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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436552/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#1
REVIEW
M H Hyun, Y-S Lee, J H Kim, J H Je, Y J Yoo, J E Yeon, K S Byun
BACKGROUND: Preventing mother to child transmission of chronic hepatitis B infection in the setting of a high maternal viral load is challenging. The idea has emerged from antepartum tenofovir treatment with combination immunoprophylaxis. AIMS: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir to prevent mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through August 16, 2016...
April 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#2
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436064/the-changing-landscape-of-cervical-screening-what-does-the-future-hold-for-primary-care
#3
L Marlow, J Waller
The landscape of cervical cancer prevention is changing in many countries thanks to the introduction of vaccination against high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the incorporation of HPV DNA testing into cervical screening algorithms. In addition to this, uptake of screening is falling year on year in the UK and elsewhere. These factors present challenges and opportunities for health professionals working in primary care-in terms of communicating programmatic changes to women; responding to questions about the meaning and implications of HPV test results; and delivering interventions to increase screening uptake...
April 23, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434892/effective-humoral-immune-response-from-a-h1n1-dna-vaccine-delivered-to-the-skin-by-microneedles-coated-with-plga-based-cationic-nanoparticles
#4
Hae-Yong Seok, Jin Yong No, Dae Yong Lee, Sung Jin Kim, Chang Seon Song, Yeu Chun Kim
Intradermal DNA vaccination is a promising method of immunization that overcomes some practical drawbacks of conventional intramuscular vaccinations. However, it is difficult to deliver DNA vaccines to target cells in the skin and polyplexes. This study outlines the development of an intradermal pH1N1 DNA vaccine delivery platform using microneedles (MNs) coated with a polyplex containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid/polyethyleneimine (PLGA/PEI) nanoparticles (NPs). Stainless steel MNs with enhanced hydrophilicity have been manufactured by silanization, which improves coating efficiency...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433327/replacing-antibodies-with-modified-dna-aptamers-in-vaccine-potency-assays
#5
Jeremiah J Trausch, Mary Shank-Retzlaff, Thorsten Verch
Vaccine in vitro potency assays are vital regulatory tests that are used to confirm the presence and concentration of an antigen of interest in a form that directly or indirectly relates to protective activity in patients. Current assays come in many forms, but they almost exclusively use antibody reagents for selective detection of the target antigen. Antibodies provide specific recognition of vaccine antigens but also exhibit drawbacks such as stability limitations, cost, and lot-to-lot variation, which can make it challenging to maintain the reagent throughout the lifetime of the vaccine...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#6
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428646/-hpv-vaccination-active-offer-in-an-italian-region
#7
Elisa Terracciano, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Silvia Aquilani, Anna Maria Aversa, Giuseppina Bartolomei, Maria Gabriella Calenda, Raffaele Catapano, Silvio Compagno, Piera Della Rovere, Angelo Fraioli, Roberto Ieraci, Daniela Reggiani, Stefano Sgricia, Antonietta Spadea, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428305/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-plasmid-free-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-lactis-strain-lmg-19460
#8
Inês N Silva, Sofia Duarte, Leonilde M Moreira, Gabriel A Monteiro
We report here the draft genome sequence of the plasmid-free Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain LMG 19460. This strain has potential application for a cost-effective production of food-grade plasmid DNA to use in DNA vaccines, produce recombinant proteins, and be used as a mucosal delivery vehicle of therapeutic molecules.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#9
Pietro Lampertico, Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry L A Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426720/a-new-model-mimicking-persistent-hbv-e-antigen-negative-infection-using-covalently-closed-circular-dna-in-immunocompetent-mice
#10
Lei Wang, Min Cao, Qing Lu Wei, Zhong Hua Zhao, Qin Xiang, Hui Juan Wang, Hua Tang Zhang, Guo Qi Lai
Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA). The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426153/a-non-pathogenic-recombinant-leishmania-expressing-lipophosphoglycan-3-against-experimental-infection-with-leishmania-infantum
#11
Leila Pirdel, Safar Farajnia
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin and affects primarily children and immunosuppressed individuals. Various strategies of vaccination have so far been examined by either protein or DNA without achievable complete protection against the disease. The live non-pathogenic lizard parasite, Leishmania tarentolae, expressing elected Leishmania antigens has recently provided a promising new approach as a safe and effective live vaccine candidate to prevent leishmaniasis...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425860/a-novel-recombinant-multi-epitope-vaccine-could-induce-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Yahong Wu, Wenjie Zhai, Meng Sun, Zhe Zou, Xiuman Zhou, Guodong Li, Zhongyi Yan, Yuanming Qi, Yanfeng Gao
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against various tumor antigens play an important role in elimination of tumor cells. To develop therapeutic vaccines that can induce specific immune response, we designed a novel recombinant multiepitope vaccine YL66 which consists of HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes from two widely expressed tumor antigen cyclooxygenase-2 and MAGE-4, linked with membrane permeable Tat-PTD and the universal T helper epitope. The DNA fragment of YL66 was cloned into pGEX-4T-2-YL66 and pcDNA3.1(+)-YL66, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423693/enhanced-anti-tumor-therapeutic-efficacy-of-dna-vaccine-by-fusing-the-e7-gene-to-baff-in-treating-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer
#13
Chao-Chih Wu, Fang-Cih Wu, Yun-Tin Hsu, Yu-Chia Hsiao, Yuh-Cheng Yang, C Allen Chang, Chih-Long Chang
B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family that not only stimulates B and T cells but also counteracts immune tolerance. BAFF is also a type II membrane protein, which is secreted through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi apparatus pathway. Fusing an antigen to BAFF might enhance the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. These characteristics represent an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of DNA vaccines. Therefore, we fused BAFF to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 as a DNA vaccine and evaluated its antitumor effects...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419134/development-of-mismatch-amplification-mutation-assays-for-the-differentiation-of-ms1-vaccine-strain-from-wild-type-mycoplasma-synoviae-and-ms-h-vaccine-strains
#14
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga Mária Sulyok, Dénes Grózner, Katinka Bekő, Ádám Dán, Zoltán Szabó, Miklós Gyuranecz
Mycoplasma synoviae is an economically significant pathogen in the poultry industry, inducing respiratory disease and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys, and eggshell apex abnormality in chickens. Eradication, medication and vaccination are the options for controlling M. synoviae infection. Currently there are two commercial, live, attenuated vaccines available against M. synoviae: the temperature sensitive MS-H vaccine strain and the NAD independent MS1 vaccine strain. Differentiation of vaccine strains from field isolates is essential during vaccination and eradication programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417300/a-live-gi-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-virus-prv-protects-weaned-piglets-against-lethal-variant-prv-challenge
#15
Yue Yin, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaowan Liu, Ping Li, Fan Yang, Jun Zhao, Yi Fan, Xiangang Sun, Ling Zhu
Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has led to frequent outbreaks of PRV infection among Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in Chinese swine farms and caused high mortality in pigs of all age since late 2011. Here, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP) based on PRV variant strain (PRV-XJ) through homologous DNA recombination. Compared to parental strain, rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP showed similar growth kinetics in vitro. Its safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in weaned piglets. Our results showed that piglets immunized with rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP did not exhibit any clinical symptoms, and a high level of gB-specific antibody was detected...
April 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416600/induction-of-an-ifn-mediated-antiviral-response-by-a-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-implications-for-vaccine-design
#16
Timothy Pepini, Anne-Marie Pulichino, Thomas Carsillo, Alicia L Carlson, Farid Sari-Sarraf, Katrin Ramsauer, Jason C Debasitis, Giulietta Maruggi, Gillis R Otten, Andrew J Geall, Dong Yu, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Carlo Iavarone
RNA-based vaccines have recently emerged as a promising alternative to the use of DNA-based and viral vector vaccines, in part because of the potential to simplify how vaccines are made and facilitate a rapid response to newly emerging infections. SAM vaccines are based on engineered self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) replicons encoding an Ag, and formulated with a synthetic delivery system, and they induce broad-based immune responses in preclinical animal models. In our study, in vivo imaging shows that after the immunization, SAM Ag expression has an initial gradual increase...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414634/detection-of-the-canine-parvovirus-2c-subtype-in-australian-dogs
#17
Lucy Woolford, Paul Crocker, Hannah Bobrowski, Trevor Baker, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an important cause of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In Australia the disease has been associated with CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants. A third more recently emerged variant overseas, CPV-2c, has not been detected in surveys of the Australian dog population. In this study, we report three cases of canine parvoviral enteritis associated with CPV-2c infection; case 1 occurred in an 8-week-old puppy that died following acute hemorrhagic enteritis. Cases 2 and 3 were an 11-month-old female entire Saint Bernard and a 9-month-old male entire Siberian husky, respectively, both which had completed vaccination schedules and presented with vomiting or mild diarrhea only...
April 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413132/development-of-an-intradermal-dna-vaccine-delivery-strategy-to-achieve-single-dose-immunity-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Trevor R F Smith, Katherine Schultheis, Matthew P Morrow, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Jay R McCoy, Kevin C Yim, Karuppiah Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, David B Weiner, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Kate E Broderick
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden in infants, children and the elderly worldwide, and an effective, safe RSV vaccine remains an unmet need. Here we assess a novel vaccination strategy based on the intradermal delivery of a SynCon® DNA-based vaccine encoding engineered RSV-F antigen using a surface electroporation device (SEP) to target epidermal cells, in clinically relevant experimental models. We demonstrate the ability of this strategy to elicit robust immune responses. Importantly we demonstrate complete resistance to pulmonary infection at a single low dose of vaccine in the cotton rat RSV/A challenge model...
April 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412170/lipid-nanoparticle-systems-for-enabling-gene-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Pieter R Cullis, Michael J Hope
Genetic drugs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA, or plasmid DNA provide potential gene therapies to treat most diseases by silencing pathological genes, expressing therapeutic proteins, or through gene-editing applications. In order for genetic drugs to be used clinically, however, sophisticated delivery systems are required. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) systems are currently the lead non-viral delivery systems for enabling the clinical potential of genetic drugs. Application will be made to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2017 for approval of an LNP siRNA drug to treat transthyretin-induced amyloidosis, presently an untreatable disease...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410597/the-role-of-nuclear-localization-signal-in-parvovirus-life-cycle
#20
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Shun Chen, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded DNA genome. Usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (NLSs), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. However, several classical NLSs (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncNLSs can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. In this review, we have summarized recent research findings on parvovirus NLSs...
April 14, 2017: Virology Journal
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