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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326833/ganglionated-plexi-ablation-physiology-and-clinical-applications
#1
Stavros Stavrakis, Sunny Po
Ganglionated plexi (GP), consisting of conglomerations of autonomic ganglia on the epicardial surface of the heart, have been shown to play a significant role in different arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. GP ablation has become an adjunctive procedure in the treatment of atrial fibrillation, while it has been used successfully in preliminary studies in vasovagal syncope. This review will present the current data on the physiology and clinical applications of GP ablation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and other diseases...
December 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316453/degradable-rhenium-trioxide-nanocubes-with-high-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-absorbance-like-gold-for-photothermal-theranostics
#2
Wenlong Zhang, Guoying Deng, Bo Li, Xinxin Zhao, Tao Ji, Guosheng Song, Zhiyin Xiao, Qing Cao, Jingbo Xiao, Xiaojuan Huang, Guoqiang Guan, Rujia Zou, Xinwu Lu, Junqing Hu
The applications of inorganic theranostic agents in clinical trials are generally limited to their innate non-biodegradability and potential long-term biotoxicity. To address this problem, herein via a straightforward and tailored space-confined on-substrate route, we obtained rhenium trioxide (ReO3) nanocubes (NCs) that display a good biocompatibility and biosafety. Importantly, their aqueous dispersion has high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance in near-infrared (NIR) region different from previous report, which possibly associates with the charge transfer and structural distortion in hydrogen rhenium bronze (HxReO3), as well as ReO3's cubic shape...
December 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315443/pathophysiology-of-corneal-scarring-in-persistent-epithelial-defects-after-prk-and-other-corneal-injuries
#3
Steven E Wilson, Carla S Medeiros, Marcony R Santhiago
PURPOSE: To analyze corneal persistent epithelial defects that occurred at 3 to 4 weeks after -4.50 diopter (D) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits and apply this pathophysiology to the treatment of persistent epithelial defects that occur after any corneal manipulations or diseases. METHODS: Two of 168 corneas that had -4.50 D PRK to study epithelial basement membrane regeneration developed spontaneous persistent epithelial defects that did not heal at 3 weeks after PRK...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310785/isolation-and-functional-analysis-of-syndecans
#4
Pyong Woo Park
Syndecans comprise a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Syndecans are composed of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) or both HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS), attached covalently to core proteins. Syndecans regulate many cellular processes, such as adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Syndecans bind and regulate molecules primarily through their HS chains, but do not bind to all HS/heparin-binding molecules. Furthermore, mice ablated for the syndecan-1 or -4 gene do not show major developmental abnormalities, but they do show striking pathological phenotypes when challenged with infectious or inflammatory stimuli and conditions, suggesting that certain functions of syndecans are specific and cannot be compensated for by other syndecans or other HSPGs...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310237/laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopic-detection-of-trace-level-heavy-metal-in-solutions-on-a-laser-pretreated-metallic-target
#5
Sheng Niu, Lijuan Zheng, Abdul Qayyum Khan, Guang Feng, Heping Zeng
A fast and sensitive analysis for trace level heavy metals in aqueous solution was realized by using an improved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) methodology. Solutions containing heavy metal elements, Ni, Cr, and Cd, were concentrated in a laser-pretreated area (25 × 20mm2) of a polished aluminum target surface, wherein pretreated grooves enabled homogeneous distribution of the metallic solutions in the well-defined area, and laser ablation of the aluminum target produced unique plasma excitation of various metallic ions...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303758/response-of-soft-tissue-to-different-abutment-materials-with-different-surface-topographies-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
Feras Al Rezk, Georgia Trimpou, Hans-Christoph Lauer, Paul Weigl, Nadine Krockow
Soft tissue integration in the transmucosal zone of dental abutments supports the peri-implant tissues, improves esthetics, ensures soft tissue seal against microorganisms, and preserves crestal bone level. The aim of this literature review was to define the most favorable surface topography and macrodesign of the transmucosal zone of abutments to achieve optimal soft tissue seal. An electronic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed, seeking relevant English-language articles published between January 1, 2003, and October 11, 2014...
January 2018: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303011/sonographic-measurement-of-thyroid-nodule-changes-after-microwave-ablation-relationship-between-multiple-parameters
#7
Ying Wei, Linxue Qian, Ji-Bin Liu, Yujiang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Microwave ablation (MWA) is an effective technique for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is necessary to study changes in variables other than the volume reduction between follow-up intervals. This study also introduced the index R (Ssurface/V) to explore whether it could reflect features of shape between follow-up intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 236 complex benign thyroid nodules in 230 patients who underwent MWA in our department from October 2013 to February 2017 were included...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296920/identification-of-a-murine-cd45-f4-80lo-hsc-derived-marrow-endosteal-cell-associated-with-donor-stem-cell-engraftment
#8
Kathleen M Overholt, Satoru Otsuru, Timothy S Olson, Adam J Guess, Victoria M Velazquez, Laura Desbourdes, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized microenvironments within the marrow designated as stem cell niches, which function to support HSCs at homeostasis and promote HSC engraftment after radioablation. We previously identified marrow space remodeling after hematopoietic ablation, including osteoblast thickening, osteoblast proliferation, and megakaryocyte migration to the endosteum, which is critical for effective engraftment of donor HSCs. To further evaluate the impact of hematopoietic cells on marrow remodeling, we used a transgenic mouse model (CD45Cre/iDTR) to selectively deplete hematopoietic cells in situ...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286395/benefits-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-in-an-asynchronous-heart-failure-model-induced-by-left-bundle-branch-ablation-and-rapid-pacing
#9
Jingfeng Wang, Zhenning Nie, Haiyan Chen, Xianhong Shu, Zhaohua Yang, Ruiming Yao, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286313/power-spectral-density-evaluation-of-laser-milled-surfaces
#10
Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer, Jan Pastow, Michael Sawannia, Peter Klinkenberg, Daniel Johannes Förster, Hans-Albert Eckel
Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa) were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope...
December 29, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282555/green-adeptness-in-the-synthesis-and-stabilization-of-copper-nanoparticles-catalytic-antibacterial-cytotoxicity-and-antioxidant-activities
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Din, Farhan Arshad, Zaib Hussain, Maria Mukhtar
Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) are of great interest due to their extraordinary properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, high yield strength, ductility, hardness, flexibility, and rigidity. CuNPs show catalytic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal activities along with cytotoxicity and anticancer properties in many different applications. Many physical and chemical methods have been used to synthesize nanoparticles including laser ablation, microwave-assisted process, sol-gel, co-precipitation, pulsed wire discharge, vacuum vapor deposition, high-energy irradiation, lithography, mechanical milling, photochemical reduction, electrochemistry, electrospray synthesis, hydrothermal reaction, microemulsion, and chemical reduction...
December 28, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275886/the-extent-of-left-atrial-low-voltage-areas-included-in-pulmonary-vein-isolation-is-associated-with-freedom-from-recurrent-atrial-arrhythmia
#12
Dong Huang, Jing-Bo Li, Tarek Zghaib, Esra Gucuk Ipek, Muhammad Balouch, David D Spragg, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Harikrishna Tandri, Sunil K Sinha, Joseph E Marine, Ronald D Berger, Hugh Calkins, Saman Nazarian
BACKGROUND: The extent of left atrial (LA) baseline low-voltage areas (LVA-B), which may be a surrogate for fibrosis, is associated with recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the extent of LVA-B isolated by ablation (LVA-I) and AF recurrence. METHODS: The study cohort included 159 consecutive patients with drug-refractory AF who underwent an initial AF ablation with LA voltage mapping during sinus rhythm...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261126/remotely-exploring-deeper-into-matter-by-non-contact-detection-of-audible-transients-excited-by-laser-radiation
#13
Javier Moros, Inmaculada Gaona, J Javier Laserna
An acoustic spectroscopic approach to detect contents within different packaging, with substantially wider applicability than other currently available subsurface spectroscopies, is presented. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) pulsed laser (13 ns pulse length) operated at 1 Hz was used to generate the sound field of a two-component system at a distance of 50 cm. The acoustic emission was captured using a unidirectional microphone and analyzed in the frequency domain. The focused laser pulse hitting the system, with intensity above that necessary to ablate the irradiated surface, transferred an impulsive force which led the structure to vibrate...
December 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250289/mechanistic-insights-into-durable-pulmonary-vein-isolation-achieved-by-second-generation-cryoballoon-ablation
#14
Yasuo Okumura, Ichiro Watanabe, Kazuki Iso, Keiko Takahashi, Koichi Nagashima, Kazumasa Sonoda, Hiroaki Mano, Naoko Yamaguchi, Rikitake Kogawa, Ryuta Watanabe, Masaru Arai, Kimie Ohkubo, Sayaka Kurokawa, Toshiko Nakai, Atsushi Hirayama
Background: The mechanism explaining the efficacy of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) for atrial fibrillation has not been clarified. Methods and Results: We compared lesion characteristics between patients in whom pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed by CBA (n=56) and those by contact force (CF)-based RF ablation (n=56). We evaluated the 3-dimensional PV morphology before and after cryoballoon inflation. After PVI, a 3D left atrial voltage map was created. Pacing (10 mA and 2 ms) was performed within the low voltage area from the ablation line, and electrically unexcitable ablated tissue was identified...
April 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250273/left-atrial-appendage-characteristics-in-patients-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-catheter-ablation-laapaf-study
#15
Enes E Gul, Usama Boles, Sohaib Haseeb, Justin Flood, Ayuish Bansal, Benedict Glover, Damian Redfearn, Chris Simpson, Hoshiar Abdollah, Adrian Baranchuk, Kevin A Michael
Background: Despite technological and scientific efforts, the recurrence rate of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) remains high. Several studies have shown that in addition to pulmonary vein (PV) isolation other non-PV triggers, particularly left atrial appendage may be the source of initiation and maintenance of AF. There are few studies showing the role of left atrial appendage (LAA) isolation in order to obtain higher success rate in persistent AF patients. Objective: We analyzed the LAA volume, volume index and shape relative to the LA in patients with persistent AF undergoing AF ablation...
February 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250264/comparison-of-initial-la-patterns-as-the-road-to-successful-endocardial-box-lesion-ablation
#16
Aleksei S Kovalev, Leo A Bockeria, Andrey G Filatov
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the population. Still there is no unity in understanding of mechanisms and their influence on catheter ablation results. In our study we tried to evaluate accurate initial quantitative indicators of electromechanical remodeling that can border patients from expected good to expected poor results of catheter ablation. We performed electroanatomical mapping and ablation procedures in 94 patient (45 female) in 2012 with 3-year follow-up period. The target points were left atria surface area, complex fragmentation atrial electrograms (CFAE) duration and surface area...
February 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247198/cell-shape-information-is-transduced-through-tension-independent-mechanisms
#17
Amit Ron, Evren U Azeloglu, Rhodora C Calizo, Mufeng Hu, Smiti Bhattacharya, Yibang Chen, Gomathi Jayaraman, Sunwoo Lee, Susana R Neves-Zaph, Hong Li, Ronald E Gordon, John C He, James C Hone, Ravi Iyengar
The shape of a cell within tissues can represent the history of chemical and physical signals that it encounters, but can information from cell shape regulate cellular phenotype independently? Using optimal control theory to constrain reaction-diffusion schemes that are dependent on different surface-to-volume relationships, we find that information from cell shape can be resolved from mechanical signals. We used microfabricated 3-D biomimetic chips to validate predictions that shape-sensing occurs in a tension-independent manner through integrin β3 signaling pathway in human kidney podocytes and smooth muscle cells...
December 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246829/hyperspectral-imaging-for-label-free-in-vivo-identification-of-myocardial-scars-and-sites-of-radiofrequency-ablation-lesions
#18
Luther M Swift, Huda Asfour, Narine Muselimyan, Cinnamon Larson, Kenneth Armstrong, Narine A Sarvazyan
BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias often involves ablating viable muscle tissue within or near islands of scarred myocardium. Yet, today there are limited means by which the boundaries of such scars can be visualized during surgery and distinguished from the sites of acute injury caused by radiofrequency (RF) ablation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methodology to delineate and distinguish scar tissue from tissue injury caused by RF ablation...
December 12, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236513/depletion-of-airway-submucosal-glands-and-tp63-krt5-basal-cells-in-obliterative-bronchiolitis
#19
Anthony M Swatek, Thomas J Lynch, Adrianne K Crooke, Preston J Anderson, Scott R Tyler, Leonard Brooks, Marina Ivanovic, Julia A Klesney-Tait, Michael Eberlein, Tahuanty Pena, David K Meyerholz, John F Engelhardt, Kalpaj R Parekh
RATIONALE: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a major cause of mortality following lung transplantation. Depletion of airway stem cells (SCs) may lead to fibrosis in OB. OBJECTIVE: Two major SC compartments in airways are submucosal glands (SMGs) and surface airway TP63+(p63)/KRT5+(K5) basal cells (BCs). We hypothesized that depletion of these SC compartments occurs in OB. METHODS: Ferret orthotopic left lung transplants were used as an experimental model of OB, and findings were corroborated in human lung allografts...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234578/au-nanostructure-fabrication-by-pulsed-laser-deposition-in-open-air-influence-of-the-deposition-geometry
#20
Rumen G Nikov, Anna Og Dikovska, Nikolay N Nedyalkov, Georgi V Avdeev, Petar A Atanasov
We present a fast and flexible method for the fabrication of Au nanocolumns. Au nanostructures were produced by pulsed laser deposition in air at atmospheric pressure. No impurities or Au compounds were detected in the resulting samples. The nanoparticles and nanoaggregates produced in the ablated plasma at atmospheric pressure led to the formation of chain-like nanostructures on the substrate. The dependence of the surface morphology of the samples on the deposition geometry used in the experimental set up was studied...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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