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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921474/origins-of-phantom-limb-pain
#1
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a chronic neuropathic pain occurring in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities. Chronic pain is physically and mentally debilitating, affecting an individual's potential for self-care and the performance of daily living activities essential for personal and economic independence. In addition, chronic pain may lead to depression and feelings of hopelessness. A National Center for Biotechnology Information study found that in the USA alone, the annual cost of dealing with neuropathic pain is more than $600 billion, with an estimated 20 million people in the USA suffering this condition...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921418/coping-with-phantom-limb-pain
#2
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain is a chronic neuropathic pain that develops in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities and appears predominantly during two time frames following an amputation: the first month and later about 1 year. Although in most patients the frequency and intensity of pain diminish over time, severe pain persists in about 5-10%. It has been proposed that factors in both the peripheral and central nervous systems play major roles in triggering the development and maintenance of pain associated with extremity amputations...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893002/interventional-angiography-radiation-protection-for-the-examiner-by-using-lead-free-gloves
#3
Peter Kamusella, Fabian Scheer, Christopher Wilhelm Lüdtke, Philipp Wiggermann, Christian Wissgott, Reimer Andresen
INTRODUCTION: The radiation exposure to unprotected parts of the body requires special attention for the interventional radiologist. During angiographic procedures, hands are exposed to the direct X-ray beam and scattered radiation. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of examiners hand with the use of lead-free X-ray protective gloves in clinical practice in terms of shielding and sense of touch. The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of examiners hand with the use of lead-free X-ray protective gloves in clinical practice in terms of shielding and sense of touch...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886692/supernumerary-phantom-limb-in-a-patient-with-basal-ganglia-hemorrhage-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Hang-Rai Kim, Jee-Young Han, Young Ho Park, Beom Joon Kim, Wookjin Yang, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) is a rare neurologic phenomenon, in which a patient misperceives an extra limb in addition to the original set of limbs. We report a case of SPL in a patient with a right basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the previous literature about this peculiar phenomenon. CASE PRESENTATION: Two days after the event of a right basal ganglia hemorrhage, a 78-year-old male reported a phantom arm protruding from his left shoulder. He could not see or touch the phantom arm but he felt the presence of an addition arm lateral to his paretic arm...
September 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874923/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-maladaptive-plasticity-and-bayesian-analysis-in-phantom-limb-pain
#5
REVIEW
Leon Morales-Quezada
Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common and poorly understood pathology of difficult medical control that progressively takes place after amputation occurs. Objective: This article discusses the multifactorial bases of PLP. These bases involve local changes at the stump level, spinal modifications of excitability, deafferentation, and central sensitization, leading to the development of maladaptive plasticity, and consequentially, defective processing of sensory information by associative neural networks...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860841/a-review-of-the-management-of-phantom-limb-pain-challenges-and-solutions
#6
REVIEW
Cliff Richardson, Jai Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP) occurs in 50% and 80% of amputees. Although it is often classified as a neuropathic pain, few of the large-scale trials of treatments for neuropathic pain included sufficient numbers of PLP sufferers to have confidence that they are effective in this condition. Many therapies have been administered to amputees with PLP over the years; however, as of yet, there appears to be no first-line treatment. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively review the literature on treatment modalities for PLP and to identify the challenges currently faced by clinicians dealing with this pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843655/phantom-limbs-neuroprosthetics-and-the-developmental-origins-of-embodiment
#7
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg, James C Dooley
Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831329/targeted-muscle-reinnervation-to-improve-pain-prosthetic-tolerance-and-bioprosthetic-outcomes-in-the-amputee
#8
REVIEW
J Byers Bowen, Corinne E Wee, Jaclyn Kalik, Ian L Valerio
Scope and Significance: There are ∼185,000 amputations each year and nearly 2 million amputees currently living in the United States. Approximately 25% of these amputees will experience chronic pain issues secondary to localized neuroma pain and/or phantom limb pain. Problem: The significant discomfort caused by neuroma and phantom limb pain interferes with prosthesis wear, subjecting amputees to the additional physical and psychological morbidity associated with chronic immobility. Although numerous neuroma treatments are described, none of these methods are consistently effective in eliminating symptoms...
August 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822914/motor-correlates-of-phantom-limb-pain
#9
Sanne Kikkert, Melvin Mezue, David Henderson Slater, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Irene Tracey, Tamar R Makin
Following amputation, individuals ubiquitously report experiencing lingering sensations of their missing limb. While phantom sensations can be innocuous, they are often manifested as painful. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is notorious for being difficult to monitor and treat. A major challenge in PLP management is the difficulty in assessing PLP symptoms, given the physical absence of the affected body part. Here, we offer a means of quantifying chronic PLP by harnessing the known ability of amputees to voluntarily move their phantom limbs...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813991/voluntary-phantom-hand-and-finger-movements-in-transhumerai-amputees-could-be-used-to-naturally-control-polydigital-prostheses
#10
Nathanael Jarrasse, Caroline Nicol, Florian Richer, Amelie Touillet, Noel Martinet, Jean Paysant, Jozina B De Graaf
An arm amputation is extremely invalidating since many of our daily tasks require bi-manual and precise control of hand movements. Perfect hand prostheses should therefore offer a natural, intuitive and cognitively simple control over their numerous biomimetic active degrees of freedom. While efficient polydigital prostheses are commercially available, their control remains complex to master and offers limited possibilities, especially for high amputation levels. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the possibility for upper-arm amputees to intuitively control a polydigital hand prosthesis by using surface myoelectric activities of residual limb muscles (sEMG) associated with phantom limb movements, even if these residual arm muscles on which the phantom activity is measured were not naturally associated with hand movements before amputation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813955/robotic-therapy-for-phantom-limb-pain-in-upper-limb-amputees
#11
Peter W Snow, Imad Sedki, Marco Sinisi, Richard Comley, Rui C V Loureiro
The system described in this paper combines virtual reality with haptic feedback to increase the level of immersion and invoke the sense of agency in patients with phantom limb pain with the aim of reducing perceived pain. This paper presents three case studies of an on-going clinical study. The initial results suggest an increased sense of embodiment of the virtual limb promotes a decrease in perceived levels of pain. The results strengthen the view that the cortical map does not fully "disappear" yet lays dormant...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807038/nlr-mlp-svm-and-lda-a-comparative-analysis-on-emg-data-from-people-with-trans-radial-amputation
#12
Alberto Dellacasa Bellingegni, Emanuele Gruppioni, Giorgio Colazzo, Angelo Davalli, Rinaldo Sacchetti, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Loredana Zollo
BACKGROUND: Currently, the typically adopted hand prosthesis surface electromyography (sEMG) control strategies do not provide the users with a natural control feeling and do not exploit all the potential of commercially available multi-fingered hand prostheses. Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques applied to sEMG can be effective for a natural control based on the residual muscles contraction of amputated people corresponding to phantom limb movements. As the researches has reached an advanced grade accuracy, these algorithms have been proved and the embedding is necessary for the realization of prosthetic devices...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802070/memantine-for-the-treatment-of-general-neuropathic-pain-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Gisèle Pickering, Véronique Morel
Neuropathic pain (NP) is difficult to treat and is associated with a decline in quality of life. NP aetiologies are numerous and a number of pathologies display neuropathic characteristics. Of the various N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonists that are alternatives to recommended in first-line NP treatment, memantine has the safest side-effect profile and has long been approved in Alzheimer's disease. The review covers memantine studies in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic pain, postoperative pain, complex regional pain syndrome, chronic phantom limb pain, opioid refractory pain, and fibromyalgia...
August 12, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793825/controlling-acute-pain-to-improve-the-quality-of-postoperative-pain-management-an-update-from-the-european-society-of-regional-anesthesia-meeting-held-in-maastricht-september-2016
#14
Jose De Andrés, Esther Pogatzki-Zahn, Frank Huygen, Edmund Neugebauer, William Fawcett
Improvement in postoperative pain management remains a global concern with a significant unmet need for patients. This was the focus of a 'Change Pain' session at the 35th European Society of Regional Anesthesia meeting (Maastricht, September 2016). Awareness of the size and nature of the problem is important to improve postoperative pain management strategies. Optimal treatment of acute pain should aim to avoid long-term sequelae such as the development of chronic pain disorders (e.g., phantom limb pain)...
August 10, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776544/quantitative-evaluation-of-pain-with-pain-index-extracted-from-electroencephalogram
#15
Jian-Xiong An, Yong Wang, Doris K Cope, John P Williams
BACKGROUND: The current pain assessment methods are strongly subjective and easily affected by outside influences, and there is an urgent need to develop a reliable objective and quantitative pain-monitoring indicator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Pain index (Pi) to assess pain symptoms in pain patients. METHODS: Subjects were enrolled from patients seeking treatment at Pain Medicine Center of China Medical University Aviation General Hospital from October 2015 to December 2016, such as postherpetic neuralgia, spinal cord injury, femoral head necrosis, lumbar disc herniation, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, perineal pain, phantom limb pain, etc...
August 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761369/capsaicin-8-patch-treatment-for-amputation-stump-and-phantom-limb-pain-a-clinical-and-functional-mri-study
#16
Rosario Privitera, Rolfe Birch, Marco Sinisi, Iordan R Mihaylov, Robert Leech, Praveen Anand
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of a single 60 min application of capsaicin 8% patch in reducing chronic amputation stump and phantom limb pain, associated hypersensitivity with quantitative sensory testing, and changes in brain cortical maps using functional MRI (fMRI) scans. METHODS: A capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza) treatment study was conducted on 14 patients with single limb amputation, who reported pain intensity on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale ≥4/10 for chronic stump or phantom limb pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758119/an-in-situ-and-in-silico-evaluation-of-biophysical-effects-of-27%C3%A2-mhz-electromagnetic-whole-body-humans-exposure-expressed-by-the-limb-current
#17
Jolanta Karpowicz, Patryk Zradziński, Jarosław Kieliszek, Krzysztof Gryz, Jaromir Sobiech, Wiesław Leszko
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate correlations between biophysical effects of 27 MHz electromagnetic field exposure in humans (limb induced current (LIC)) and (1) parameters of affecting heterogeneous electric field and (2) body anthropometric properties, in order to improve the evaluation of electromagnetic environmental hazards. METHODS: Biophysical effects of exposure were studied in situ by measurements of LIC in 24 volunteers (at the ankle) standing near radio communication rod antenna and in silico in 4 numerical body phantoms exposed near a model of antenna...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#18
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736545/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-mirror-therapy-for-upper-extremity-phantom-limb-pain-in-male-amputees
#19
Sacha B Finn, Briana N Perry, Jay E Clasing, Lisa S Walters, Sandra L Jarzombek, Sean Curran, Minoo Rouhanian, Mary S Keszler, Lindsay K Hussey-Andersen, Sharon R Weeks, Paul F Pasquina, Jack W Tsao
OBJECTIVE: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is prevalent in patients post-amputation and is difficult to treat. We assessed the efficacy of mirror therapy in relieving PLP in unilateral, upper extremity male amputees. METHODS: Fifteen participants from Walter Reed and Brooke Army Medical Centers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: mirror therapy (n = 9) or control (n = 6, covered mirror or mental visualization therapy). Participants were asked to perform 15 min of their assigned therapy daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728802/-psychotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-phantom-limb-pain
#20
Katherine Cárdenas, Mariana Aranda
INTRODUCTION: The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
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