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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103482/synaptic-plasticity-onto-dopamine-neurons-shapes-fear-learning
#1
Marco Pignatelli, George Kwabena Essien Umanah, Sissi Palma Ribeiro, Rong Chen, Senthilkumar Senthil Karuppagounder, Hau-Jie Yau, Stephen Eacker, Valina Lynn Dawson, Ted Murray Dawson, Antonello Bonci
Fear learning is a fundamental behavioral process that requires dopamine (DA) release. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity occurs on DA neurons while an organism is engaged in aversive experiences. However, whether synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons is causally involved in aversion learning is unknown. Here, we show that a stress priming procedure enhances fear learning by engaging VTA synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we took advantage of the ability of the ATPase Thorase to regulate the internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in order to selectively manipulate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on DA neurons...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102194/%C3%AE-3-chains-of-type-v-collagen-regulate-breast-tumour-growth-via-glypican-1
#2
Guorui Huang, Gaoxiang Ge, Valerio Izzi, Daniel S Greenspan
Pericellular α3(V) collagen can affect the functioning of cells, such as adipocytes and pancreatic β cells. Here we show that α3(V) chains are an abundant product of normal mammary gland basal cells, and that α3(V) ablation in a mouse mammary tumour model inhibits mammary tumour progression by reducing the proliferative potential of tumour cells. These effects are shown to be primarily cell autonomous, from loss of α3(V) chains normally produced by tumour cells, in which they affect growth by enhancing the ability of cell surface proteoglycan glypican-1 to act as a co-receptor for FGF2...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100806/the-lateral-line-confers-evolutionarily-derived-sleep-loss-in-the-mexican-cavefish
#3
James Jaggard, Beatriz G Robinson, Bethany A Stahl, Ian Oh, Pavel Masek, Masato Yoshizawa, Alex C Keene
Sleep is an essential behavior exhibited by nearly all animals, and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Sleep is defined by changes in sensory gating that reduce sensory input to the brain, but little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing. Blind Mexican cavefish comprise an extant surface dwelling form and 29 cave morphs that have independently evolved increased numbers of mechanoreceptive lateral line neuromasts and convergent evolution of sleep loss...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099329/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-combined-with-computed-tomography-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-computed-tomography-perfusion-imaging-a
#4
Guo-Liang Shao, Jia-Ping Zheng, Li-Wen Guo, Yu-Tang Chen, Hui Zeng, Zheng Yao
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-RFA) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR-DWI) and CT perfusion imaging (CT-PI). METHODS: From January 2008 to January 2014, a total of 522 HCC patients receiving TACE combined with CT-RFA were included in this study...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097233/ectonucleotidase-cd39-driven-control-of-postinfarction-myocardial-repair-and-rupture
#5
Nadia R Sutton, Takanori Hayasaki, Matthew C Hyman, Anuli C Anyanwu, Hui Liao, Danica Petrovic-Djergovic, Linda Badri, Amy E Baek, Natalie Walker, Keigo Fukase, Yogendra Kanthi, Scott H Visovatti, Ellen L Horste, Jessica J Ray, Sascha N Goonewardena, David J Pinsky
Mechanical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) are often fatal. Little is known about endogenous factors that predispose to myocardial rupture after MI. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) could be a critical mediator of propensity to myocardial rupture after MI due to its role in modulating inflammation and thrombosis. Using a model of permanent coronary artery ligation, rupture was virtually abrogated in cd39(-/-) mice versus cd39(+/+) controls, with elevated fibrin and collagen deposition and marked neutrophil and macrophage influx...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090714/transplantation-of-cd51-stem-leydig-cells-a-new-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-testosterone-deficiency
#6
Zhi Jun Zang, Jiancheng Wang, Zhihong Chen, Yan Zhang, Yong Gao, Zhijian Su, Ying Tuo, Yan Liao, Min Zhang, Qunfang Yuan, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Andy Peng Xiang
Stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation could provide a new strategy for treating the testosterone deficiency. Our previous study demonstrated that CD51 (also called integrin αv) might be a putative cell surface marker for SLCs, but the physiological function and efficacy of CD51(+) SLCs treatment remain unclear. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic benefits of CD51(+) SLCs transplantation and whether these transplanted cells can be regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. CD51(+) cells were isolated from the testes of 12-weeks-old C57BL/6 mice, and we showed that such cells expressed SLC markers and that they were capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and differentiation into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages and LCs in vitro...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078485/a-simple-method-for-improving-the-spatial-resolution-in-infrared-laser-ablation-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#7
Juha-Pekka Hieta, Anu Vaikkinen, Samuli Auno, Heikki Räikkönen, Markus Haapala, Gianmario Scotti, Jaakko Kopra, Petteri Piepponen, Tiina J Kauppila
In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069837/high-sensitive-cardiac-troponin-t-as-a-novel-predictor-for-recurrence-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation
#8
Koki Nakanishi, Shota Fukuda, Hajime Yamashita, Toshifumi Hasegawa, Michihiko Kosaka, Naoya Shirai, Kenei Shimada, Junichi Yoshikawa, Atsushi Tanaka
AIMS: We aimed to determine whether elevated serum high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) levels predict atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 125 consecutive patients with AF (paroxysmal, n = 79; persistent, n = 46) who underwent first-time PVI. Serum hs-TnT, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), atrial natriuretic peptide, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured in venous samples collected before PVI...
January 8, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067954/elemental-variability-in-the-coralline-alga-lithophyllum-yemenense-as-an-archive-of-past-climate-in-the-gulf-of-aden-nw-indian-ocean
#9
Annalisa Caragnano, Daniela Basso, David Storz, Dorrit E Jacob, Federica Ragazzola, Francesca Benzoni, Eric Dutrieux
This study presents the first algal thallus (skeleton) archive of Asian monsoon strength and Red Sea influence in the Gulf of Aden. Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, Ba/Ca were measured on Lithophyllum yemenense from Balhaf (Gulf of Aden) using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Mg/Ca ratio oscillation was used to reconstruct the chronology (34 years). Oscillations of element rates corresponding to the algal growth between 1974 and 2008 were compared with recorded climate and oceanographic variability...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057922/membrane-translocation-of-t-snare-protein-syntaxin-4-abrogates-ground-state-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Natsumi Hagiwara-Chatani, Kota Shirai, Takumi Kido, Tomoatsu Horigome, Akihiro Yasue, Naoki Adachi, Yohei Hirai
Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are attractive tools for regenerative medicine therapies. However, aberrant cell populations that display flattened morphology and lose ground-state pluripotency often appear spontaneously, unless glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) are inactivated. Here, we show that membrane translocation of the t-SNARE protein syntaxin-4 possibly is involved in this phenomenon. We found that mouse ES cells cultured without GSK3β/MEK1/2 inhibitors (2i) spontaneously extrude syntaxin-4 at the cell surface and that artificial expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 induces appreciable morphological changes and mesodermal differentiation through dephosphorylation of Akt...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054710/atypical-surface-ecg-complicating-the-diagnosis-of-bundle-branch-reentry-tachycardia
#11
Christopher Reithmann, Bernhard Herkommer, Thomas Remp, Michael Fiek
BACKGROUND: Typical left bundle branch block (LBBB) during ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a diagnostic criterion of bundle branch reentry tachycardia (BBRT) with activation of the right bundle in the anterograde direction. METHODS AND RESULTS: 11 patients (7 male, 60 ± 12 years) with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 37 ± 16 %) presenting with BBRT were successfully treated by ablation of the right bundle. Among them, 5 patients had atypical surface ECGs differing from a typical left bundle branch block during the VT...
January 5, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052582/magnetically-driven-nanoparticles-18-fdg-radiolabelling-and-positron-emission-tomography-biodistribution-study
#12
Mariarosaria De Simone, Daniele Panetta, Emilia Bramanti, Cristiana Giordano, Maria C Salvatici, Lisa Gherardini, Arianna Menciassi, Silvia Burchielli, Caterina Cinti, Piero A Salvadori
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have received increasing interest as contrast media in biomedical imaging and innovative therapeutic tools, in particular for loco-regional ablative treatments and drug delivery. The future of therapeutic applications would strongly benefit from improving the capability of the nanostructured constructs to reach the selected target, in particular beyond the intravascular space. Besides the decoration of SPIONs surface with ad hoc bioactive molecules, external magnetic fields are in principle able to remotely influence SPIONs' physiological biodistribution and concentrate them to a specific anatomical region or portion of a tissue...
November 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048360/mo-b-201-03-mri-guided-tracking-and-gating
#13
O Green
: The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048243/mo-b-201-00-motion-management-in-current-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-practice
#14
Charles Shang
: The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047597/mo-b-201-01-overcoming-the-challenges-of-motion-management-in-current-lung-sbrt-practice
#15
C Shang
: The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046946/mo-b-201-02-motion-management-for-proton-lung-sbr
#16
S Flampouri
: The motion management in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a key to success for a SBRT program, and still an on-going challenging task. A major factor is that moving structures behave differently than standing structures when examined by imaging modalities, and thus require special considerations and employments. Understanding the motion effects to these different imaging processes is a prerequisite for a decent motion management program. The commonly used motion control techniques to physically restrict tumor motion, if adopted correctly, effectively increase the conformity and accuracy of hypofractionated treatment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039280/selection-of-critical-isthmus-in-scar-related-atrial-tachycardia-using-a-new-automated-ultrahigh-resolution-mapping-system
#17
Decebal Gabriel Laţcu, Sok-Sithikun Bun, Frédéric Viera, Tahar Delassi, Mohammed El Jamili, Alaa Al Amoura, Nadir Saoudi
BACKGROUND: Accurate activation mapping of reentrant scar-related atrial tachycardias (AT) allows efficient radiofrequency ablation by targeting the critical isthmus (CI). We aimed to assess the electrophysiological properties of CI channels during mapping with the IntellaMap Orion basket and the Rhythmia system. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 33 AT (post- atrial fibrillation ablation or surgical mitral valve repair). The noise of bipolar electrogram (EGM) was systematically measured at 10 prespecified sites, as well as on a standard catheter and on the surface ECG...
January 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034710/a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study-on-refractive-surgery-in-15011-eyes
#18
Kazutaka Kamiya, Akihito Igarashi, Ken Hayashi, Kazuno Negishi, Masaki Sato, Hiroko Bissen-Miyajima
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical outcomes of currently used refractive surgery procedures performed in 2015. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. METHODS: This prospective study included 15,011 eyes of 7622 consecutive patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), surface ablation, refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx), or phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at 42 major institutions. We determined the safety, efficacy, predictability, stability, and adverse events of these surgeries preoperatively and at 1 week and 1 and 3 months postoperatively...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033569/temporal-and-diurnal-analysis-of-trace-elements-in-the-cryospheric-water-at-remote-laohugou-basin-in-northeast-tibetan-plateau
#19
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Xiang Qin, Fangping Yan, Wentao Du, Ting Wei
An evaluation of glacial meltwater chemistry is needed under recent dramatic glacier melting when water resources might be significantly impacted. This study investigated trace elements variation in the meltwater stream, and its related aquatic environmental information, at the Laohugou (LHG) glacier basin (4260 m a.s.l.) at a remote location in northeast Tibetan Plateau. We focused on the spatial, temporal and diurnal change of trace elements during the glacier ablation period. Results showed evident elements spatial difference on the glacier surface meltwater, as most of the elements showed increased concentration at the terminus compared to higher elevations sites...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031213/relationship-between-distance-and-change-in-surface-ecg-morphology-during-pacemapping-as-a-guide-to-ablation-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-implications-for-the-spatial-resolution-of-pacemapping
#20
Anthony Li, Joseph Samuel Davis, Jeremiah Wierwille, Keith Herold, Dennis Morgan, Elijah Behr, Stephen Shorofsky, Magdi Saba
BACKGROUND: Pacemapping is used to localize the exit site of ventricular arrhythmia. Although the relationship between distance and change in QRS morphology is its basis, this relationship has not been systematically quantified. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=68) undergoing ventricular arrhythmia ablation between March 2012 and July 2013 were recruited. Pacemapping was targeted to areas of voltage >0.5 mV. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed of distance against morphology difference measured by the root mean square error sum across all 12 ECG leads (E12)...
January 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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