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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229977/non-ribosomal-peptide-synthetases-identifying-the-cryptic-gene-clusters-and-decoding-the-natural-product
#1
Mangal Singh, Sandeep Chaudhary, Dipti Sareen
Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) present in bacteria and fungi are the major multi-modular enzyme complexes which synthesize secondary metabolites like the pharmacologically important antibiotics and siderophores. Each of the multiple modules of an NRPS activates a different amino or aryl acid, followed by their condensation to synthesize a linear or cyclic natural product. The studies on NRPS domains, the knowledge of their gene cluster architecture and tailoring enzymes have helped in the in silico genetic screening of the ever-expanding sequenced microbial genomic data for the identification of novel NRPS/PKS clusters and thus deciphering novel non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs)...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229046/genome-sequence-of-three-psychrobacter-sp-strains-with-potential-applications-in-bioremediation
#2
Aide Lasa, Jesús L Romalde
To date, the genus Psychrobacter consists of 37 recognized species isolated from different sources, however they are more frequently found in cold and other non-polar environments of low water activity. Some strains belonging to the genus have shown different enzymatic activities with potential applications in bioremediation or food industry. In the present study, the whole genome sequences of three Psychrobacter-like strains (C 20.9, Cmf 22.2 and Rd 27.2) isolated from reared clams in Galicia (Spain) are described...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228076/transdermal-drug-delivery-opportunities-and-challenges-for-controlled-delivery-of-therapeutic-agents-using-nanocarriers
#3
Balak Das Kurmi, Pawan Tekchandani, Rishi Paliwal, Shivani Rai Paliwal
BACKGROUND: Transdermal drug delivery represents an extremely attractive and innovative route across the skin owing to the possibility for achieving systemic effect of drugs. Present scenario demands a special focus on developing safe medicine with minimize toxic adverse effects related to most of the pharmacologically active agents. Transdermal drug delivery would be a focal paradigm which provides patient convenience, first-pass hepatic metabolism avoidance, local targeting and reduction in toxic effect related to various categories of drugs like, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, antiviral, anaesthetic, anticancer etc...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228075/challenges-in-dermal-delivery-of-therapeutic-antimicrobial-protein-and-peptides
#4
Rohan Aminbhai Lalani, Ambikanandan Misra, Jitendra Amrutiya, Hinal Patel, Priyanka Bhatt, Vivek Patel
BACKGROUND: Protein and peptides in biological system form an important part of innate immune system and are being explored for potential use in various diseases as therapeutics. Importance of proteins and peptides as a new class of antimicrobial agents have boosted research in the field of biotechnology as potential alternative to antibiotic agents. OBJECTIVE: Protein and peptides antimicrobial as a therapeutics class are structurally diverse and exhibit potent activity against microbes by various mechanisms...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226536/evaluation-of-a-novel-portable-micro-pump-and-infusion-system-for-drug-delivery
#5
Paul Pankhurst, Zahra McGuinness Abdollahi, Paul Pankhurst, Zahra McGuinness Abdollahi, Zahra McGuinness Abdollahi, Paul Pankhurst
In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental results of a novel portable fixed-displacement micro-pump for controlled dosing and timing is described. The new pump is developed especially for high efficiency, high accuracy, ease of use and very low cost for single use drug delivery systems which can overcome many of the deficiencies of current portable pumps. Primary tests have been conducted and the results have demonstrated that the pump has the ability to deliver high performance and accuracy with less than +/-1% error over the whole operating flow rate range of 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#6
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225264/fatty-acid-comprising-lysine-conjugates-anti-mrsa-agents-that-display-in-vivo-efficacy-by-disrupting-biofilms-with-no-resistance-development
#7
Mohini Mohan Konai, Jayanta Haldar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have developed resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin. Additionally, their biofilm forming capability has set an alarming situation in the treatment of bacterial infections. Herein we report the potency of fatty acid comprising lysine conjugates as novel anti-MRSA agents, which were not only capable of killing growing planktonic MRSA at low concentration (MIC = 3.1-6.3 µg/mL), but also displayed potent activity against non-dividing stationary phase cells...
February 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225263/bactericidal-effect-of-gold-chitosan-nanocomposites-in-co-culture-models-of-pathogenic-bacteria-and-human-macrophages
#8
Gracia Mendoza, Anna Regiel-Futyra, Vanesa Andreu, Victor Sebastian, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Grazyna Stochel, Manuel Arruebo
Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop resistance mechanisms to avoid the antimicrobial potential of antibiotics becoming an increasing problem for the healthcare systems. The search for more effective and selective antimicrobial materials, though not harmful to mammalian cells, seems imperative. Herein we propose the use of gold-chitosan nanocomposites as effective bactericidal materials avoiding the damage to human cells. Nanocomposites were obtained taking advantage of the reductive and stabilizing action of chitosan solutions on two different gold precursor concentrations...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223804/decreased-bacterial-growth-on-titanium-nanoscale-topographies-created-by-ion-beam-assisted-evaporation
#9
Michelle Stolzoff, Jason E Burns, Arash Aslani, Eric J Tobin, Congtin Nguyen, Nicholas De La Torre, Negar H Golshan, Katherine S Ziemer, Thomas J Webster
Titanium is one of the most widely used materials for orthopedic implants, yet it has exhibited significant complications in the short and long term, largely resulting from poor cell-material interactions. Among these many modes of failure, bacterial infection at the site of implantation has become a greater concern with the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nanostructured surfaces have been found to prevent bacterial colonization on many surfaces, including nanotextured titanium. In many cases, specific nanoscale roughness values and resulting surface energies have been considered to be "bactericidal"; here, we explore the use of ion beam evaporation as a novel technique to create nanoscale topographical features that can reduce bacterial density...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223381/a-phase-i-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-and-moxifloxacin-controlled-4-period-crossover-study-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-gepotidacin-on-cardiac-conduction-as-assessed-by-12-lead-electrocardiogram-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Mohammad Hossain, Meijian Zhou, Courtney Tiffany, Etienne Dumont, Borje Darpo
Gepotidacin is a novel, first in class triazaacenaphthylene antibiotic in development for treatment of conventional and biothreat infections. This was a single-dose, cross-over thorough QT study in healthy subjects who were administered an IV gepotidacin as a therapeutic (1000 mg), and supra-therapeutic (1800 mg) dose, placebo and 400 mg oral moxifloxacin in 4 separate treatment periods.Gepotidacin caused a mild effect on heart rate with a largest placebo-corrected change-from-baseline HR of 7 and 10 bpm at the end of the 1000 mg and 1800 mg infusion, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223246/physical-key-properties-of-antibiotic-free-plga-hpmc-based-in-situ-forming-implants-for-local-periodontitis-treatment
#12
K Agossa, M Lizambard, T Rongthong, E Delcourt-Debruyne, J Siepmann, F Siepmann
In-situ forming implants (ISFI) offer an interesting potential for the treatment of periodontitis, allowing for time-controlled drug release directly at the site of action (which is difficult to reach). For this purpose, ISFI loaded with antibiotics have been reported in the literature. But the use of antibiotic drugs at low doses over prolonged periods of time can lead to the development of bacterial resistances. This risk should be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a novel type of in-situ forming implants, loaded with the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222723/rapid-precise-quantification-of-bacterial-cellular-dimensions-across-a-genomic-scale-knockout-library
#13
Tristan Ursell, Timothy K Lee, Daisuke Shiomi, Handuo Shi, Carolina Tropini, Russell D Monds, Alexandre Colavin, Gabriel Billings, Ilina Bhaya-Grossman, Michael Broxton, Bevan Emma Huang, Hironori Niki, Kerwyn Casey Huang
BACKGROUND: The determination and regulation of cell morphology are critical components of cell-cycle control, fitness, and development in both single-cell and multicellular organisms. Understanding how environmental factors, chemical perturbations, and genetic differences affect cell morphology requires precise, unbiased, and validated measurements of cell-shape features. RESULTS: Here we introduce two software packages, Morphometrics and BlurLab, that together enable automated, computationally efficient, unbiased identification of cells and morphological features...
February 21, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221245/an-articulating-antibiotic-cement-spacer-for-first-stage-reconstruction-for-infected-total-elbow-arthroplasty
#14
Kanishka E Williams, Simon MacLean, Jesse Jupiter, Gregory I Bain
Management of an infected total elbow replacement is a significant clinical challenge. Although preservation of the prosthesis is ideal, a 2-stage revision is often necessary. Unlike lower limb arthroplasty, antibiotic spacers are not commercially available. Monoblock cement spacers do not allow elbow movements and are therefore associated with severe stiffness and scarring, leading to poor clinical outcomes. In our paper we present a simple and novel technique for constructing an articulating antibiotic-impregnated spacer for use as an implant for a 1-stage revision of an infected elbow arthroplasty...
February 17, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220115/spread-of-the-blaoxa-23-containing-tn2008-in-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-grouped-in-cc92-from-china
#15
Yisheng Chen, Jing Gao, Haomin Zhang, Chunmei Ying
The rapid expansion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates is a big issue. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and resistance gene of A. baumannii collected at two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Besides, the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing method (AB-PBRT) was conducted to categorize the plasmids into homogeneous groups on the basis of replicase genes. Most CRAB isolates showed high-level resistance to almost all antibiotics but retain susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#16
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219792/conjugative-type-iv-secretion-in-gram-positive-pathogens-trag-a-lytic-transglycosylase-and-endopeptidase-interacts-with-translocation-channel-protein-tram
#17
Verena Kohler, Ines Probst, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Sabrina Büttner, Lisa Schaden, Gerald Rechberger, Günther Koraimann, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel...
February 17, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218810/phytosterols-improve-immunity-and-exert-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-weaned-piglets
#18
Qiaoling Hu, Zhuo Zhao, Shenglin Fang, Yiwei Zhang, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytosterols (PS), plant-derived natural steroid compounds, are novel feed additives to regulate immune function and promote pig growth. This study was conducted to determine the effects of PS on the immune response of weaned piglets. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets with an average initial weight of 9.58 ± 0.26 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments. Treatments consisted of a control, PS (0...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215073/identification-of-highly-specific-diversity-oriented-synthesis-derived-inhibitors-of-clostridium-difficile
#19
Jeremy R Duvall, Leanne Bedard, Adel M Naylor-Olsen, Abigail L Manson, Joshua A Bittker, Wenye Sun, Mark E Fitzgerald, Zhenmin He, Maurice Dupont Lee, Jean-Charles Marie, Giovanni Muncipinto, Diane Rush, Deming Xu, Huisheng Xu, Mingliang Zhang, Ashlee M Earl, Michelle A Palmer, Michael A Foley, Joseph P Vacca, Christina A Scherer
In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control highlighted Clostridium difficile as an urgent threat for antibiotic resistant infections, in part due to the emergence of highly virulent fluoroquinolone resistant strains. Limited therapeutic options currently exist, many of which result in disease relapse. We sought to identify molecules specifically targeting C. difficile in high throughput screens of our diversity-oriented synthesis compound collection. We identified two scaffolds with apparently novel mechanisms of action that selectively target C...
February 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213548/effects-of-gelling-agent-and-extracellular-signaling-molecules-on-the-culturability-of-marine-bacteria
#20
Anita Mac Rygaard, Mariane Schmidt Thøgersen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Lone Gram, Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia
Only 1 % of marine bacteria are currently culturable using standard laboratory procedures and this is a major obstacle for our understanding of the biology of marine microorganisms and for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if improved cultivation conditions, including the use of an alternative gelling agent, and supplementation with signaling molecules, could improve the culturability of bacteria from seawater. Substituting agar with gellan gum improved viable counts 3 - 40-fold, depending on medium composition and incubation conditions, with a maximum of 6...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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