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basic anatomy

Antonio Carlos Abramo, Thiago Paoliello Alves Do Amaral, Bruno Pierotti Lessio, Germano Andrighetto De Lima
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between the skin lines on the upper third of the face in cadavers, which represent the muscle activity in life and the skin lines achieved by voluntary contraction of the forehead, glabellar, and orbital muscles in patients. METHODS: Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers was performed in 20 fresh cadavers, 11 females and 9 males, with ages ranging from 53 to 77 years. Subcutaneous dissection identified the muscle shape and the continuity of the fibers of the eyebrow elevator and depress muscles...
October 14, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Qin Shi, Dan Zhang, Zhen Huang, Peng Sun, Haiping Huang, Yunmei Zhang, Jianwu Dai, Jisheng Liu
Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is very common in clinical practice. Several biomaterials have been reported to play a role in TM reparation, whereas their functional recovery is limited when used alone. Meanwhile, the administration of bio-factors could promote functional recovery, but rapid distribution and short half-time obstruct their application. In order to study the effect on of traumatic TM regeneration, we prepared collagen membrane (CM) integrated with collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) and implanted into the injury site of perforated TM in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
October 12, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Matthew H Lee, Scott E Sheehan, John F Orwin, Kenneth S Lee
Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions encountered in primary care and specialty orthopedic clinic settings. Although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is typically the modality of choice for evaluating the soft-tissue structures of the shoulder, ultrasonography (US) is becoming an important complementary imaging tool in the evaluation of superficial soft-tissue structures such as the rotator cuff, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, and biceps tendon. The advantages of US driving its recent increased use include low cost, accessibility, and capability for real-time high-resolution imaging that enables dynamic assessment and needle guidance...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
(no author information available yet)
Part of a series of free medical apps, Knee Decide provides health professionals with an aid for communicating basic knee anatomy to patients.
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Mayra de A Marques, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Inherited myopathies affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle and are commonly associated with genetic dysfunctions, leading to the production of anomalous proteins. In cardiomyopathies, mutations frequently occur in sarcomeric genes, but the cause-effect scenario between genetic alterations and pathological processes remains elusive. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was the first cardiac disease associated with a genetic background. Since the discovery of the first mutation in the β-myosin heavy chain, more than 1400 new mutations in 11 sarcomeric genes have been reported, awarding HCM the title of the "disease of the sarcomere...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K Joseph Maria Das
AIM: An empirical scheme called "anatomy-guided segment counting (AGSC)" is proposed for automatic selection of maximum number of segments (NOS) for direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). BACKGROUND: Direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) requires the user to define the maximum number of segments (NOS) in order to proceed with an optimization process. Till date there is no established approach to arrive at an optimal and case-specific maximum NOS in DMPO, and this step is largely left to the planner's experience...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Yuan F Liu, Kelton Messinger, Jared C Inman
Importance: To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. Objectives: To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength...
October 6, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Brian Cohen, Dominic Kleinhenz, Jonathan Schiller, Ramin Tabaddor
Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement...
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Brian Weiss, Ojas Shah
Over the past two decades, the management of upper-tract urinary stones has dramatically changed towards an increase in the use of ureteroscopic treatment. This change has been driven by technological advances such as the creation of flexible ureteroscopes with reduced calibre (which now have digital, disposable and dual flexion capability) and holmium lasers with increased power. Two basic principles exist when treating stones ureteroscopically: either creating stone dust and small fragments (<1-2 mm) to theoretically enable spontaneous passage of the small particles or stone fragmentation that enables safe extraction of the stone pieces with a basket or grasper in an efficient manner...
October 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Carmen M Coombs, Ryan Y Shields, Elizabeth A Hunt, Ying Wei Lum, Patrick R Sosnay, Julianne S Perretta, Rhett H Lieberman, Nicole A Shilkofski
PROBLEM: Because reported use of simulation in preclinical basic science courses is limited, the authors describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a simulation-based clinical correlation curriculum in an anatomy course for first-year medical students at Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine (in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine). APPROACH: The simulation curriculum, with five weekly modules, was a component of a noncadaveric human anatomy course for three classes (n = 81 students) from September 2011 to November 2013...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
John Medwyn Hutson, Ruili Li, Jaya Vikraman, Moshe Loebenstein
Testicular descent occurs in most mammals in two main steps that have different hormonal control and anatomical processes. The evolution of testicular descent reveals the same basic processes in humans and animals, with minor differences in timing and anatomy, especially the location of the scrotum and the processus vaginalis. Animal models are useful as they reveal some embryological processes that cannot be studies easily in humans, such as the potential role of the mammary line and the role of the genitofemoral nerve...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
C K Barha, L S Nagamatsu, T Liu-Ambrose
This chapter presents an overview of the anatomy and functioning of the central nervous system. We begin the discussion by first examining the cellular basis of neural transmission. Then we present a brief description of the brain's white and gray matter and associated diseases, including a discussion of white-matter lesions. Finally, we place this information into context by discussing how the central nervous system integrates complex information to guide key functional systems, including the visual, auditory, chemosensory, somatic, limbic, motor, and autonomic systems...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Annemarie Vesseur, Rolien Free, Margreet Langereis, Chantal Snels, Ad Snik, Conny van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Emmanuel Mylanus
OBJECTIVE: Identifying aspects for establishing cochlear implantation guidelines for patients with ocular coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retardation (of growth and/or of development), genital anomalies, and ear anomalies (CHARGE) syndrome (CS). STUDY DESIGN: Explorative retrospective study. SETTING: Cochlear implant (CI)-centers of tertiary referral centers in The Netherlands. PATIENTS: Ten patients with CS who received a CI between 2002 and 2012...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Robert M Sweet
BACKGROUND: The challenges of training and assessing endourologic skill have driven the development of new training systems. The Center for Research in Education and Simulation Technologies (CREST) has developed a team and a methodology to facilitate this development process. METHODS: Backwards design principles were applied. A panel of experts first defined desired clinical and educational outcomes. Outcomes were subsequently linked to learning objectives. Gross task deconstruction was performed and the primary domain was classified as primarily involving decision-making, psychomotor skill or communication...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Venkatraman Bhat, Vinay Belaval, Karthik Gadabanahalli, Vimal Raj, Sejal Shah
From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Yue Fen Toh, Su Mei Yew, Chai Ling Chan, Shiang Ling Na, Kok Wei Lee, Chee-Choong Hoh, Wai-Yan Yee, Kee Peng Ng, Chee Sian Kuan
Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35...
2016: PloS One
David Ae Imber, Massimiliano Pirrone, Changsheng Zhang, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek, Lorenzo Berra
With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keeping the obese patient's lung open and adequately ventilated during mechanical ventilation is unique...
September 13, 2016: Respiratory Care
Rajani Santhakumari Nagothu, Yogananda Reddy Indla, Rajesh Paluru
BACKGROUND: Students who took admission in first year MBBS course used to study physiology, anatomy and biochemistry for one and half years. Since a decade the first year course duration was reduced to one year unaltering the syllabus in the three basic subjects. So students are focusing on the easy ways to clear the university exams by accepting the concise books, which is dampening the real quality of the subject knowledge. This study is aimed at understanding the best methods of physiology teaching in the lecture gallery, from the student's perspective...
July 2016: Indian J Clin Anat Physiol
Cormac Weekes Joyce, Shazrinizam Shaharan, Kate Lawlor, Melanie Elizabeth Burke, Michael John Kerin, Jack Laurence Kelly
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of hand anatomy and pathology is important for final year medical students as it frequently appears in examinations as a short case or in a written paper. Studies have shown that doctors in the Emergency Department have a deficient grasp of musculoskeletal anatomy secondary to a lack of dedicated teaching in medical school. METHODS: A questionnaire was handed out to 111 final year medical students. Students were asked to fill it out before and after dedicated upper limb teaching sessions during their rotation...
October 2016: J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol
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