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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#1
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#2
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786793/a-method-for-prostate-and-breast-cancer-cell-spheroid-cultures-using-gelatin-methacryloyl-based-hydrogels
#3
Christoph Meinert, Christina Theodoropoulos, Travis J Klein, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
Modern tissue engineering technologies have delivered tools to recreate a cell's naturally occurring niche in vitro and to investigate normal and pathological cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. Hydrogel biomaterials mimic crucial properties of native extracellular matrices, including mechanical support, cell adhesion sites and proteolytic degradability. As such, they are applied as 3D cell culture platforms to replicate tissue-like architectures observed in vivo, allowing physiologically relevant cell behaviors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786726/boron-doped-graphene-nanosheet-supported-pt-a-highly-active-and-selective-catalyst-for-low-temperature-h-2-scr
#4
Maocong Hu, Zhenhua Yao, Lili Li, Yung-Hao Tsou, Liyuan Kuang, Xiaoyang Xu, Wen Zhang, Xianqin Wang
A series of boron-doped graphene-supported Pt (Pt/BG) nanosheets were designed and synthesized using a one-step facile hydrothermal method. ICP, XPS, and TPD results confirmed that boron atoms were successfully embedded into the graphene matrix. The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with hydrogen (H2-SCR) was tested over Pt/BG catalysts. The multi-roles of doped-boron were investigated by Raman, BET, CO-chemisorption, H2-TPD, XPS, and NO-TPD. Boron doping led to a higher dispersion and smaller size of Pt nanoparticles, facilitated hydrogen spillover, promoted more metallic Pt formation, and increased both H2 and NO chemisorption, which were attributed to an enhanced Pt nucleation rate over doped-boron, electron donation from boron to Pt, and extra chemisorption sites...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#5
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786105/cannabinoid-win-55-212-2-mesylate-inhibits-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#6
Rong Tan, Lijun Cao
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-α in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities. Accumulating evidence also supports an important role of cannabinoids in modulating neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785738/mass-spectrometry-for-characterization-of-homologous-piperidine-alkaloids-and-their-activity-as-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors
#7
Thamires R Freitas, Amanda Danuello, Claudio Viegas Júnior, Vanderlan S Bolzani, Marcos Pivatto
RATIONALE: Piperidine alkaloids from Senna spectabilis constitute a rare class of natural products with several biological activities. However, the absence of chromophores makes their structural elucidation by conventional methods a great challenge. In this context, mass spectrometry emerges as a powerful tool for metabolomics studies. METHODS: The piperidine alkaloids (-)-cassine and (-)-spectaline and the semisynthetic derivatives (-)-3-O-acetylcassine and (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in the positive mode and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS)...
May 22, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785729/tg-51-reference-dosimetry-for-the-halcyon%C3%A2-a-clinical-experience
#8
Samantha A M Lloyd, Tze Yee Lim, Xenia Fave, Everardo Flores-Martinez, Todd F Atwood, Vitali Moiseenko
Halcyon™ is a single-energy (6 MV-FFF), bore-enclosed linear accelerator. Patient setup is performed by first aligning to external lasers mounted to the front of the bore, and then loading to isocenter through pre-defined couch shifts. There is no light field, optical distance indicator or front pointer mechanism, so positioning is verified through MV imaging with kV imaging scheduled to become available in the future. TG-51 reference dosimetry was successfully performed for Halcyon™ in this imaging-based setup paradigm...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785578/transport-of-the-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-implications-for-migraine
#9
Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Winther Schytz
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is widely distributed in the nervous system and is involved in migraine pathophysiology. Understanding the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in relation to PACAP is important to the understand the mechanisms behind PACAP-induced migraine attacks, but also to develop antimigraine drugs targeting the PACAP receptors Here, we aim to review the transport ability of PACAP across the BBB. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed to identify studies reporting original data on PACAP and BBB...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785437/confinement-boosts-co-oxidation-on-an-ni-atom-embedded-inside-boron-nitride-nanotubes
#10
Yadong Zhang, Yuzhen Liu, Zhaoshun Meng, Cai Ning, Chuanyun Xiao, Kaiming Deng, Purusottam Jena, Ruifeng Lu
To date, most studies of heterogeneous catalysis have focused on metal particles supported on the surface of substrates. However, studies of the catalytic properties of metallic nanoparticles supported on the interior surface of nanotubes are rare. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have studied the CO oxidation on a single nickel atom confined in a nitrogen vacancy on the inside surface of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). By exploring the Eley-Rideal mechanism, we find that an Ni atom embedded on the interior surface of BNNTs exhibits a much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation when compared with Ni doped on their outside surface...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785193/gallnuts-a-potential-treasure-in-anticancer-drug-discovery
#11
REVIEW
Jiayu Gao, Xiao Yang, Weiping Yin, Ming Li
Introduction. In the discovery of more potent and selective anticancer drugs, the research continually expands and explores new bioactive metabolites coming from different natural sources. Gallnuts are a group of very special natural products formed through parasitic interaction between plants and insects. Though it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for the treatment of cancerous diseases in traditional and folk medicinal systems through centuries, the anticancer properties of gallnuts are barely systematically reviewed...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785178/functionally-graded-bone-and-tendon-like-polyurethane-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#12
Dai Fei Elmer Ker, Dan Wang, Anthony William Behn, Evelyna Tsi Hsin Wang, Xu Zhang, Benjamin Yamin Zhou, Ángel Enrique Mercado-Pagán, Sungwoo Kim, John Kleimeyer, Burhan Gharaibeh, Yaser Shanjani, Drew Nelson, Marc Safran, Emilie Cheung, Phil Campbell, Yunzhi Peter Yang
Critical considerations in engineering biomaterials for rotator cuff repair include bone-tendon-like mechanical properties to support physiological loading and biophysicochemical attributes that stabilize the repair site over the long-term. In this study, UV-crosslinkable polyurethane based on quadrol (Q), hexamethylene diisocyante (H), and methacrylic anhydride (M; QHM polymers), which are free of solvent, catalyst, and photoinitiator, is developed. Mechanical characterization studies demonstrate that QHM polymers possesses phototunable bone- and tendon-like tensile and compressive properties (12-74 MPa tensile strength, 0...
May 2018: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#13
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784878/oxidative-decarboxylation-of-pyruvate-by-1-deoxy-d-xyulose-5-phosphate-synthase-a-central-metabolic-enzyme-in-bacteria
#14
Alicia A DeColli, Natasha S Nemeria, Ananya Majumdar, Gary J Gerfen, Frank Jordan, Caren L Freel Meyers
The underexploited antibacterial target 1-deoxy-D-xyluose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase, catalyzes the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent formation of DXP from pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (D-GAP). DXP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthesis of ThDP, pyridoxal phosphate, and isoprenoids in many pathogenic bacteria. DXP synthase catalyzes a distinct mechanism in ThDP decarboxylative enzymology in which the first enzyme-bound pre-decarboxylation intermediate, C2α-lactylThDP (LThDP), is stabilized by DXP synthase in the absence of D-GAP, and D-GAP then induces efficient LThDP decarboxylation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784820/efficient-collective-swimming-by-harnessing-vortices-through-deep-reinforcement-learning
#15
Siddhartha Verma, Guido Novati, Petros Koumoutsakos
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784781/c-4-sterol-demethylation-enzymes-distinguish-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-sterol-synthesis
#16
Alysha K Lee, Amy B Banta, Jeremy H Wei, David J Kiemle, Ju Feng, José-Luis Giner, Paula V Welander
Sterols are essential eukaryotic lipids that are required for a variety of physiological roles. The diagenetic products of sterol lipids, sterane hydrocarbons, are preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks and are utilized as geological biomarkers, indicating the presence of both eukaryotes and oxic environments throughout Earth's history. However, a few bacterial species are also known to produce sterols, bringing into question the significance of bacterial sterol synthesis for our interpretation of sterane biomarkers...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784760/formation-of-the-intrathymic-dendritic-cell-pool-requires-ccl21-mediated-recruitment-of-ccr7-progenitors-to-the-thymus
#17
Emilie J Cosway, Izumi Ohigashi, Karin Schauble, Sonia M Parnell, William E Jenkinson, Sanjiv Luther, Yousuke Takahama, Graham Anderson
During αβ T cell development in the thymus, migration of newly selected CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes into medullary areas enables tolerance mechanisms to purge the newly selected αβ TCR repertoire of autoreactive specificities. Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play key roles in this process and consist of three distinct subsets that differ in their developmental origins. Thus, plasmacytoid DC and Sirpα+ conventional DC type 2 are extrathymically derived and enter into the thymus via their respective expression of the chemokine receptors CCR9 and CCR2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784651/immune-recognition-of-%C3%AE-cells-neoepitopes-as-key-players-in-the-loss-of-tolerance
#18
Eddie A James, Massimo Pietropaolo, Mark J Mamula
Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis...
June 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784517/treprostinil-improves-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#19
Kendall M Lawrence, Holly L Hedrick, Heather M Monk, Lisa Herkert, Lindsay N Waqar, Brian D Hanna, William H Peranteau, Natalie E Rintoul, Rachel K Hopper
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of continuous treprostinil in infants with severe pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) on specific markers of pulmonary hypertension severity and to report the safety and tolerability of treprostinil. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants with CDH-associated pulmonary hypertension treated with treprostinil from January 2011 to September 2016. Severity of pulmonary hypertension was assessed by echocardiogram and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) by using time points before initiation and 24 hours, 1 week, and 1 month after treprostinil initiation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784136/a-nursing-intervention-aimed-at-reducing-symptom-burden-during-chemotherapy-chemo-support-a-mixed-methods-study-of-the-patient-experience
#20
Annemarie Coolbrandt, Koen Milisen, Hans Wildiers, Bert Aertgeerts, Theo van Achterberg, Elisa Van der Elst, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé
PURPOSE: CHEMO-SUPPORT is a nursing intervention that supports cancer patients in dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms at home. The aims of the current study were (1) to determine how patients had experienced the intervention, and (2) to identify and better understand the mechanisms underlying CHEMO-SUPPORT's effects, its essential elements and possible pitfalls. METHODS: All 71 patients who had received the CHEMO-SUPPORT intervention completed a questionnaire, asking their opinion on the helpfulness, strengths, and weaknesses of the individual components of the intervention...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
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