study of radiation resistance in RRB was mainly focused on cytosolic mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanism, cell cleansing activity and high antioxidant activity. Although it was known that protein localized on outer areas of cell play role in resistance towards extreme condition but the mechanisms/proteins localized on the outer area of cells are not studied for radioresistance...
May 10, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523396/clostridium-perfringens-beta-toxin-dna-prime-protein-boost-elicits-enhanced-protective-immune-response-in-mice
#14
Amit Kumar Solanki, Bharati Bhatia, Himani Kaushik, Sachin K Deshmukh, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homologous booster...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523298/role-of-genetic-polymorphism-in-nutritional-supplementation-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#15
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Bernard Weber, Silviu Dumitru Păun
Genetic-guided nutritional supplementation therapy in personalized medicine is the type of treatment that prevents and acts against errors during the copying process of a cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), mistakes that lead to diversification in the DNA sequence at certain locations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Positive results are quickly achieved using one of the four types of therapy. These types are: personalized, when individual human genetic variations drive individual treatment, preventive, with a tailored healthcare strategy and therapeutic preventive drugs and vaccines, participatory, when empowered patients make informed choices and take responsibility of their own health and predictive, using a proactive approach to health and medicine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#16
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#17
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516859/recombinant-esterase-from-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-in-dna-and-subunit-recombinant-vaccines-partially-protects-mice-against-challenge
#18
Alexandre Antunes Brum, Andrea de Fatima Silva Rezende, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante, Thais Collares, Karine Begnine, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Tiago Veiras Collares, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Vasco Azevedo, Anderson Santos, Ricardo Wagner Portela, Sibele Borsuk
PURPOSE: We tested the efficacy of the esterase encoded by cp1002_RS09720 from Corynebacteriumpseudotuberculosis in recombinant subunit and DNA caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) vaccines. This target was predicted as one of the best CLA vaccine candidates by mature epitope density analysis. METHODOLOGY: Gene cp1002_RS09720 was cloned into two different vectors (pAE for subunit vaccine and pTARGET for DNA vaccine). Four groups of 15 mice each were immunized with the recombinant esterase rCP09720 associated with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (G1), pTARGET/cp09720 DNA vaccine (G2), a naked pTARGET (G3) or PBS as a negative control (G4)...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515303/spontaneous-and-vaccine-induced-clearance-of-mus-musculus-papillomavirus-type-1-mmupv1-muspv1-infection
#19
Rosie T Jiang, Joshua W Wang, Shiwen Peng, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chenguang Wang, Fabiana Cannella, Yung-Nien Chang, Raphael P Viscidi, Simon R A Best, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden
Mus musculus Papillomavirus1 (MmuPV1/MusPV1) induces persistent papillomas in immunodeficient mice but not common laboratory strains. To facilitate study of immune control, we sought an outbred and immune competent laboratory mouse strain in which persistent papillomas could be established. We found that challenge of SKH1 mice (Crl:SKH1-Hrhr) by scarification on their tail with MmuPV1 resulted in three clinical outcomes: 1) persistent (>2 months) papillomas (∼20%), 2) transient papillomas that spontaneously regress typically within 2 months (∼15%), 3) no visible papillomas and viral clearance (∼65%)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515295/natural-variation-of-epstein-barr-virus-genes-proteins-and-pri-mirna-revised
#20
Samantha Correia, Anne Palser, Claudio Elgueta Karstegl, Jaap M Middeldorp, Octavia Ramayanti, Jeffrey I Cohen, Allan Hildesheim, Maria Dolores Fellner, Joelle Wiels, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Paul J Farrell
Viral gene sequences from an enlarged set of about 200 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains including many primary isolates have been used to investigate variation in key viral genetic regions, particularly LMP1, Zp, gp350, EBNA1 and the BART miRNA cluster 2. Determination of type 1 and type 2 EBV in saliva samples from people from a wide range of geographic and ethnic backgrounds demonstrates a small percentage of healthy white Caucasian British people carrying predominantly type 2 EBV. Linkage of Zp and gp350 variants to type 2 EBV is likely to be due to their genes being adjacent to the EBNA3 locus, which is one of the major determinants of the type 1/type 2 distinction...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
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