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Peter W Guiden, John L Orrock
Recent evidence suggests that invasive exotic plants can provide novel habitats that alter animal behavior. However, it remains unclear whether classic animal-habitat associations that influence the spatial distribution of plant-animal interactions, such as small mammal use of downed woody debris, persist in invaded habitats. We removed an invasive exotic shrub (buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica) from 7 of 15 plots in Wisconsin. In each plot, we deployed 200 tagged Quercus rubra seeds in November 2014. After five months, tags were recovered to track spatial patterns of small mammal seed predation...
December 9, 2016: Ecology
Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Lan Zou, Yuan Xue Chen, Petri Penttinen, Qin Lan, Ke Wang, Ming Liu, Dan Peng, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiang Chen, Ke Zhao, Xiangzhong Zeng, Kai Wei Xu
Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species...
2016: PloS One
Jarlath E Nally, Zbigniew Arent, Darrell O Bayles, Richard L Hornsby, Colm Gilmore, Siobhan Regan, Allan D McDevitt, Jon Yearsley, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mark W Majewski, Patricia A Miller, Allen G Oliver, Marvin J Miller
The synthesis of a small set of beta-lactams containing isocyanate precursors is described. The release of the isocyanate precursor in model hydrolysis experiments was substantiated by trapping experiments, thus confirming that beta-lactams can be designed that are capable of releasing alternatively reactive species. Preliminary biological assessments are also briefly discussed.
December 9, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Michael L Oldham, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Jue Chen
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter essential to cellular immunity against viral infection. Some persistent viruses have evolved strategies to inhibit TAP so that they may go undetected by the immune system. The herpes simplex virus for example evades immune surveillance by blocking peptide transport with a small viral protein ICP47. In this study, we determined the structure of human TAP bound to ICP47 by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) to 4...
December 9, 2016: ELife
Keith Cutting
Most stoma flanges are made of hydrocolloid material. Hydrocolloid is a hydrophilic material that attracts water, potentially resulting in moisture becoming trapped between the flange and skin. Also, as hydrocolloids are absorbent, the material breaks down over time, and there is a risk that some of the adhesive can remain on the skin on removal. Unlike hydrocolloids, silicone comprises fully cross-linked silicone polymers whose properties have been engineered to manage moisture without breaking down (i.e. manage the transepidermal water loss (TEWL))...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Guijie Zhu, Liangliang Sun, Norman J Dovichi
We report a capillary isoelectric focusing system based on a sequential injection method for simplified chemical mobilization. This system was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with an electrokinetically pumped nanoelectrospray interface. The nanoelectrospray emitter employed an acidic sheath electrolyte. To simplify focusing and mobilization, a plug of ammonium hydroxide was first injected into the capillary, followed by a section of mixed sample and ampholyte. During focusing, the NH3 H2 O section worked as catholyte...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Hongwen Huang, Mei Liu, Jing Li, Laihao Luo, Jiangtao Zhao, Zhenlin Luo, Xiaoping Wang, Zhizhen Ye, Haiping He, Jie Zeng
We report a room-temperature colloidal synthesis of few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs with lengths over a hundred nanometers. The surfactant-directed oriented attachment growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of such CsPbBr3 QWs. Owing to the strong quantum confinement effect, the photoluminescence (PL) emission peak of few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs blue-shifted to 430 nm. The ensemble PL quantum yield (PLQY) of the few-unit-cell-thick CsPbBr3 QWs increased to 21.13% through a simple heat-treatment process...
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
Yi-Ru Lee, Te-Sheng Lin, Shu-Jung Lai, Mu-Sen Liu, Mei-Chin Lai, Nei-Li Chan
Methyltransferases play crucial roles in many cellular processes, and various regulatory mechanisms have evolved to control their activities. For methyltransferases involved in biosynthetic pathways, regulation via feedback inhibition is a commonly employed strategy to prevent excessive accumulation of the pathways' end products. To date, no biosynthetic methyltransferases have been characterized by X-ray crystallography in complex with their corresponding end product. Here, we report the crystal structures of the glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase from the halophilic archaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis (MpGSMT), which represents the first structural elucidation of the GSMT methyltransferase family...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Douglas W Agnew, Matthew D Sampson, Curtis E Moore, Arnold L Rheingold, Clifford P Kubiak, Joshua S Figueroa
To circumvent complications with redox-active ligands commonly encountered in the study of manganese electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction, we have studied the electrochemistry of the manganese mixed carbonyl/isocyanide complexes XMn(CO)3(CNAr(Dipp2))2 (X = counteranion), to evaluate the pairing effects of the counteranion and their influence over the potential necessary for metal-based reduction. The complexes described herein have been shown to act as functional analogues to the known homoleptic carbonyl manganese complexes [Mn(CO)5](n) (n = 1-, 0, 1+)...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Cheng-Yang Yue, Xiao-Wu Lei, Yong-Fang Han, Xin-Xiu Lu, Ya-Wei Tian, Jing Xu, Xiao-Fan Liu, Xin Xu
With mixed transition-metal (TM) complex, alkali-metal cations, or halogen anions as structure-directing agents, two types of two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic-organic hybrid silver bromides were prepared and structurally characterized as K[TM(2,2-bipy)3]2Ag6Br11 (TM = Ni (1), Co (2), Zn (3), Fe (4)) and [TM(2,2-bipy)3]2Ag13Br17 (TM = Ni (5), Co (6), Zn (7), Fe (8)). Compounds 1-4 feature 2D microporous anionic [Ag6Br11](5-) layers composed of [Ag3Br7] secondary building units based on AgBr4 tetrahedral units, and compounds 5-8 contain 2D [Ag13Br16](3-) layers built from the one-dimensional complex [Ag8Br12] and [Ag5Br8] chains...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Guolan Xiao, Chaoqun Ma, Dong Xing, Wenhao Hu
An enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-mercapto-β-amino esters has been developed via a rhodium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid-cocatalyzed three-component reaction of diazo compounds, thiols, and imines. This transformation is proposed to proceed through enantioselective trapping of the sulfonium ylide intermediate generated in situ from the diazo compound and thiol by the phosphoric acid-activated imine. With this method, a series of α-mercapto-β-amino esters were obtained in good yields with moderate to good stereoselectivities...
December 2, 2016: Organic Letters
Andras Bodi, Katrin Lilja Sigurdardottir, Ágúst Kvaran, Ragnar Bjornsson, Ingvar Arnason
The threshold photoelectron spectra and threshold photoionization mass spectra of 1-halogenated-1-silacyclohexanes, for the halogens X = F, Cl, Br, and I, have been obtained using synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet radiation and photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. As confirmed by a similar ionization onset and density functional theory molecular orbitals, the ionization to the ground state is dominated by electron removal from the silacyclohexane ring for X = F, Cl, and Br, and from the halogen lone pair for X = I...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ye Fan, Alex W Robertson, Xiaowei Zhang, Martin Tweedie, Yingqiu Zhou, Mark H Rummeli, Haimei Zheng, Jamie H Warner
We study the in situ electro-conductance in nanoscale electronic devices composed of suspended monolayer WS2 with metal electrodes inside an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. Monitoring the conductance changes when the device is exposed to the electron beam of 80 keV energy reveals a reversible decrease in conductivity with increasing beam current density. The response time of the electro-conductance when exposed to the electron beam is substantially faster than the recovery time when the beam is turned off...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meng-Ting Li, Yu Sun, Kai-Sen Zhao, Zhao Wang, Xin-Long Wang, Zhong-Min Su, Hai-Ming Xie
We designed and fabricated a fluorophore-containing tetradentate carboxylate ligand-based metal-organic framework (MOF) material with open and semiopen channels, which acted as the host for sulfur trapped in Li-S batteries and sensor of benzene homologues. These channels efficiently provide a π-π* conjugated matrix for the charge transfer and guest molecule trapping. The open channel ensured a much higher loading quantitative of sulfur (S content-active material, 72 wt %; electrode, 50.4 wt %) than most of the MOF/sulfur composites, while the semiopen channel possessing aromatic rings tentacles guaranteed an outstanding specific discharge capacity (1092 mA h g(-1) at 0...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Annie Ng, Zhiwei Ren, Qian Shen, Sin Hang Cheung, Huseyin Cem Gokkaya, Shu Kong So, Aleksandra B Djurišić, Yangyang Wan, Xiaojun Wu, Charles Surya
Synthesis of high quality perovskite absorber is a key factor in determining the performance of the solar cells. We demonstrate that hybrid chemical vapor deposition (HCVD) growth technique can provide high level of versatility and repeatability to ensure the optimal conditions for the growth of the perovskite films as well as potential for batch processing. It is found that the growth ambient and degree of crystallization of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) have strong impact on the defect density of MAPI. We demonstrate that HCVD process with slow postdeposition cooling rate can significantly reduce the density of shallow and deep traps in the MAPI due to enhanced material crystallization, while a mixed O2/N2 carrier gas is effective in passivating both shallow and deep traps...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cui Ye, Min Qiang Wang, Zhong Feng Gao, Ying Zhang, Jing Lei Lei, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion is extremely restricted by the electron-hole recombinant. Here, a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform has been established based on the signal amplification of click chemistry (CC) via hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for highly sensitive microRNA (miRNA) assay. In this proposal, a preferred electron donor dopamine (DA) was first assembled with designed ligation probe (probe-N3) via amidation reaction to achieve DA-coordinated signal probe (PDA-N3)...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Sandilya V B Garimella, Ahmed M Hamid, Liulin Deng, Yehia M Ibrahim, Ian K Webb, Erin S Baker, Spencer A Prost, Randolph V Norheim, Gordon A Anderson, Richard D Smith
In this work we report an approach for spatial and temporal gas-phase ion population manipulation, wherein we collapse ion distributions in ion mobility (IM) separations into tighter packets providing higher sensitivity measurements in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). We do this for ions moving from a conventional traveling wave (TW)-driven region to a region where the TW is intermittently halted or "stuttered". This approach causes the ion packets spanning a number of TW-created traveling traps (TT) to be redistributed into fewer TT, resulting in spatial compression...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Alex W Robertson, Yung-Chang Lin, Shanshan Wang, Hidetaka Sawada, Christopher S Allen, Qu Chen, Sungwoo Lee, Gun-Do Lee, Joohee Lee, Seungwu Han, Euijoon Yoon, Angus I Kirkland, Heeyeon Kim, Kazu Suenaga, Jamie H Warner
Dopants in two-dimensional dichalcogenides have a significant role in affecting electronic, mechanical, and interfacial properties. Controllable doping is desired for the intentional modification of such properties to enhance performance; however, unwanted defects and impurity dopants also have a detrimental impact, as often found for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown films. The reliable identification, and subsequent characterization, of dopants is therefore of significant importance. Here, we show that Cr and V impurity atoms are found in CVD grown MoS2 monolayer 2D crystals as single atom substitutional dopants in place of Mo...
November 22, 2016: ACS Nano
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