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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651206/an-investigation-of-the-role-of-defect-levels-on-the-radiation-response-of-synthetic-diamond-crystals-when-used-as-sensors-for-the-detection-of-mammography-x-rays
#1
Nicholas Ade
This study evaluates the role of defects on the performances of synthetic diamond sensors on exposure to mammography X-rays. Through systematic investigations, the main cause of instability of response of examined sensors necessitating pre-irradiation was isolated and ascribed to the presence of ambient light which has the effect of emptying shallow trapping levels. The changes in response between measurements in light and dark conditions varied from 2.8 ± 1.2% to 63.0 ± 0.3%. Sensitivities between 0.4 and 6...
June 17, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650962/novel-inference-models-for-estimation-of-abundance-survivorship-and-recruitment-in-mosquito-populations-using-mark-release-recapture-data
#2
Daniel Antunes Maciel Villela, Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
BACKGROUND: Experiments involving mosquito mark-release-recapture (MRR) design are helpful to determine abundance, survival and even recruitment of mosquito populations in the field. Obstacles in mosquito MRR protocols include marking limitations due to small individual size, short lifespan, low efficiency in capturing devices such as traps, and individual removal upon capture. These limitations usually make MRR analysis restricted to only abundance estimation or a combination of abundance and survivorship, and often generate a great degree of uncertainty about the estimations...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650647/highly-efficient-and-stable-sn-rich-perovskite-solar-cells-by-introducing-bromine
#3
Seojun Lee, Dong-Won Kang
Compositional engineering of recently-arising methylammonium (MA) lead (Pb) halide based perovskites is an essential approach for finding better perovskite compositions to resolve still remaining issues of toxic Pb, and long-term instability, etc. In this work, we carried out crystallographic, morphological, optical, and photovoltaic characterization of compositional MASn0.6Pb0.4I3-xBrx by gradually introducing bromine (Br) into parental Pb-Sn binary perovskite (MASn0.6Pb0.4I3) to elucidate its function in Sn-rich (Sn : Pb = 6 : 4) perovskites...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650232/pharmacokinetics-of-cyclophosphamide-and-4-hydroxycyclophosphamide-in-cats-after-oral-intravenous-and-intraperitoneal-administration-of-cyclophosphamide
#4
Katherine A Stroda, Jacqueline D Murphy, Ryan J Hansen, Lisa Brownlee, Elizabeth A Atencio, Daniel L Gustafson, Susan E Lana
OBJECTIVE To characterize pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydoxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) in the plasma of healthy cats after oral, IV, and IP administration of cyclophosphamide. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult cats. PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive cyclophosphamide (200 mg/m(2)) via each of 3 routes of administration (oral, IV, and IP); there was a 30-day washout period between successive treatments. Plasma samples were obtained at various time points for up to 8 hours after administration...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650155/probing-interface-defects-in-top-gated-mos2-transistors-with-impedance-spectroscopy
#5
Peng Zhao, Angelica Azcatl, Yuri Y Gomeniuk, Pavel Bolshakov, Michael Schmidt, Stephen J McDonnell, Christopher L Hinkle, Paul K Hurley, Robert M Wallace, Chadwin Young
The electronic properties of the HfO2/MoS2 interface were investigated using multi-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage characterization of top gated MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. The analysis was performed on few layer (5 - 10) MoS2 MOSFETs fabricated using photolithographic patterning with 13 nm and 8 nm HfO2 gate oxide layers formed by atomic layer deposition after in-situ UV-O3 surface functionalization. The impedance response of the HfO2/MoS2 gate stack indicates the existence of specific defects at the interface, which exhibited either a frequency dependent distortion similar to conventional Si MOSFETs with unpassivated silicon dangling bonds, or a frequency dispersion over the entire voltage range corresponding to depletion of the HfO2/MoS2 surface, consistent with interface traps distributed over a range of energy levels...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650106/dok3-modulates-bone-remodeling-by-negatively-regulating-osteoclastogenesis-and-positively-regulating-osteoblastogenesis
#6
Xiaofeng Cai, Junjie Xing, Courtney L Long, Qisheng Peng, Mary Beth Humphrey
Osteoclastogenesis is essential for bone remodeling and normal skeletal maintenance. RANKL promotes osteoclast differentiation and function but requires costimulation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled immunoreceptors. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) coupled to ITAM-adaptor protein DNAX activation protein 12kDA (DAP12) provides costimulation of intracellular calcium signaling during osteoclastogenesis. Previously, we found that downstream of kinase-3 (DOK3) physically associates with DAP12 to inhibit toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory signaling in macrophages...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649986/rewritable-ghost-floating-gates-by-tunnelling-triboelectrification-for-two-dimensional-electronics
#7
Seongsu Kim, Tae Yun Kim, Kang Hyuck Lee, Tae-Ho Kim, Francesco Arturo Cimini, Sung Kyun Kim, Ronan Hinchet, Sang-Woo Kim, Christian Falconi
Gates can electrostatically control charges inside two-dimensional materials. However, integrating independent gates typically requires depositing and patterning suitable insulators and conductors. Moreover, after manufacturing, gates are unchangeable. Here we introduce tunnelling triboelectrification for localizing electric charges in very close proximity of two-dimensional materials. As representative materials, we use chemical vapour deposition graphene deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate. The triboelectric charges, generated by friction with a Pt-coated atomic force microscope tip and injected through defects, are trapped at the air-SiO2 interface underneath graphene and act as ghost floating gates...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649958/modeling-mechanical-interactions-in-growing-populations-of-rod-shaped-bacteria
#8
James Winkle, Oleg A Igoshin, Matthew Bennett, Kreso Josic, William Ott
Advances in synthetic biology allow us to engineer bacterial collectives with pre-specified characteristics. However, the behavior of these collectives is difficult to understand, as cellular growth and division as well as extra-cellular fluid flow lead to complex, changing arrangements of cells within the population. To rationally engineer and control the behavior of cell collectives we need theoretical and computational tools to understand their emergent spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we present an agent-based model that allows growing cells to detect and respond to mechanical interactions...
June 26, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649736/high-aspect-ratio-sub-micrometer-channels-using-wet-etching-application-to-the-dynamics-of-red-blood-cell-transiting-through-biomimetic-splenic-slits
#9
Priya Gambhire, Scott Atwell, Cécile Iss, Frédéric Bedu, Igor Ozerov, Catherine Badens, Emmanuèle Helfer, Annie Viallat, Anne Charrier
Nanoparticles delivering drugs, disseminating cancer cells, and red blood cells (RBCs) during splenic filtration must deform and pass through the sub-micrometer and high aspect ratio interstices between the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. The dynamics of passage of particles/cells through these slit-like interstices remain poorly understood because the in vitro reproduction of slits with physiological dimensions in devices compatible with optical microscopy observations requires expensive technologies...
June 26, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649686/a-visible-light-active-tio2-photocatalyst-multilayered-with-wo3
#10
Junjun Jia, Kenta Taniyama, Masaaki Imura, Toshimasa Kanai, Yuzo Shigesato
Sputter-deposited TiO2 films with high visible-light photocatalytic activity were successfully realized by a hybrid TiO2/Pt/WO3 film structure with Pt nanoparticles uniformly distributed at the interface of the TiO2 and WO3 films. The TiO2/Pt/WO3 hybrid films enable the complete decomposition of CH3CHO under visible-light irradiation. The water contact angle of the TiO2/Pt/WO3 hybrid films reaches below 5° under visible-light irradiation. Pt nanoparticles are considered to act as a cocatalyst to improve the electron-hole separation efficiency...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649674/synovial-fibroblast-neutrophil-interactions-promote-pathogenic-adaptive-immunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Philip M Carlucci, Erica Moore, Nithya Lingampalli, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Eddie James, Yudong Liu, Kevin L Bicker, Heidi Wahamaa, Victoria Hoffmann, Anca Irinel Catrina, PaulR Thompson, Jane H Buckner, William H Robinson, David A Fox, Mariana J Kaplan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial joint inflammation and by development of pathogenic humoral and cellular autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and activate RA synovial fibroblasts (FLS), cells crucial in joint damage. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which NETs promote proinflammatory phenotypes in FLS, and whether these interactions generate pathogenic anti-citrulline adaptive immune responses...
April 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649578/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-antibody-ameliorates-albuminuria-in-mrl-lpr-lupus-prone-mice
#12
Haruki Watanabe, Katsue S Watanabe, Keyue Liu, Sumie Hiramatsu, Sonia Zeggar, Eri Katsuyama, Noriko Tatebe, Akiya Akahoshi, Fumiaki Takenaka, Takahisa Hanada, Masaru Akehi, Takanori Sasaki, Ken-Ei Sada, Eiji Matsuura, Masahiro Nishibori, Jun Wada
We evaluated the efficacy of a neutralizing anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) monoclonal antibody in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (5 mg/kg weight) or class-matched control immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) was administered intravenously twice a week for 4-15 weeks. Urine albumin was monitored, and histological evaluation of the kidneys was conducted at 16 weeks. Lymphadenopathies were evaluated by 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine ([(18)F]FAC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649308/association-between-spirometry-controlled-chest-ct-scores-using-computer-animated-biofeedback-and-clinical-markers-of-lung-disease-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Thomas Kongstad, Kent Green, Frederik Buchvald, Marianne Skov, Tania Pressler, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the lungs is the gold standard for assessing the extent of structural changes in the lungs. Spirometry-controlled chest CT (SCCCT) has improved the usefulness of CT by standardising inspiratory and expiratory lung volumes during imaging. This was a single-centre cross-sectional study in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using SCCCT we wished to investigate the association between the quantity and extent of structural lung changes and pulmonary function outcomes, and prevalence of known CF lung pathogens...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648680/reversibly-constraining-spliceosome-substrate-complexes-by-engineering-disulfide-crosslinks
#14
Patrick McCarthy, Erin Garside, Yonatan Meschede-Krasa, Andrew MacMillan, Daniel Pomeranz Krummel
The spliceosome is a highly dynamic mega-Dalton enzyme, formed in part by assembly of U snRNPs onto its pre-mRNA substrate transcripts. Early steps in spliceosome assembly are challenging to study biochemically and structurally due to compositional and conformational dynamics. We detail an approach to covalently and reversibly constrain or trap non-covalent pre-mRNA/protein spliceosome complexes. This approach involves engineering a single disulfide bond between a thiol-bearing cysteine sidechain and a proximal backbone phosphate of the pre-mRNA, site-specifically modified with an N-thioalkyl moiety...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648677/cell-type-specific-transcriptome-profiling-in-c-elegans-using-the-translating-ribosome-affinity-purification-technique
#15
Xicotencatl Gracida, John A Calarco
Organs and specific cell types execute specialized functions in multicellular organisms, in large part through customized gene expression signatures. Thus, profiling the transcriptomes of specific cell and tissue types remains an important tool for understanding how cells become specialized. Methodological approaches to detect gene expression differences have utilized samples from whole animals, dissected tissues, and more recently single cells. Despite these advances, there is still a challenge and a need in most laboratories to implement less invasive yet powerful cell-type specific transcriptome profiling methods...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648541/coronary-artery-anomalies-in-patients-with-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-and-their-impact-on-postoperative-outcomes
#16
Maciej Moll, Krzysztof W Michalak, Katarzyna Sobczak-Budlewska, Jadwiga A Moll, Marek Kopala, Konrad Szymczyk, Paweł Dryżek, Jacek J Moll
BACKGROUND: Coronary anomalies are frequently present in children with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Such anomalies significantly increase the complexity of arterial switch operations and may have an effect on postoperative outcomes. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of coronary anomalies in children with TGA and describe their effect on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: All patients with TGA who underwent an arterial switch operation between 1991 and 2015 were consecutively enrolled in this study...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648372/moss-bag-monitoring-as-screening-technique-to-estimate-the-relevance-of-methylated-arsine-emission
#17
Julia Arndt, Britta Planer-Friedrich
Volatile arsenic (As) species, like arsine, mono-, di-, and trimethylarsine (AsH3, MeAsH2, Me2AsH, Me3As) are difficult to sample in remote areas without sophisticated equipment. The application of moss bags is an easy-to-apply screening technique which has been used for trapping total (mostly particulate) As from different emission sources before. We evaluated its potential for additional volatile As species screening. We found Me2AsH and Me3As in N2 atmosphere to be quantitatively trapped on the mosses and to be recoverable as their respective pentavalent acids (and/or oxyanions) when ground mosses were heated for 90min at 90°C in 0...
June 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648045/first-identification-of-pltx-like-molecules-in-the-atlantic-coral-species-palythoa-canariensis
#18
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Lucía Molina, Yanira López, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by Zoanthids (Palyhtoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Contact with PLTX-like compounds present in aerosols or marine organisms has been associated with adverse effects on humans. The worldwide distribution of producer species and seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules illustrates the global threat to human health. The identification of species capable of palytoxin production is critical for human safety. We studied the presence of PLTX analogues in Palythoa canariensis, a coral species collected in the Atlantic Ocean never described as a PLTX-producer before...
June 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647997/-endovascular-management-and-classification-of-the-dissecting-aneurysms-of-the-vertebral-artery
#19
Y Z Zang, Z G Wang, C W Wang, X Ding, X F Wang, L L Wang
Objective: To summarize the classifications and optimize endovascular treatment of the dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (DAVA). Methods: The clinical information of 39 cases of DAVA treated with endovascular methods in our department between January 2007 and September 2016 were analyzed retrospectively.According to the location of the aneurysm in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), the aneurysms were classified into three types: type pre-PICA, located proximally to the PICA; type in-PICA, located at the PICA origin; and type post-PICA located distally to the PICA...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647127/infrared-light-detection-by-the-haller-s-organ-of-adult-american-dog-ticks-dermacentor-variabilis-ixodida-ixodidae
#20
Robert D Mitchell, Jiwei Zhu, Ann L Carr, Anirudh Dhammi, Grayson Cave, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
The Haller's organ (HO), unique to ticks and mites, is found only on the first tarsus of the front pair of legs. The organ has an unusual morphology consisting of an anterior pit (AP) with protruding sensilla and a posterior capsule (Cp). The current thinking is that the HO's main function is chemosensation analogous to the insect antennae, but the functionality of its atypical structure (exclusive to the Acari) is unexplained. We provide the first evidence that the HO allows the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, to respond to infrared (IR) light...
June 13, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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