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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072502/wallerian-degeneration-beyond-the-corticospinal-tracts-conventional-and-advanced-mri-findings
#1
REVIEW
Yin Jie Chen, Seyed Ali Nabavizadeh, Arastoo Vossough, Sunil Kumar, Laurie A Loevner, Suyash Mohan
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is defined as progressive anterograde disintegration of axons and accompanying demyelination after an injury to the proximal axon or cell body. Since the 1980s and 1990s, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been shown to be sensitive to changes of WD in the subacute to chronic phases. More recently, advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have demonstrated some of earliest changes attributed to acute WD, typically on the order of days...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067737/facial-trauma-in-sports
#2
James Leinhart, James Toldi, Matthew Tennison
Injuries resulting from facial trauma are common in all sports. Athlete-to-athlete contact, falls, and blows from equipment account for the majority of these events. Appropriate knowledge of basic science, relevant anatomy, and clinical skills is required to provide the correct medical care. While true medical emergencies are infrequent, a prompt accurate diagnosis is essential in developing targeted management and return to play options.
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048477/we-de-206-04-mri-pulse-sequences-spin-echo-gradient-echo-epi-non-cartesia
#3
R Pooley
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048365/we-de-206-00-mri-physics
#4
Yunhong Shu
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048320/su-g-iep2-08-investigation-on-signal-detectability-in-volumetric-cone-beam-ct-images-with-anatomical-background
#5
M Han, J Baek
PURPOSE: To investigate the slice direction dependent detectability in cone beam CT images with anatomical background. METHODS: We generated 3D anatomical background images using breast anatomy model. To generate 3D breast anatomy, we filtered 3D Gaussian noise with a square root of 1/f(3) , and then assigned the attenuation coefficient of glandular (0.8cm(-1) ) and adipose (0.46 cm(-1) ) tissues based on voxel values. Projections were acquired by forward projection, and quantum noise was added to the projection data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047719/we-de-206-01-mri-signal-in-biological-tissues-proton-spin-t1-t2-t2
#6
K Gorny
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047070/we-de-206-02-mri-hardware-magnet-gradient-rf-coils
#7
A Kocharian
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046410/we-de-206-03-mri-image-formation-slice-selection-phase-encoding-frequency-encoding-k-space-snr
#8
C Lin
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032227/development-of-a-standardized-curriculum-concept-for-continuing-training-in-hernia-surgery-german-hernia-school
#9
R Lorenz, B Stechemesser, W Reinpold, R Fortelny, F Mayer, W Schröder, F Köckerling
INTRODUCTION: The increasingly more complex nature of hernia surgery means that training programs for young surgeons must now meet ever more stringent requirements. There is a growing demand for improved structuring and standardization of education and training in hernia surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2011, the concept of a Hernia School was developed in Germany and has been gradually implemented ever since. That concept comprises the following series of interrelated, tiered course elements: Hernie kompakt (Hernia compact), Hernie konkret (Hernia concrete), and Hernie complex (Hernia complex)...
December 28, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032160/cadaveric-assessment-of-lip-injections-locating-the-serious-threats
#10
Tanvaa Tansatit, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom
BACKGROUND: Lip augmentation could be a possible cause of blindness following filler injections. This study evaluated the risk by simulating clinical scenarios of marginal injections to the upper and lower lips and then evaluated the risk of vascular injuries. METHODS: A 22G cannula was inserted bilaterally along the wet-dry junction of the upper and lower lip margins in fifteen cadavers, and then both lips were dissected to verify possible injuries to the superior and inferior labial arteries...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025624/impact-of-a-revised-curriculum-focusing-on-clinical-neurology-and-musculoskeletal-care-on-a-required-fourth-year-medical-student-physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation-clerkship
#11
John W Norbury, Clinton E Faulk, Kelly M Harrell, Luan E Lawson, Daniel P Moore
Background. A Required Fourth-Year Medical Student Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) Clerkship was found to increase students' knowledge of PM&R; however the students' overall rotation evaluations were consistently lower than the other 8 required clerkships at the medical school. Objective. To describe the impact of a revised curriculum based upon Entrustable Professional Activities and focusing on basic pain management, musculoskeletal care, and neurology. Setting. Academic Medical Center. Participants...
2016: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995223/three-basic-steps-for-applying-digital-images-%C3%A2-to-oral-and-facial-surgery
#12
Michelle Zawartka, Jing Wang, Bin Zheng
In this paper, the authors discuss three basic steps related to the application of digital technology to reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), in an effort to improve surgical outcomes. These steps include acquiring digital images, processing images in order to build three-dimentional structures, and mapping images to patient anatomy for guided surgery. For each step mentionioned, available technologies and barriers that need to be overcome are discussed. Digital technology is still under development and it has begun to merge into surgical care...
2016: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994542/the-retrograde-connections-and-anatomical-segregation-of-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-nucleus-accumbens
#13
Anders C Meidahl, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens C H Sørensen, Carsten R Bjarkam
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994382/nasal-intubation-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Varun Chauhan, Gaurav Acharya
Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989869/the-physiology-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#15
REVIEW
Hoong Sern Lim, Neil Howell, Aaron Ranasinghe
The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has increased significantly over the last few years, in part because heart transplant activity has plateaued, but also the improving clinical outcomes with contemporary continuous flow LVAD. As such, there is now a growing population of patients with continuous flow LVADs. Management of these patients is complicated by the altered circulatory physiology, as continuous flow LVADs provide a parallel circulation from the heart to the aorta, which interacts with the native left heart (systemic) circulation with consequent effects on the right heart circulation...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965528/the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-food-intake-in-fish-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#16
REVIEW
Helene Volkoff
Fish are the most diversified group of vertebrates and, although progress has been made in the past years, only relatively few fish species have been examined to date, with regards to the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish. In fish, as in mammals, feeding behavior is ultimately regulated by central effectors within feeding centers of the brain, which receive and process information from endocrine signals from both brain and peripheral tissues. Although basic endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding appear to be conserved among vertebrates, major physiological differences between fish and mammals and the diversity of fish, in particular in regard to feeding habits, digestive tract anatomy and physiology, suggest the existence of fish- and species-specific regulating mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965119/ultrasound-registration-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Chengqian Che, Tejas Sudharshan Mathai, John Galeotti
This article is a review of registration algorithms for use between ultrasound images (monomodal image-based ultrasound registration). Ultrasound is safe, inexpensive, and real-time, providing many advantages for clinical and scientific use on both humans and animals, but ultrasound images are also notoriously noisy and subject to several unique artifacts/distortions. This paper introduces the topic and unique aspects of ultrasound-to-ultrasound image registration, providing a broad introduction and summary of the literature and the field...
December 10, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957611/barrier-function-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-a-review
#18
REVIEW
A K Reinhold, H L Rittner
The peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) are delicate structures, highly sensitive to homeostatic changes-and crucial for basic vital functions. Thus, a selection of barriers ensures the protection of the nervous system from noxious blood-borne or surrounding stimuli. In this chapter, anatomy and functioning of the blood-nerve (BNB), the blood-brain (BBB), and the blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) are presented and the key tight junction (TJ) proteins described: claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-11, claudin-12, claudin-19, occludin, Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), and tricellulin are by now identified as relevant for nerval barriers...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957314/the-relationship-between-anterior-chamber-depth-axial-length-and-intraocular-lens-power-among-candidates-for-cataract-surgery
#19
Mohammad Reza Sedaghat, Ali Azimi, Peyman Arasteh, Naghmeh Tehranian, Shahram Bamdad
INTRODUCTION: Basic anatomical parameters in ophthalmology are variable in different countries according to ethnic groups, genetics and some environmental factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOL) in a referral center from eastern Iran among patients who had cataract surgery, in comparison to studies from other regions of the world. METHODS: In a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013, the records of 698 cataract patients referring to Khatam Al Anbia general hospital in Mashhad, Iran were evaluated...
October 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909613/the-novel-laparoscopic-training-3d-model-in-urology-with-surgical-anatomic-remarks-fresh-frozen-cadaveric-tissue
#20
REVIEW
Emre Huri, Mehmet Ezer, Eddie Chan
Laparoscopic surgery is routinely used to treat many urological conditions and it is the gold standard treatment option for many surgeries such as radical nephrectomy. Due to the difficulty of learning, laparoscopic training should start outside the operating room. Although it is a very different model of laparoscopic training; the aim of this review is to show the value of human cadaveric model for laparoscopic training and present our experience in this area. Fresh frozen cadaveric model in laparoscopic training, dry lab, cadaveric model, animal models and computer based simulators are the most commonly used models for laparoscopic training...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
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