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Elisabet Berggren, Andrew White, Gladys Ouedraogo, Alicia Paini, Andrea-Nicole Richarz, Frederic Y Bois, Thomas Exner, Sofia Leite, Leo A van Grunsven, Andrew Worth, Catherine Mahony
We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing...
November 2017: Computational Toxicology
Irshad S Sharafutdinov, Elena Y Trizna, Diana R Baidamshina, Maria N Ryzhikova, Regina R Sibgatullina, Alsu M Khabibrakhmanova, Liliya Z Latypova, Almira R Kurbangalieva, Elvira V Rozhina, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Mathias W Pletz, Mikhail I Bogachev, Airat R Kayumov, Oliwia Makarewicz
The gram-positive opportunistic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causatives of a variety of diseases including skin and skin structure infection or nosocomial catheter-associated infections. The biofilm formation that is an important virulence factor of this microorganism renders the antibiotic therapy ineffective, because biofilm-embedded bacteria exhibit strongly increased tolerance to antimicrobials. Here, we describe a novel 3-chloro-5(S)-[(1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyloxy]-4-[4-methylphenylsulfonyl]-2(5H)-furanone (F105), possessing a sulfonyl group and l-menthol moiety...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
C Sall, M Ayé, O Bottzeck, A Praud, Y Blache
A set of triazole-based analogues of N-coumaroyltyramine was designed to discover potential leads that may help in the control of bacterial biofilms. the most potent compounds act as inhibitors of biofilm development with EC50 closed to ampicillin (EC50 = 11 μM) without toxic effect on bacterial growth even at high concentrations(100 μM).
November 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ana Meireles, Carla Ferreira, Luís Melo, Manuel Simões
Microbial contamination is an unavoidable problem in industrial processes. Sodium hypochlorite (SH) is the most common biocide used for industrial disinfection. However, in view of the current societal concerns on environmental and public health aspects, there is a trend to reduce the use of this biocide as it can lead to the formation of organochlorinated carcinogenic compounds. In this work the efficacy of SH was assessed against Escherichia coli in planktonic and biofilm states and compared with three alternative chlorine-based biocides: neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW), chlorine dioxide (CD) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
H M Manukumar, S Umesha
In recent years much attention has been devoted to active packaging technologies that offer new opportunities for the food industry and food preservation. The spoilage of food products during post process handling leads to food contamination and causes life-threatening food-borne illness. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 090 is one of the food-borne pathogens associated with food poisoning that leads to an outbreak of perilous human infections worldwide. The development of resistance in bacteria and diffusion of coated synthetic preservatives into food are the major problem in food packaging industries...
December 2017: Food Research International
Lianguo Chen, James C W Lam
SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) being the biocidal ingredient, is a widely-used antifouling agent to deter the undesirable biofouling phenomenon. It is commercially promoted as an environmentally acceptable antifoulant mainly due to its claimed rapid degradation in marine environment. However, increasing researches document varying degradative kinetics in different environments, proving that SeaNine 211 is actually not degraded equally fast around the world (half-life between <1day and 13...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Raf Aerts, Laure Joly, Philippe Szternfeld, Khariklia Tsilikas, Koen De Cremer, Philippe Castelain, Jean-Marie Aerts, Jos Van Orshoven, Ben Somers, Marijke Hendrickx, Mirjana Andjelkovic, An Van Nieuwenhuyse
Monitoring human exposure to pesticides and pesticide residues (PRs) remains crucial for informing public health policies, despite strict regulation of plant protection product and biocide use. We used 72 low-cost silicone wristbands as non-invasive passive samplers to assess cumulative 5-day exposure of 30 individuals to polar PRs. Ethyl acetate extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for the identification of PRs. Thirty-one PRs were detected of which 15 PRs (48%) were detected only in worn wristbands, not in environmental controls...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sadegh Ghanbar, Miral Fumakia, Emmanuel A Ho, Song Liu
Antibiotic alternatives are in great need for combating antibiotic resistance. Selective delivery of a potent non-selective non-resistance-inducing biocide (C17) to MRSA was achieved by encapsulating it in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) conjugated with a MRSA-specific antibody (termed as "Ab"). The C17-loaded Ab-conjugated SLNs (C17-SLN-Ab) demonstrated significantly better antimicrobial activity than its antibody free counterpart (C17-loaded SLN) and C17-loaded SLN with a non-specific IgG antibody. In a new MRSA/fibroblast co-culture assay, C17-SLN-Ab showed selective toxicity towards MRSA than fibroblast cells...
November 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jahir Antonio Batista-Andrade, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Rodrigo Moço Batista, Italo Braga Castro, Gilberto Fillmann, Ednei Gilberto Primel
Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from <5 to 104 ng Sn g-1 and <1-149 ng Sn g-1, respectively...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Kunihiko Nishino
Bacterial multidrug exporters confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics, dyes, and biocides. Recent studies have shown that there are many multidrug exporters encoded in bacterial genome. For example, it was experimentally identified that E. coli has at least 20 multidrug exporters. Because many of these multidrug exporters have overlapping substrate spectra, it is intriguing that bacteria, with their economically organized genomes, harbor such large sets of multidrug exporter genes. The key to understanding how bacteria utilize these multiple exporters lies in the regulation of exporter expression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stefanie Wieck, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer
Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Peter Matthiessen, James R Wheeler, Lennart Weltje
This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chemicals, with the exception of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens found in sewage effluents, which are causing widespread effects on fish populations...
November 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Daniel Vázquez-Sánchez, Juliana A Galvão, Marília Oetterer
The major contamination sources, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in tilapia-processing plants were evaluated. Twenty-five processing control points were analysed twice in two factories, including whole tilapias, frozen fillets, water and food-contact surfaces. No final product was contaminated with S. aureus. However, high concentrations of S. aureus carrying enterotoxin ( se) genes were found in several processing points of both factories due to the application of inadequate hygienic and handling procedures, which generate a high risk of cross-contamination of the tilapia fillets with staphylococcal enterotoxins...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
S Miguéis, C Saraiva, A Esteves
Sushi restaurants have become quite popular in Europe, with an increase in the consumption of the sashimi speciality. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus have been reported in this kind of food. Controlling the presence and multiplication of L. monocytogenes is a challenge for food safety management systems owing to its ubiquitous presence and psychrotrophic growth. Bacteriophages have been used as pathogenic biocide agents for decades. The bacteriophage P100, present in LISTEX P100, was used in this study to understand the possibility of implementing a new critical control point for L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Silvia Di Lodovico, Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Elisabetta Ancarani, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms. METHODS: The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Eva Balsa-Canto, Carlos Vilas, Alejandro López-Núñez, Maruxa Mosquera-Fernández, Romain Briandet, Marta L Cabo, Carlos Vázquez
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can persist in food processing plants by forming biofilms on abiotic surfaces. The benefits that bacteria can gain from living in a biofilm, i.e., protection from environmental factors and tolerance to biocides, have been linked to the biofilm structure. Different L. monocytogenes strains build biofilms with diverse structures, and the underlying mechanisms for that diversity are not yet fully known. This work combines quantitative image analysis, cell counts, nutrient uptake data and mathematical modeling to provide a mechanistic insight into the dynamics of the structure of biofilms formed by L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juliana Cuadros, Aurora L Carreño, Vladimir V Kouznetsov, Jonny E Duque
INTRODUCTION: The alkaloid girgensohnine has been used as a natural model in the synthesis of new alkaloid-like alpha-aminonitriles with insecticidal effect against disease vectors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biocide activity of girgensohnine analogues and essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis and Eucalyptus citriodora in stage I and stage V Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a topical application model in tergites and sternites, as well as exposure to treated surfaces with different exploratory doses of each of the molecules and essential oils to determine the lethal doses (LD50 and LD95)...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Marcus Vinícius Dias-Souza, Daniel Lucas Soares, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos
This study aimed to investigate for the first time the in vitro antibiofilm effectiveness of two chloramphenicol liposome formulations against biofilms of potentially pathogenic bacteria associated to corrosion isolated from the water of cooling towers from a Brazilian industry. Antibiofilm assays with liposomes were performed in 96-wells microtiter plates, and data was compared to free chloramphenicol treatment. Chloramphenicol-loaded liposomes were successfully produced using the dehydration-rehydration method, with vesicle diameters of 131 nm (100 nm membrane extrusion) and 182 nm (200 nm membrane extrusion) assessed by dynamic light scattering...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Hatice Köse, Nur Yapar
Background/aim: Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics and biocides, they usually cause chronic persistent infections, which are arduous to cure and have high mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the efficiency of orthophthalaldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm layers and live microbial cells. Materials and methods: Biofilm layers were determined by crystal violet assay and live microbial cells were determined using a resazurin assay...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Karl Oetjen, Kevin E Chan, Kristoffer Gulmark, Jan H Christensen, Jens Blotevogel, Thomas Borch, John R Spear, Tzahi Y Cath, Christopher P Higgins
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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