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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106921/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-impregnated-curtains-in-experimental-hen-houses-as-a-phlebotomine-control-tool-in-northeast-argentina
#1
M Manteca Acosta, M S Santini, A A Pérez, O D Salomón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated curtains against the entry of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) flies into experimental slatted hen houses in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Three treatments in experimental dwellings containing three chickens each were applied using, respectively, an impregnated curtain (IC), a non-impregnated curtain (NIC) and no curtain (NC). A control site without chickens (WC) was included. The study used permethrin at 0...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106443/bose-einstein-condensation-of-long-lifetime-polaritons-in-thermal-equilibrium
#2
Yongbao Sun, Patrick Wen, Yoseob Yoon, Gangqiang Liu, Mark Steger, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken West, David W Snoke, Keith A Nelson
The experimental realization of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) with atoms and quasiparticles has triggered wide exploration of macroscopic quantum effects. Microcavity polaritons are of particular interest because quantum phenomena such as BEC and superfluidity can be observed at elevated temperatures. However, polariton lifetimes are typically too short to permit thermal equilibration. This has led to debate about whether polariton condensation is intrinsically a nonequilibrium effect. Here we report the first unambiguous observation of BEC of optically trapped polaritons in thermal equilibrium in a high-Q microcavity, evidenced by equilibrium Bose-Einstein distributions over broad ranges of polariton densities and bath temperatures...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106369/sponge-like-porous-silica-nanosheets-from-soft-molecular-trapping-to-dna-delivery
#3
Qingmin Ji, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Jiao Sun, Żaneta Górecka, Nien-Chi Huang, Shan-Hui Hsu, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Jonathan P Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga
Sponge-like porous silica nanosheets having nanometer thicknesses and possess pores whose diameters are on the hundreds-of-nanometers scale have been used as a novel carrier for molecular immobilization of different guests. Enhanced properties of encapsulation were shown for drug molecules of different dimensions due to "softness" caused by the specific nanometric features of the porous structure. The encapsulating effect of the structure results in sustained and stimuli-responsive release behavior of immobilized guest molecules...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106262/phlebotomine-sandfly-ecology-on-the-indian-subcontinent-does-village-vegetation-play-a-role-in-sandfly-distribution-in-bihar-india
#4
D M Poché, R M Poché, S Mukherjee, G A Franckowiak, L N Briley, D J Somers, R B Garlapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Recently, in Bihar, India, considerable sandfly numbers have been recorded outdoors in village vegetation, which suggests that IRS may control only a portion of the population...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106154/anisotropic-hydrogen-diffusion-in-%C3%AE-zr-and-zircaloy-predicted-by-accelerated-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulations
#5
Yongfeng Zhang, Chao Jiang, Xianming Bai
This report presents an accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to compute the diffusivity of hydrogen in hcp metals and alloys, considering both thermally activated hopping and quantum tunneling. The acceleration is achieved by replacing regular KMC jumps in trapping energy basins formed by neighboring tetrahedral interstitial sites, with analytical solutions for basin exiting time and probability. Parameterized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the accelerated KMC method is shown to be capable of efficiently calculating hydrogen diffusivity in α-Zr and Zircaloy, without altering the kinetics of long-range diffusion...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106071/development-of-an-efficient-screening-system-to-identify-novel-bone-metabolism-related-genes-using-the-exchangeable-gene-trap-mutagenesis-mouse-models
#6
Syuji Kurogi, Tomohisa Sekimoto, Taro Funamoto, Tomomi Ota, Shihoko Nakamura, Takuya Nagai, Mai Nakahara, Kumiko Yoshinobu, Kimi Araki, Masatake Araki, Etsuo Chosa
Despite numerous genetic studies on bone metabolism, understanding of the specific mechanisms is lacking. We developed an efficient screening system to identify novel genes involved in bone metabolism using mutant mouse strains registered with the Exchangeable Gene Trap Clones (EGTC) database. From 1278 trap clones in the EGTC database, 52 candidate lines were selected in the first screening, determined based on "EST profile", "X-gal", "Related article", and "Novel gene". For the second screening, bone morphometric analysis, biomechanical strength analysis, bone X-gal staining, etc...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105830/improving-performance-metrics-of-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectrometry-by-selective-precursor-ejection
#7
Dustin D Holden, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Confident protein identifications derived from high-throughput bottom-up and top-down proteomics workflows depend on acquisition of thousands of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra with adequate signal-to-noise and accurate mass assignments of the fragment ions. Ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) using 193 nm photons has proven to be well-suited for activation and fragmentation of peptides and proteins in ion trap mass spectrometers, but the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is typically lower than that obtained from collisional activation methods...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105813/generation-and-trapping-of-nitrosocarbonyl-intermediates
#8
Misal Giuseppe Memeo, Paolo Quadrelli
The nitrosocarbonyls (R-CONO) are highly reactive species and remarkable intermediates toward different synthetic targets. This review will cover a research area whose impact in current organic synthesis is constantly increasing in the chemical community. This review represents the first and comprehensive picture on the generation and trapping of nitrosocarbonyls and is solidly built on more than 380 papers. Six different classes of key starting materials such as hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy carbamates, N-hydroxyureas, nitrile oxides, and 1,2,4-oxadiazole-4-oxides were highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104837/the-role-of-dimer-asymmetry-and-protomer-dynamics-in-enzyme-catalysis
#9
Tae Hun Kim, Pedram Mehrabi, Zhong Ren, Adnan Sljoka, Christopher Ing, Alexandr Bezginov, Libin Ye, Régis Pomès, R Scott Prosser, Emil F Pai
Freeze-trapping x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and computational techniques reveal the distribution of states and their interconversion rates along the reaction pathway of a bacterial homodimeric enzyme, fluoroacetate dehalogenase (FAcD). The crystal structure of apo-FAcD exhibits asymmetry around the dimer interface and cap domain, priming one protomer for substrate binding. This asymmetry is dynamically averaged through conformational exchange on a millisecond time scale. During catalysis, the protomer conformational exchange rate becomes enhanced, the empty protomer exhibits increased local disorder, and water egresses...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104627/mappi-dat-data-management-and-analysis-for-protein-protein-interaction-data-from-the-high-throughput-mappit-cell-microarray-platform
#10
Surya Gupta, Veronic De Puysseleyr, José Van der Heyden, Davy Maddelein, Irma Lemmens, Sam Lievens, Sven Degroeve, Jan Tavernier, Lennart Martens
: Protein-protein interaction (PPI) studies have dramatically expanded our knowledge about cellular behaviour and development in different conditions. A multitude of high-throughput PPI techniques have been developed to achieve proteome-scale coverage for PPI studies, including the microarray based Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap (MAPPIT) system. Because such high-throughput techniques typically report thousands of interactions, managing and analysing the large amounts of acquired data is a challenge...
January 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104452/cystoviral-rna-directed-rna-polymerases-regulation-of-rna-synthesis-on-multiple-time-and-length-scales
#11
REVIEW
Sébastien Alphonse, Ranajeet Ghose
P2, an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), is encoded on the largest of the three segments of the double-stranded RNA genome of cystoviruses. P2 performs the dual tasks of replication and transcription de novo on single-stranded RNA templates, and plays a critical role in the viral life-cycle. Work over the last few decades has yielded a wealth of biochemical and structural information on the functional regulation of P2, on its role in the spatiotemporal regulation of RNA synthesis and its variability across the Cystoviridae family...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104397/pink1-alleviates-myocardial-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Yang Li, Liangxian Qiu, Xiping Liu, Zhiwen Hou, Bo Yu
PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103268/direct-observation-of-enhanced-nitric-oxide-in-a-murine-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Margien G S Boels, Ernst E H van Faassen, M Cristina Avramut, Johan van der Vlag, Bernard M van den Berg, Ton J Rabelink
Uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) secondary to redox signaling is a central mechanism in endothelial and macrophage activation. To date studies on the production of nitric oxide (NO) during the development of diabetic complications show paradoxical results. We previously showed that recoupling eNOS by increasing the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) could restore endothelial function and prevent kidney injury in experimental kidney transplantation. Here, we employed a diabetic mouse model to investigate the effects of diabetes on renal tissue NO bioavailability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103028/main-group-metallomimetics-transition-metal-like-photolytic-co-substitution-at-boron
#14
Holger Braunschweig, Ivo Krummenacher, Marc-André Légaré, Alexander Matler, Krzysztof Radacki, Qing Ye
The carbon monoxide adduct of an unhindered and highly reactive CAAC-bound arylborylene, [(CAAC)B(CO)Ar] (CAAC = cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene), has been prepared using a transfer reaction from the linear iron borylene complex [(PMe3)(CO)3Fe=BAr]. [(CAAC)B(CO)Ar] is a source of the dicoordinate [(CAAC)ArB:] borylene which can be liberated by selective photolytic CO extrusion and that, while highly reactive, is sufficiently long-lived to react intermolecularly. Through trapping of the borylene generated in this manner, we present, among others, the first metal-free borylene(I) species containing a nitrogen-based donor, as well as a new boron-containing radical...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102751/extracellular-vesicles-from-activated-platelets-a-semiquantitative-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-immuno-gold-labeling-study
#15
Alain R Brisson, Sisareuth Tan, Romain Linares, Céline Gounou, Nicolas Arraud
Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102690/ph-sensitive-adsorption-behavior-of-polymer-particles-at-the-air-water-interface
#16
Syuji Fujii, Emiko Mouri, Ko Akiyama, Saori Nakayama, Kyohei Uda, Yoshinobu Nakamura, Hideki Matsuoka
pH-Sensitive adsorption of polymer particles bearing poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] hairs at the air-water interface was investigated using a surface tensiometer, a Langmuir-Blodgett trough and an X-ray reflectometer. We clarified that the particles adsorb at the interface at basic pH; by contrast, at acidic pH, a small number of particles are adsorbed, whereas the majority are dispersed in the water phase. X-ray reflectometry analysis revealed that a particle monolayer was formed at the air-water interface, which packed densely under increasing surface pressure, as determined by the electron density profile change...
January 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101854/impurity-location-dependent-relaxation-dynamics-of-cu-cds-quantum-dots
#17
Dayeon Choi, Ji-Young Pyo, Du-Jeon Jang
Various types of 2% Cu-incorporated CdS (Cu:CdS) quantum dots (QDs) with very similar sizes have been prepared via a water soluble colloidal method. The locations of Cu impurities in CdS host nanocrystals have been controlled by adopting three different synthetic ways of doping, exchange, and adsorption to understand the impurity location-dependent relaxation dynamics of charge carriers. The oxidation state of incorporated Cu impurities has been found to be +1 and the band-gap energy of Cu:CdS QDs decreases as Cu2S forms at the surfaces of CdS QDs...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101551/diels-alder-trapping-of-in-situ-generated-dienes-from-3-4-dihydro-2h-pyran-with-p-quinone-catalysed-by-p-toluenesulfonic-acid
#18
Radhakrishnan Mohan Raj, Kalpattu K Balasubramanian, Deivanayagam Easwaramoorthy
This comprehensive study portrays that p-toluenesulfonic acid is a more efficient catalyst for the reaction between p-quinones and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, than the Lewis acids. The products were accomplished by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction and their mechanistic pathways have been formulated. The impact of C2 and C2,5 substituents of the p-quinones on the cycloaddition reaction has been explored. Remarkably, it is the first report to explore this kind of in situ generated diene for the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction...
January 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100961/auxin-extraction-and-purification-based-on-recombinant-aux-iaa-proteins
#19
Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Xiaofei Chen, Huizhen Liu, Yueqing Hu, Wanhuang Lin, Langtao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) extraction and purification are of great importance in auxin research, which is a hot topic in the plant growth and development field. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is frequently used for IAA extraction and purification. However, no IAA-specific SPE columns are commercially available at the moment. Therefore, the development of IAA-specific recognition materials and IAA extraction and purification methods will help researchers meet the need for more precise analytical methods for research on phytohormones...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099779/trapped-within-the-city-integrating-demography-time-since-isolation-and-population-specific-traits-to-assess-the-genetic-effects-of-urbanization
#20
André Lourenço, David Álvarez, Ian J Wang, Guillermo Velo-Antón
Urbanization is a severe form of habitat fragmentation that can cause many species to be locally extirpated and many others to become trapped and isolated within an urban matrix. The role of drift in reducing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation is well recognized in urban populations. However, explicit incorporation and analysis of the demographic and temporal factors promoting drift in urban environments is poorly studied. Here, we genotyped 15 microsatellites in 320 fire salamanders from the historical city of Oviedo (Est...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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