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Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Wataro Tsuruta, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Go Ikeda, Masayuki Sato, Yoshiro Ito, Tomoji Takigawa, Aiki Marushima, Yasunobu Nakai, Yuji Matsumaru, Akira Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Endovascular surgery for vertebral artery dissections (VADs) carries the risk of spinal cord infarction (SCI). Although SCI in the region of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) has been reported, SCI in the region of the posterior spinal artery (PSA) is rare. OBJECTIVE: To investigate PSA infarction after endovascular surgery for VAD. METHODS: Infarction in the region of the PSA after endovascular surgery for VADs carried out in consecutive 21 cases was investigated...
March 9, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on apoptosis induced by hypoxic-ischemic damage in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the possible signaling pathway involved in the neuroprotective anti-apoptotic effects of RA. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests were used to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of RA...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, K Sivarama Raju, Mu Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug, has been clinically used for decades; however, its mechanism of action still remains enigmatic. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of mitochondrion-specific factors of caspase-independent pathway like apoptotic-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G (endo-G) in piracetam-induced neuroprotection. N2A cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited significant cytotoxicity, impaired mitochondrial activity, and reactive oxygen species generation which was significantly attenuated with piracetam co-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Jacek Staszewski, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Ewa Skrobowska, Bogdan Brodacki, Katarzyna Macek, Adam Stępień
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of aspirin resistance (AR) in patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is not well known. The aim of this single-center, prospective study was to examine the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic significance of AR in patients with different clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) over 24-month follow-up. METHODS: We studied 104 patients with MRI confirmed CSVD, including those with recent lacunar stroke (LS, n=49), vascular parkinsonism (VaP, n=16) and dementia (VaD, n=39)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Chengcheng Wang, Feifei Pu, Runmei Yang, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Yulin Lin, Xiuhua Liu, Dayong Cai
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke. The neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in its pathogenesis. VaD lacks suitable animal models for developing preventive therapies. This study aimed to confirm a model for preventing VaD via maintaing NVC sensitivity in rats. The model was replicated with autologous microthrombi against the background of hypercholesterolemia. A phosphodiesterase inhibitor (pentoxyfylline) was preventively administrated to confirm the role of NVC sensitivity...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Li Cheng, Hao Wang, Kecun Guo, Zicheng Wang, Zhongyuan Zhang, Cheng Shen, Liang Chen, Jian Lin
Background: Human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer that arises from the renal epithelium. Up to 33.3% of RCC patients treated with local tumor resections will subsequently develop recurrence or metastases. Thus, optimized therapeutic regimes are urgently needed to improve the prognosis of RCC. Reversine was recently reported to exert critical roles in cancer therapy. Materials and methods: This study evaluated the anti-tumor effects of reversine on cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, and cell cycle in 786-O and ACHN cell lines...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani, Marco Vigliano, Giovanna Longo, Eugenia Franchini, Paola Secchiero, Giorgio Zauli, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Ajay Vikram Singh, Maria Luisa Serino, Beatrice Ortolani, Amedeo Zurlo, Cristina Bosi, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa, Rosanna Asselta, Donato Gemmati
Cognitive impairments of different aetiology share alterations in iron and lipid homeostasis with mutual relationships. Since iron and cholesterol accumulation impact on neurodegenerative disease, the associated gene variants are appealing candidate targets for risk and disease progression assessment. In this light, we explored the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the main iron homeostasis genes and in the main lipoprotein transporter gene (APOE) in a cohort of 765 patients with dementia of different origin: Alzheimer's disease (AD) n = 276; vascular dementia (VaD), n = 255; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n = 234; and in normal controls (n = 1086)...
2018: PloS One
Jianjian Zhuang, Juxin Yin, Chaojian Xu, Ying Mu, Shaowu Lv
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are common leukemia in adults. 20(S)-GRh2 is an important bioactive substance that is present in Panax ginseng. However, there are no investigations that deal with the comparison of apoptosis, the occurrence of autophagy, and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy after being treated with 20(S)-GRh2 in AML and CML. In this study, we explored the effect of 20(S)-GRh2 on the AML and CML (U937 and K562). Fluorescence microscopy, CCK-8, Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometric analysis were used to detect the occurrence of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Ina Laura Pieper, Gemma Radley, Abigail Christen, Sabrina Ali, Owen Bodger, Catherine A Thornton
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are a life-saving form of mechanical circulatory support in heart failure patients. However, VADs have not yet reached their full potential due to the associated side effects (thrombosis, bleeding, infection) related to the activation and damage of blood cells and proteins caused by mechanical stress and foreign materials. Studies of the effects of VADs on leukocytes are limited, yet leukocyte activation and damage including microparticle generation can influence both thrombosis and infection rates...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Organs
Masahiko Ando, Arthur R Garan, Hiroo Takayama, Veli K Topkara, Jiho Han, Paul Kurlansky, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Maryjane A Farr, Paolo C Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, Koji Takeda
BACKGROUND: The use of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in the treatment of cardiogenic shock has increased. However, limitations in flow capability, ventricular unloading effect, durability, and mobility remain. We reviewed our single-center experience with continuous-flow external ventricular assist devices (VADs) to determine the role of temporary VADs for cardiogenic shock in the contemporary MCS era. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 252 patients who underwent continuous-flow external VAD insertion between January 2007 and December 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Joanna Y Huang, Paul Monagle, M Patricia Massicotte, Christina J VanderPluym
INTRODUCTION: Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) are increasingly utilised in children with end-stage heart failure, and experience high bleeding and clotting rates. In particular, pediatric VAD patients are more challenging than adults to anticoagulate due to developmental hemostasis, lack of suitable drug preparations, and difficult anticoagulation monitoring often due to poor vascular access; in addition to difficulties of VAD design in smaller children. This review aims to summarize the current evidence related to antithrombotic therapy in pediatric VAD patients...
February 28, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Yanling Guo, Xiaxia Wu, Qin Wu, Yuanfu Lu, Jingshan Shi, Xiuping Chen
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum with increasing morbidity in recent years. 15,16-dihydrotanshinone Ӏ (DHT) is a natural product with multiple bioactivities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanisms of DHT on UC. Dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) was administrated in drinking water for 7 days to induce UC in mice. DHT (10 and 25 mg/kg) significantly alleviated DSS-induced body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) scores, and improved histological alterations of colon tissues...
February 26, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Roland Hetzer, Mariano Francisco Del Maria Javier, Eva Maria Delmo Walter
Background: While heart transplantation has gained recognition as the gold standard therapy for advanced heart failure, the scarcity of donor organs has become an important concern. The evolution of surgical alternatives such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), allow for recovery of the myocardium and ensure patient survival until heart transplantation becomes possible. This report elaborates the role of VADs as a bridge to heart transplantation in infants and children (≤18 years old) with end-stage heart failure...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Anne I Dipchand
Pediatric heart transplantation is standard of care for children with end-stage heart failure. The diverse age range, diagnoses, and practice variations continue to challenge the development of evidence-based practices and new technologies. Outcomes in the most recent era are excellent, especially with the more widespread use of ventricular assist devices (VADs). Waitlist mortality remains high and knowledge of risk factors for death while waiting and following transplantation contributes to decision-making around transplant candidacy and timing of listing...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
M O Ongele, E Benrashid, B F Gilmore, J Schroder, M Hartwig, S Zani
Use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) is increasingly common, as is the need for surgeons to be familiar with the management of common complications in this population. Nonetheless, repair of diaphragmatic hernias which commonly develop following VAD implantation remains technically challenging due to intra-abdominal adhesions and the proximity of vital structures. Despite the potential benefits of improved dexterity and visualization, robotic approaches have thus far not been used to address this. We present the first two described cases of robot-assisted repair of diaphragmatic hernias in the setting of prior or current VAD placement...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Lijuan Yang, Haitao Ran
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is not uncommon in the young adult population. Owing to the various clinical manifestations; the diagnosis of VAD mainly depends on imaging examinations. Ultrasound has found an increasingly wide utilization in the diagnosis of VAD because of the continuous improvement in the resolution of ultrasonic instruments and accessibility.We retrospectively collected the data of patients with a US-proven extracranial vertebral artery dissection. In accordance with the sonographic findings, all patients were classified as having intramural hematoma, double-lumen dissection, and occlusion dissection...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lee P Ferguson, Phuoc Duong, Kim F Pearce, Paul Murphy, Tina T Biss
The optimal method for monitoring antiplatelet therapy in children supported with ventricular assist devices (VADs) is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study to compare Thromboelastography Platelet Mapping (TEG/PM) with multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA) on a Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). We analyzed data from 66 paired blood samples from 9 patients <16 years of age on VAD where platelet function was simultaneously measured with TEG/PM and MEA. Antiplatelet dose-response relationships and intraindividual variability during steady state therapy were determined...
February 27, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Chitaru Kurihara, Andre Critsinelis, Masashi Kawabori, Tadahisa Sugiura, Andrew B Civitello, Jeffrey A Morgan
Although preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients undergoing continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation, how AF affects outcomes remains unclear. We analyzed our single-center experience with CF-LVAD implantation to determine whether preoperative AF was associated with inferior outcomes. From November 2003 through March 2016, 526 patients with chronic heart failure underwent implantation with the HeartMate II (HMII; n = 403) or HeartWare VAD (HVAD; n = 123). We identified 229 patients (165 HMII, 65 HVAD) who had preoperative AF and compared them with non-preoperative AF patients regarding the incidence of postoperative stroke, as well as long-term survival...
February 24, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yu Saito, Shota Moriya, Hiromi Kazama, Kazuhiro Hirasawa, Kana Miyahara, Hiroko Kokuba, Hirotsugu Hino, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Naoharu Takano, Masaki Hiramoto, Kiyoaki Tsukahara, Keisuke Miyazawa
The maintenance of the intracellular level of amino acids is crucial for cellular homeostasis. This is carried out via the regulation of both the influx from the extracellular environment and the recycling of intracellular resources. Since epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib (GEF) have been reported to induce the apoptosis of several cancer cell lines, in the present study, we examined whether the cytotoxic effects of GEF are further enhanced under amino acid starvation (AAS) culture conditions...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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