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Novel antibiotic

Steven L Percival
A novel hydrophilic polyurethane (PU) foam dressing which is impregnated with silver chloride, Optifoam® Gentle (OG) Ag+ (Medline Industries Inc., Chicago, Illinois), was evaluated in this study. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of elution of silver from the foam dressing over a period of 168 hours into simulated wound fluid and an evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy using zone of inhibition (ZOI), direct kill, and time-kill viability. Thirty-two microorganisms associated with wounds including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, and antibiotic-resistant strains (Methicillin-resistant S...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Danielle H Dube
"Drug Discovery" is a 13-week lecture and laboratory-based course that was developed to introduce non-science majors to foundational chemistry and biochemistry concepts as they relate to the unifying theme of drug discovery. The first part of this course strives to build students' understanding of molecules, their properties, the differences that enable them to be separated from one another, and their abilities to bind to biological receptors and elicit physiological effects. After building students' molecular worldview, the course then focuses on four classes of drugs: antimicrobials, drugs that affect the mind, steroid-based drugs, and anti-cancer drugs...
March 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Woo Cheol Lee, Min-Cheol Jeong, Yeongjoon Lee, Chulhee Kwak, Jee-Young Lee, Yangmee Kim
Originally annotated as the initiator of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III) is a unique component of the bacterial FAS system. Novel variants of KAS III have been identified that promote the de novo use of additional extracellular fatty acids by FAS. These KAS III variants prefer longer acyl-groups, notably octanoyl-CoA. Acinetobacter baumannii, a clinically important nosocomial pathogen, contains such a multifunctional KAS III (AbKAS III). To characterize the structural basis of its substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of AbKAS III in the presence of different substrates...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Svetlana S Efimova, Evgeny G Chulkov, Olga S Ostroumova
The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), namely, lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), bupivacaine (BPV), procaine (PC), and tetracaine (TTC), on the steady-state transmembrane conductance induced by the cis-side addition of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic, nystatin (NYS), in planar lipid bilayers were studied. The addition of TTC to model membranes comprising DOPC and cholesterol (33 mol%) led to a nearly twenty-fold increase in the steady-state NYS-induced membrane conductance...
March 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Olfa Ben Braïek, Paola Cremonesi, Stefano Morandi, Slim Smaoui, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
This study aims to characterise a potential bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterial strain isolated from a raw pink shrimp (Palaemon serratus) and evaluate its safety aspect. The strain designated as 4CP3 was noted to display antibacterial activities (P < 0.05) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and some filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergillus niger A79). Phenotypic and molecular techniques as well as phylogenetic analysis identified the isolate 4CP3 as Enterococcus lactis...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kuppan Gokulan, Sangeeta Khare, Carl E Cerniglia, Steven L Foley, Kottayil I Varughese
The final step of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in all bacteria is the formation of cross-linkage between PG-stems. The cross-linking between amino acids in different PG chains gives the peptidoglycan cell wall a 3-dimensional structure and adds strength and rigidity to it. There are two distinct types of cross-linkages in bacterial cell walls. D,D-transpeptidase (D,D-TPs) generate the classical 4➔3 cross-linkages and the L,D-transpeptidase (L,D-TPs) generate the 3➔3 non-classical peptide cross-linkages...
March 9, 2018: AAPS Journal
Lin Wang, Yingze Zhang, Zhaohui Song, Hengrui Chang, Ye Tian, Fei Zhang
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate the novel method of using elastic bionic fixation device in treating the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (DTS) injury. METHODS: From June 2013 to January 2014, 17 subjects with ankle fractures combined with DTS separation were treated by the elastic bionic fixation device. The syndesmotic parameters, healing, functional scores, and possible complications were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had a mean follow-up of 23...
March 9, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Alberto M Martelli, Francesca Buontempo, James A McCubrey
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the kinase subunit of two structurally and functionally distinct large multiprotein complexes, referred to as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. mTORC1 and mTORC2 play key physiological roles as they control anabolic and catabolic processes in response to external cues in a variety of tissues and organs. However, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities are deregulated in widespread human diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells take advantage of mTOR oncogenic signaling to drive their proliferation, survival, metabolic transformation, and metastatic potential...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
David P Nicolau, Brittany A Rodrigueza, Jennifer E Girottoa
The rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections has become a significant problem in both the developing countries and in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, MDR gram-negative infections are emerging, affecting not only adults but children as well. The specific gram-negative organisms that have been most concerning within the pediatric population include MDR P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter spp. The increase in antimicrobial resistance rates are associated with various mechanisms, with, one of the most common being the production of beta-lactamases...
March 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Ismail A Odetokun, Britta Ballhausen, Victoria O Adetunji, Ibraheem Ghali-Mohammed, Mukaila T Adelowo, Shakirat A Adetunji, Alexandra Fetsch
Staphylococcus aureus is a zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. Information on the prevalence and risk factors facilitating bacterial colonization and spread under abattoir settings in Nigeria are scarce. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine prevalence of S. aureus as well as risk factors on knowledge and practices facilitating pathogen carriage among workers and slaughter animals in two municipal abattoirs of Ilorin and Ibadan, Nigeria. Swab samples (n = 1671) from nostrils of cattle, goats, pigs and abattoir workers, and from meat tables and abattoir walls were collected for detection of S...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Gaoli He, Beining Guo, Jing Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaojie Wu, Yaxin Fan, Yuancheng Chen, Guoying Cao, Jicheng Yu
Levornidazole is a novel third-generation nitroimidazoles antibiotic which metabolism and disposition in human are not well known. We have previously developed two methods to quantify levornidazole and its phase I metabolites, Ml (Hydroxylation metabolite), M2 (N-dealkylation metabolite) and M4 (Oxidative dechlorination metabolite), in human plasma and urine. In this study, we developed three novel liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) methods and analyzed its phase II metabolites, sulfate conjugate (M6) and glucuronide conjugate (M16), in human plasma and urine, and the parent drug and above-mentioned five metabolites in human feces samples...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Donald W Lawrence, Jacki Kornbluth
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia and a significant economic burden. Antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae has become more prevalent in recent years and many pneumonia cases are caused by S. pneumoniae that is resistant to at least one antibiotic. The ubiquitin ligase natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM/RNF19b) plays a role in innate immunity and studies using NKLAM-knockout (NKLAM-KO) macrophages have demonstrated that NKLAM positively affects the transcriptional activity of STAT1...
2018: PloS One
J Janata, Z Kamenik, R Gazak, S Kadlcik, L Najmanova
Covering: up to 2017This review covers the biosynthetic and evolutionary aspects of lincosamide antibiotics, antitumour pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and the quorum-sensing molecule hormaomycin. These structurally and functionally diverse groups of complex natural products all incorporate rarely occurring 4-alkyl-l-proline derivatives (APDs) biosynthesized from l-tyrosine through an unusual specialized pathway catalysed by a common set of six proteins named Apd1-Apd6. We give an overview of APD formation, which involves unusual enzyme activities, and its incorporation, which is based either on nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PBDs, hormaomycin) or a unique hybrid ergothioneine-dependent condensation system followed by mycothiol-dependent sulphur atom incorporation (lincosamides)...
March 8, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Zhihai Liu, Jiyun Li, Xiaoming Wang, Dejun Liu, Yuebin Ke, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) mediated by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) poses a serious challenge to clinicians and has become a major public health concern. NDM has been evolving into variants that possess different hydrolysis activity toward antibiotics, so as to affect treatment strategy. In addition, very few studies on NDM variants have focused on animal-derived bacterial isolates. Our study reports a novel NDM variant, NDM-20, in an isolate of Escherichia coli CCD1 recovered from the food animal swine in China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Luke T Daum, John D Rodriguez, Halima M Said, Remco P H Peters, John Osei Sekyere, Gerald W Fischer, James P Chambers, P Bernard Fourie
Modern advances in genomics provide an opportunity to re-interpret historical bacterial culture collections. In this study, genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from an historical 20-year-old multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) culture collection in South Africa are described. DNA samples extracted from the phenotypically MDR-TB isolates (n=240) were assayed by Hain line probe assay (LPA) for the confirmation of MDR-TB and by Illumina Miseq whole genome sequencing (WGS) for the characterization of mutations in eight genes ( rpo B, kat G, inh A, rps L, pnc A, emb B, gyr A and rrs ) that are known to code for resistance to commonly used anti-TB agents...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shad Uddin Mahfuz, Hui Song, Zhongjun Liu, Xinyu Liu, Zipeng Diao, Guihong Ren, Zhixin Guo, Yan Cui
Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (FVW), on organic eggs production, calcium utilization, antibody response, serum immunoglobulin, and serum cytokine concentration at early phase of production in laying hens. Methods: A total 210, 19 weeks old aged ISA Brown layers were randomly assigned into 5 equal treatment groups, with 7 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatment includes a standard basal diet as control; antibiotic (0...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
J Bi, Y Liu, X M Liu, L M Jiang, X Chen
AIM: To investigate the antibacterial activity of a novel intracanal medicament, iRoot FM, against Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) and its effects on the proliferation and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP). METHODOLOGY: The agar diffusion test was used to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of iRoot FM with two traditional intracanal medicaments, calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] and triple antibiotic paste (TAP)...
March 7, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Sofia Mindlin, Anatoliy Petrenko, Mayya Petrova
A novel mobile genetic element has been identified in small plasmids isolated from permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii. This element, designated the chrAB dif module, contains the chromium resistance genes chrA and chrB, functionally active both in the original host strains and after transfer into Acinetobacter baylyi. The 3011 bp chrAB dif module is flanked by XerC/XerD recombination sites highly homologous to those of the site-specific recombination system dif/Xer. Analysis of public databases revealed almost identical variants of the chrAB dif module in different plasmids in strains of various Acinetobacter species predominantly inhabiting the environment (A...
March 4, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Benjamin E Bergstrom, Ahmed Abdelkhalek, Waleed Younis, G Kenitra Hammac, Wendy M Townsend, Mohamed N Seleem
Antibiotic resistance of bacteria common to the ocular surface is an evolving problem. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. We investigated the antibacterial activity and safety of three commercially available topical veterinary ophthalmic products (cationic steroid antibiotics, products A and B, and a neutral superoxidized water, product C) to determine their potential use as antimicrobial alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the three products were determined against 17 antibiotic resistant bacterial clinical isolates from the ocular surface...
2018: PloS One
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