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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809083/laser-induced-focused-ultrasound-for-cavitation-treatment-toward-high-precision-invisible-sonic-scalpel
#1
Taehwa Lee, Wei Luo, Qiaochu Li, Hakan Demirci, L Jay Guo
Beyond the implementation of the photoacoustic effect to photoacoustic imaging and laser ultrasonics, this study demonstrates a novel application of the photoacoustic effect for high-precision cavitation treatment of tissue using laser-induced focused ultrasound. The focused ultrasound is generated by pulsed optical excitation of an efficient photoacoustic film coated on a concave surface, and its amplitude is high enough to produce controllable microcavitation within the focal region (lateral focus <100 µm)...
August 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806528/surface-adaptive-gold-nanoparticles-with-effective-adherence-and-enhanced-photothermal-ablation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#2
Dengfeng Hu, Huan Li, Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Wenxi Lei, Fan Jia, Qiao Jin, Ke-Feng Ren, Jian Ji
Biofilms which contribute to the persistent bacterial infections pose serious threats to global public health, mainly due to their resistance to antibiotics penetration and escaping innate immune attacks by phagocytes. Here, we report a kind of surface-adaptive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibiting (1) self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of biofilm, (2) enhanced photothermal ablation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation and (3) no damage to the healthy tissues around biofilm...
August 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803738/vertical-platysma-myocutaneous-flap-reconstruction-for-oral-defects-using-three-different-incision-designs-experience-with-68-cases
#3
L Huang, X Gao, T Su, C-H Jiang, X-C Jian
This study evaluated the effects of three different incision designs for the vertical platysma myocutaneous flap (VPMF): apron, MacFee, and T-shaped. This flap was used for the reconstruction of intraoral defects following cancer ablation in selected patients. Sixty-eight cases of VPMF reconstruction were assessed: the apron incision was used in 28, MacFee incision in 22, and T-shaped incision in 18. With regard to postoperative outcomes, there were 26 cases of flap survival and two of partial necrosis with the apron incision; 20 of survival and two of partial necrosis with the MacFee incision; 15 of survival and three of partial necrosis with the T-shaped incision...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800447/two-phase-displacements-in-microchannels-of-triangular-cross-section
#4
Yafei Liu, Andrew Hansen, Erica Block, Norman R Morrow, Jeff Squier, John Oakey
Varying microfluidic channel cross-sectional geometry can dramatically alter fluid flow behavior, particularly for capillary-driven flow. Most fabrication techniques, however, are planar and therefore incapable of providing depth-dependent variations in width. We introduce an ultrafast laser ablation technique that enables the fabrication of microchannels with arbitrary triangular cross sectional geometry. Triangular channels were fabricated with widths ranging from 45 to 116µm and aspect ratios between 0...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798858/generation-of-subsurface-voids-incubation-effect-and-formation-of-nanoparticles-in-short-pulse-laser-interactions-with-bulk-metal-targets-in-liquid-molecular-dynamics-study
#5
Cheng-Yu Shih, Maxim V Shugaev, Chengping Wu, Leonid V Zhigilei
The ability of short pulse laser ablation in liquids to produce clean colloidal nanoparticles and unusual surface morphology has been employed in a broad range of practical applications. In this paper, we report the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations aimed at revealing the key processes that control the surface morphology and nanoparticle size distributions by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The simulations of bulk Ag targets irradiated in water are performed with an advanced computational model combining a coarse-grained representation of liquid environment and an atomistic description of laser interaction with metal targets...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795530/construction-of-silica-based-micro-nanoplatforms-for-ultrasound-theranostic-biomedicine
#6
REVIEW
Yang Zhou, Xiaoxia Han, Xiangxiang Jing, Yu Chen
Ultrasound (US)-based biomedicine has been extensively explored for its applications in both diagnostic imaging and disease therapy. The fast development of theranostic nanomedicine significantly promotes the development of US-based biomedicine. This progress report summarizes and discusses the recent developments of rational design and fabrication of silica-based micro/nanoparticles for versatile US-based biomedical applications. The synthetic strategies and surface-engineering approaches of silica-based micro/nanoparticles are initially discussed, followed by detailed introduction on their US-based theranostic applications...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791747/ecg-morphology-of-premature-ventricular-contractions-predicts-presence-of-myocardial-fibrotic-substrate-on-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-undergoing-ablation
#7
Sabrina Oebel, Borislav Dinov, Arash Arya, Sebastian Hilbert, Philipp Sommer, Andreas Bollmann, Gerhard Hindricks, Ingo Paetsch, Cosima Jahnke
BACKGROUND: The most likely origin of PVCs may be deduced from surface ECG analysis while planning an electrophysiological study (EPS). Apart from purely benign forms of increased ventricular ectopy, myocardial substrate (e.g., regional fibrosis) may be present in certain cases, which will significantly impact the ablation approach. CMR imaging can reliably identify fibrotic target lesions and, hence, may assist in adequate patient selection and procedural planning. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 101 patients (59% male, mean age 57...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791132/waterjet-and-laser-etching-the-nonlinear-inverse-problem
#8
A Bilbao-Guillerna, D A Axinte, J Billingham, G B J Cadot
In waterjet and laser milling, material is removed from a solid surface in a succession of layers to create a new shape, in a depth-controlled manner. The inverse problem consists of defining the control parameters, in particular, the two-dimensional beam path, to arrive at a prescribed freeform surface. Waterjet milling (WJM) and pulsed laser ablation (PLA) are studied in this paper, since a generic nonlinear material removal model is appropriate for both of these processes. The inverse problem is usually solved for this kind of process by simply controlling dwell time in proportion to the required depth of milling at a sequence of pixels on the surface...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783035/combined-photothermal-chemotherapy-of-breast-cancer-by-near-infrared-light-responsive-hyaluronic-acid-decorated-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#9
Shaohui Zheng, VAN DU Nguyen, Seung Yoon Song, Jiwon Han, Jong-Oh Park
In this study, a novel type of hyaluronic acid (HA)-decorated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was prepared and investigated as a light-triggered drug release and combined photothermal-chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Polyhedral gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with an average size of 10 nm were synthesized and co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (DOX) in the matrix of NLCs with a high drug loading efficiency (above 80%). HA decoration was achieved by the electrostatic interaction between HA and CTAB on the NLCs surface...
August 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782014/decreasing-cloud-cover-drives-the-recent-mass-loss-on-the-greenland-ice-sheet
#10
Stefan Hofer, Andrew J Tedstone, Xavier Fettweis, Jonathan L Bamber
The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776822/ripple-mapping-initial-multicenter-experience-of-an-intuitive-approach-to-overcoming-the-limitations-of-3d-activation-mapping
#11
Vishal Luther, Nuno Cortez-Dias, Luis Carpinteiro, João de Sousa, Richard Navaratnum Balasubramaniam, Sharad C Agarwal, David Farwell, Solomon Mark Sopher, Girish Babu, Richard Till, Nikki Jones, Stuart Tan, Anthony Chow, Martin Lowe, Jem Lane, Naveen Pappachan, Nick Wf Linton, Prapa Kanagaratnam
BACKGROUND: Ripple Mapping (RM) displays electrograms as moving bars over a 3D surface displaying bipolar voltage, and has shown in a single-center series to be effective for atrial tachycardia (AT) mapping without annotation of local activation time or window-of-interest assignment. We tested the reproducibility of these findings in operators naive to RM, using it for the first time in post ablation AT. METHODS: Maps were collected with multielectrode catheters and CARTO ConfiDENSE...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773897/extensive-characterization-of-oxide-coated-colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-laser-ablation-in-liquid
#12
Romuald Intartaglia, Marina Rodio, Mohamed Abdellatif, Mirko Prato, Marco Salerno
Colloidal gold nanoparticles are a widespread nanomaterial with many potential applications, but their aggregation in suspension is a critical issue which is usually prevented by organic surfactants. This solution has some drawbacks, such as material contamination and modifications of its functional properties. The gold nanoparticles presented in this work have been synthesized by ultra-fast laser ablation in liquid, which addresses the above issues by overcoating the metal nanoparticles with an oxide layer...
September 14, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773846/improved-ablation-resistance-of-silicone-rubber-composites-by-introducing-montmorillonite-and-silicon-carbide-whisker
#13
Guangwu Zhang, Fuzhong Wang, Zhixiong Huang, Jing Dai, Minxian Shi
Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to silicone rubber (SR) to improve the ablation resistance of the silicone. Following this, different quantities of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCw) were incorporated into the MMT/SR to yield a hybrid, ablative composite. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite increased after the addition of MMT. The ablation test results showed that MMT helped to form a covering layer by bonding with the silica and other components on the ablated surface. The linear and mass ablation rates exhibited decreases of 22...
August 24, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772967/optical-absorption-enhancement-in-cdte-thin-films-by-microstructuration-of-the-silicon-substrate
#14
Jesús Rangel-Cárdenas, Hugo Sobral
In this work, the reflectance, optical absorption, and band gap have been determined for CdTe thin films grown on planar and microstructured substrates. The treated surface was prepared by laser ablation of a silicon wafer, forming holes in a periodic arrangement. Thin films were grown by pulsed laser ablation on silicon samples kept at 200 °C inside a vacuum chamber. The presence of CdTe was verified with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicating a nanocrystalline zinc blended structure. The optical absorption of thin films was calculated by using the Fresnel laws and the experimental reflectance spectrum...
June 1, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772574/laser-surface-microstructuring-of-biocompatible-materials-using-a-microlens-array-and-the-talbot-effect-evaluation-of-the-cell-adhesion
#15
María Aymerich, Daniel Nieto, Ezequiel Álvarez, María T Flores-Arias
A laser based technique for microstructuring titanium and tantalum substrates using the Talbot effect and an array of microlenses is presented. By using this hybrid technique; we are able to generate different patterns and geometries on the top surfaces of the biomaterials. The Talbot effect allows us to rapidly make microstructuring, solving the common problems of using microlenses for multipatterning; where the material expelled during the ablation of biomaterials damages the microlens. The Talbot effect permits us to increase the working distance and reduce the period of the patterns...
February 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771538/a-novel-noninvasive-surface-ecg-analysis-using-interlead-qrs-dispersion-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy
#16
Wan-Hsin Hsieh, Chin-Yu Lin, Abigail Louise D Te, Men-Tzung Lo, Cheng-I Wu, Fa-Po Chung, Yi-Chung Chang, Shih-Lin Chang, Chen Lin, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Feng Hu, Jo-Nan Liao, Yun-Yu Chen, Shih-Jie Jhuo, Sunu Budhi Raharjo, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the feasibility of using the precordial surface ECG lead interlead QRS dispersion (IQRSD) in the identification of abnormal ventricular substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive patients were enrolled and reclassified into 4 groups: definite ARVC with epicardial ablation (Group 1), ARVC with ventricular tachycardia (VT, Group 2), idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract VT without ARVC (Group 3), and controls without VT (Group 4)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770918/properties-of-in-situ-generated-gold-nanoparticles-in-the-cellular-context
#17
D Drescher, H Traub, T Büchner, N Jakubowski, J Kneipp
Gold nanostructures that serve as probes for nanospectroscopic analysis of eukaryotic cell cultures can be obtained by the in situ reduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4). To understand the formation process of such intracellularly grown particles depending on the incubation medium, the reaction was carried out with 3T3 fibroblast cells in three different incubation media, phosphate buffer, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), and standard cell culture medium (DMEM with fetal calf serum). The size, the optical properties, the biomolecular corona, and the localization of the gold nanoparticles formed in situ vary for the different conditions...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769816/signal-reconstruction-of-pulmonary-vein-recordings-using-a-phenomenological-mathematical-model-application-to-pulmonary-vein-isolation-therapy
#18
Harry D Green, Glyn Thomas, John R Terry
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia, is commonly initiated by ectopic beats originating from a small myocardial sleeve extending over the pulmonary veins. Pulmonary vein isolation therapy attempts to isolate the pulmonary veins from the left atrium by ablating tissue, commonly by using radiofrequency ablation. During this procedure, the cardiologist records electrical activity using a lasso catheter, and the activation pattern recorded is used as a guide toward which regions to ablate...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769094/enhanced-performance-of-gan-based-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diodes-by-photon-recycling-using-graphene-quantum-dots
#19
Tzu-Neng Lin, Svette Reina Merden Santiago, Chi-Tsu Yuan, Kuo-Pin Chiu, Ji-Lin Shen, Ting-Chun Wang, Hao-Chung Kuo, Ching-Hsueh Chiu, Yung-Chi Yao, Ya-Ju Lee
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with an average diameter of 3.5 nm were prepared via pulsed laser ablation. The synthesized GQDs can improve the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/InAlGaN UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) remarkably. An enhancement of electroluminescence and a decrease of series resistance of LEDs were observed after incorporation of GQDs on the LED surface. As the GQD concentration is increased, the emitted light (series resistance) in the LED increases (decreases) accordingly. The light output power achieved a maximum increase as high as 71% after introducing GQDs with the concentration of 0...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768188/blockage-of-core-fucosylation-reduces-cell-surface-expression-of-pd-1-and-promotes-anti-tumor-immune-responses-of-t-cells
#20
Masahiro Okada, Shunsuke Chikuma, Taisuke Kondo, Sana Hibino, Hiroaki Machiyama, Tadashi Yokosuka, Miyako Nakano, Akihiko Yoshimura
Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is highly expressed on exhausted T cells and inhibits T cell activation. Antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and its ligand prevent this inhibitory signal and reverse T cell dysfunction, providing beneficial anti-tumor responses in a substantial number of patients. Mechanisms for the induction and maintenance of high PD-1 expression on exhausted T cells have not been fully understood. Utilizing a genome-wide loss-of-function screening method based on the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we identified genes involved in the core fucosylation pathway as positive regulators of cell-surface PD-1 expression...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
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