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Konstantin S Yarygin, Boris A Kovarsky, Tatyana S Bibikova, Damir S Melnikov, Alexander V Tyakht, Dmitry G Alexeev
Summary: We created ResistoMap - a Web-based interactive visualization of the presence of genetic determinants conferring resistance to antibiotics, biocides and heavy metals in human gut microbiota. ResistoMap displays the data on more than 1500 published gut metagenomes of world populations including both healthy subjects and patients. Multiparameter display filters allow visual assessment of the associations between the meta-data and proportions of resistome. The geographic map navigation layer allows to state hypotheses regarding the global trends of antibiotic resistance and correlate the gut resistome variations with the national clinical guidelines on antibiotics application...
March 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Isaac Ofori, Suresh Maddila, Johnson Lin, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) inactivation of a Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) in oxidant demand free (ODF) water in detail as a function of disinfectant concentration (0.5-5.0 mg/L), water pH (6.5-8.5), temperature variations (4-37°C) and bacterial density (10(5)-10(7) cfu/mL). The effects of ClO2 on bacterial cell morphology, outer membrane permeability, cytoplasmic membrane disruption and intracellular enzymatic activity were also studied to elucidate the mechanism of action on the cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Md Ramim Tanver Rahman, Zaixiang Lou, Jun Zhang, Fuhao Yu, Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Caili Zhang, Yi Zhang, Amr M Bakry
Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) systems to communicate with each other and regulate microbial group behavior, such as the secretion of virulence factors, including biofilm formation. In order to explore safe, edible agents, the potential of star anise (SA) as an anti-QS and antibiofilm agent and its possible application in milk safety were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum were selected as test strains for QS, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide assays...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Marcus Östman, Richard H Lindberg, Jerker Fick, Erik Björn, Mats Tysklind
Incoming sewage water, treated effluent and digested sludge were collected from 11 Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) on 3 different days. Analytical protocols were established for a large number of compounds (47) with antimicrobial properties and the collected samples were then screened for the presence of these selected substances. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to analyse the samples. Thirty organic compounds and 10 metals were detected above their respective detection limit...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
Ulla E Bollmann, David Fernández-Calviño, Kristian K Brandt, Morten S Storgaard, Hans Sanderson, Kai Bester
Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L(-1) biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Carl-Fredrik Flach, Chandan Pal, Carl Johan Svensson, Erik Kristiansson, Marcus Östman, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Mats Tysklind, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Jiang, Jianshe Wang, Nan Sheng, Dongbing Wei, Jiayin Dai
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), an extensively used pesticide and biocide, is of critical environmental concern due to its toxicity and recalcitrance to degradation. In this study, the effect of PCP on induction of transcription factors, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes, and the antioxidative enzyme system were investigated in the quail liver. A total of 60 (4- to 6-week-old) male quails (Coturnix japonica) were administered 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/kg/d PCP orally for 42 d. Following exposure, both absolute and relative liver weights were significantly lower than those of the control...
March 2, 2017: Chemosphere
Ashraf A Kadry, Fathy M Serry, Amira M El-Ganiny, Ahmed M El-Baz
OBJECTIVE: Integrons are gene acquisition systems commonly found in bacterial genomes that play a major role in the dissemination of resistance to antibiotics. This work aimed to study the relationship between the presence of integrons and the reduced susceptibility of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates towards different groups of biocides. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 104 clinical isolates were determined against different antibiotics by the disk diffusion method...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Sonia Herranz, Adrián Fernández Gavela, Laura M Lechuga
The bimodal waveguide (BiMW) sensor is a novel common path interferometric transducer based on the evanescent field detection principle, which in combination with a bio-recognition element allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-free scheme. Due to its inherent high sensitivity it has great potential to become a powerful analytical tool for monitoring substances of interest in areas such as environmental control, medical diagnostics and food safety, among others. The BiMW sensor is fabricated using standard silicon-based technology allowing cost-effective production, and meeting the requirements of portability and disposability necessary for implementation in a point-of-care (POC) setting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francisco Avelelas, Roberto Martins, Tânia Oliveira, Frederico Maia, Eliana Malheiro, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro, João Tedim
Biofouling is a global problem that affects virtually all the immersed structures. Currently, several novel environmentally friendly approaches are being tested worldwide to decrease the toxicity of biocides in non-fouling species, such as the encapsulation/immobilization of commercially available biocides, in order to achieve control over the leaching rate. The present study addresses the toxicity of two widely used booster biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), in its free and incorporated forms in order to assess their toxicity and anti-fouling efficacy in target and non-target species...
March 9, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
Cristina Cattò, Giovanni Grazioso, Silvia Dell'Orto, Arianna Gelain, Stefania Villa, Valeria Marzano, Alberto Vitali, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, Fabio Forlani
In this research, salicylic acid is proposed as an alternative biocide-free agent suitable for a preventive or integrative anti-biofilm approach. Salicylic acid has been proved to: (1) reduce bacterial adhesion up to 68.1 ± 5.6%; (2) affect biofilm structural development, reducing viable biomass by 97.0 ± 0.7% and extracellular proteins and polysaccharides by 83.9 ± 2.5% and 49.5 ± 5.5% respectively; and (3) promote biofilm detachment 3.4 ± 0.6-fold. Moreover, salicylic acid treated biofilm showed an increased amount of intracellular (2...
March 2017: Biofouling
Giancarlo Galli, Elisa Martinelli
A range of amphiphilic polymers with diverse macromolecular architectures has been developed and incorporated into films and coatings with potential for marine antibiofouling applications, without resorting to addition of currently used biocidal, toxic agents. Novel "green" chemical technologies employ different building blocks to endow the polymer film with surface activity, functionality, structure, and reconstruction according to the outer environment as a result of a tailored amphiphilic character of the polymer platform...
March 7, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Andrea Gruner, Kai Mangelsdorf, Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand, Brian Horsfield, Geert M van der Kraan, Thomas Köhler, Christoph Janka, Brandon E L Morris, Heinz Wilkes
Microbial activity in petroleum reservoirs has been implicated in a suite of detrimental effects including deterioration of petroleum quality, increases in oil sulfur content, biofouling of steel pipelines and other infrastructures, and well plugging. Here, we present a biogeochemical approach, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), for detecting viable bacteria in petroleum systems. Variations within the bacterial community along water flow paths (producing well, topside facilities, and injection well) can be elucidated in the field using the same technique, as shown here within oil production plants in the Molasse Basin of Upper Austria...
March 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Gabriela Jirova, Zdenka Wittlingerova, Magdalena Zimova, Alena Vlkova, Martina Wittlerova, Marketa Dvorakova, Dagmar Jirova
Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Alexander Protasov, Jean-Francois Bardeau, Irina Morozovskaya, Mariia Boretska, Tetyana Chernyavska, Lyudmyla Petrus, Oksana Tarasyuk, Larisa Metelytsia, Iryna Kopernyk, Larisa Kalashnikova, Oleg Dzhuzha, Sergiy Rogalsky
New polymeric biocide polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) molybdate has been synthesized. The obtained cationic polymer has limited water solubility of 0.015 g/100 ml, and is insoluble in paint solvents. The results of acute toxicity studies indicate on moderate toxicity of PHMG molybdate which has LD50 , 48 h of 0.7 mg/L for Daphnia magna and LD50 , 96 h of 17 mg/L for Danio rerio (zebrafish) freshwater model organisms. Commercial ship paint was then modified by the addition of low concentration of polymeric biocide 5% (w/w)...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Nadine Wieland, Julia Boss, Sarah Lettmann, Barbara Fritz, Karin Schwaiger, Johann Bauer, Christina S Hölzel
AIMS: The spread of bacteria that are simultaneously resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobials would constitute an unsettling scenario. In order to explore an association between antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility to biocides / microbicides like disinfectants in agriculture, we investigated Escherichia (E.) coli (n = 438) and enterococci (n = 120) isolated from six different flocks of the same poultry farm with known history of antimicrobial treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Susceptibility to disinfectants (formic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound, didecyldimethlyammoniumchloride - DDAC) was assessed by macrodilution (German Veterinary Society)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Henrietta Venter, Michael L Henningsen, Stephanie L Begg
The crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious issues facing us today. The scale of the problem is illustrated by the recent commitment of Heads of State at the UN to coordinate efforts to curb the spread of AMR infections. In this review, we explore the biochemistry behind the headlines of a few stories that were recently published in the public media. We focus on examples from three different issues related to AMR: (i) hospital-acquired infections, (ii) the spread of resistance through animals and/or the environment and (iii) the role of antimicrobial soaps and other products containing disinfectants in the dissemination of AMR...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
Tsuyoshi Mitani, Ahmed Ibrahim Elhossany Elmarhomy, Luvsandorj Dulamjav, Enkhtumur Anu, Shohei Saitoh, Shiro Ishida, Yasuo Oyama
Benzalkonium chloride (BZK) is a common preservative used in pharmaceutical and personal care products. ZnCl2 was recently reported to significantly potentiate the cytotoxicity of some biocidal compounds. In the present study, therefore, we compared the cytotoxic potency of BZK and then further studied the Zn(2+)-related actions of the most cytotoxic agent among BZK, using flow cytometric techniques with appropriate fluorescent probes in rat thymocytes. Cytotoxicity of benzylcetyldimethylammonium (BZK-C16) was more potent that those of benzyldodecyldimethylammonium and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium...
February 28, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Daniela Deus, Carsten Krischek, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ahmad Reza Sharifi, Ulrike Fiegen, Felix Reich, Guenter Klein, Corinna Kehrenberg
A total of 174 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates collected from humans (n=140) and healthy broiler chickens (n = 34) was included in the study. The MIC values of alkyl diaminoethyl glycin hydrochloride, benzethonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, acriflavine, copper sulfate, silver nitrate and zinc chloride were determined by the broth microdilution method. Significant differences in MIC distributions were found between human and avian isolates and between CTX-M-, SHV- and TEM-type ESBL E...
February 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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