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Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Kristen Thien, Meghan Bowtell, Scott Eaton, Melissa Bardell-Williams, Linglee Downey, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The superior efficacy of clozapine in treatment resistant schizophrenia has been clearly demonstrated, yet there are often delays in the commencement of clozapine. In this study, we aimed to determine; the proportion of young people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) who would be considered eligible for clozapine treatment, the theoretical delay in commencing clozapine and to compare the outcomes of those treated with clozapine to those who were eligible but not treated with clozapine...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Aubid Allah Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Asadullah Madni, Nayab Tahir, Mubashar Rehman, Ahmed Raza, Aurangzeb Qadir
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is communicable from one person to another. Pakistan stands forefront among few unfortunate countries that still have heavy burden of TB infection. Being a developing country, TB patients in Pakistan have to face different socio-economic constraints that upset life of the patients as well as their families. A cross sectional survey was conducted in three selected districts, Lodharan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar during February 2011 to June 2011. From three hundred selected patients 210 Were enrolled in study after receiving written consents...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Anna Simone Frank, Angela Lupattelli, Hedvig Nordeng
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 3% to 5% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism. Despite the potential impact of untreated hypothyroidism on infant neurodevelopment, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with discontinuation of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in pregnancy. We aimed to identify such factors in a population of women using THRT prior to pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were linked to records in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway...
March 7, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Ryoko Machii, Kumiko Saika, Kayoko Kasuya, Hirokazu Takahashi, Hiroshi Saito
Background: Recently, the importance of quality assurance (QA) for cancer screening has gained increasing attention in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate QA process indicators for population-based colorectal cancer screening during 2003-13. Methods: A national cancer screening database was used to evaluate the following process indicators: the positivity rate, diagnostic follow-up rate, unidentified results rate, non-compliance with diagnostic follow-up rate, cancer detection rate and positive predictive value (PPV)...
March 1, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Kylie Elizabeth Hunter, Anna Lene Seidler, Lisa M Askie
OBJECTIVES: To analyse prospective versus retrospective trial registration trends on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and to evaluate the reasons for non-compliance with prospective registration. DESIGN: Part 1: Descriptive analysis of trial registration trends from 2006 to 2015. Part 2: Online registrant survey. PARTICIPANTS: Part 1: All interventional trials registered on ANZCTR from 2006 to 2015. Part 2: Random sample of those who had retrospectively registered a trial on ANZCTR between 2010 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Juan Carlo Intriago, Francisco López-Gálvez, Ana Allende, Gaetano Alessandro Vivaldi, Salvatore Camposeo, Emilio Nicolás Nicolás, Juan José Alarcón, Francisco Pedrero Salcedo
The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gisah Amaral Carvalho, Gilberto Paz-Filho, Cleo Otaviano Mesa Junior, Hans Graf
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Angela Arenas Massa, Andrea Slachevsky Chonchol
In Chile, more than 180 thousand people (1% of the population) have some form of dementia. The figure should increase to approximately 600,000 (3% of Chileans) by 2050. This disease poses major challenges to the society. One of them is the effective recognition of the autonomy and responsibility of the person living with this condition. This article aims to review the clinical assessment of competence, its agreement with the Chilean legal system and the challenges that the assessment of competence poses in clinical decision-making and the capacity of an individual make decisions, according to the new international obligations subscribed by Chile...
October 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Karoliina Tainio, Antonios Athanasiou, Kari A O Tikkinen, Riikka Aaltonen, Jovita Cárdenas, Hernándes, Sivan Glazer-Livson, Maija Jakobsson, Kirsi Joronen, Mari Kiviharju, Karolina Louvanto, Sanna Oksjoki, Riikka Tähtinen, Seppo Virtanen, Pekka Nieminen, Maria Kyrgiou, Ilkka Kalliala
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the regression, persistence, and progression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) lesions managed conservatively as well as compliance with follow-up protocols. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1 January 1973 to 20 August 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting on outcomes of histologically confirmed CIN2 in non-pregnant women, managed conservatively for three or more months...
February 27, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Tommaso Bucci, Mario Fabiani, Valerio Fabiani, Marco Brunori, Lorenzo Loffredo, Rossella Lillo, Gaetano Pannitteri, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, poor adherence is a limiting factor, and a significant proportion of patients are unable to tolerate CPAP. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of long-term non-compliance with CPAP. METHODS: CPAP treatment was prescribed to all consecutive patients with moderate or severe OSAS (AHI ≥15 events/h) (n = 295) who underwent a full-night CPAP titration study at home between February 1, 2002 and December 1, 2016...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
Bhavani Manivannan, Deepak Gowda, Pradeep Bulagonda, Abhishek Rao, Sai Suguna Raman, Shanmuga Vadivoo Natarajan
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the Surveillance of Surgical Site Infection (SSI), Auditing, and Feedback (SAF) effect on the rate of compliance with an SSI care bundle and measured its effectiveness in reducing the SSI rate. METHOD: A prospective cohort study from January 2014 to December 2016 was classified into three phases: pre-SAF, early-SAF, and late-SAF. Pre-operative baseline characteristics of 24,677 patients who underwent orthopedic, cardiovascular thoracic surgery (CTVS) or urologic operations were recorded...
February 26, 2018: Surgical Infections
Klaas H J Ultee, Hence J M Verhagen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Maliha Naseer, Francis E Dailey, Alhareth Al Juboori, Sami Samiullah, Veysel Tahan
Diseases of the liver and biliary tree have been described with significant frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its advanced state, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Through a variety of mechanisms, HIV/AIDS has been shown to affect the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, leading to liver inflammation and biliary strictures. One of the potential hepatobiliary complications of this viral infection is AIDS cholangiopathy, a syndrome of biliary obstruction and liver damage due to infection-related strictures of the biliary tract...
February 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Minerva Catalán-Vázquez, Rosario Fernández-Plata, David Martínez-Briseño, Blanca Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Laura Suárez-González, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Astrid Schilmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors enabling/limiting the use of improved cookstoves among rural fuel wood users from one mestizo and two indigenous communities eight years after an intervention in the state of Michoacan, in Mexico. METHODS: A qualitative study with an ethnographic perspective was conducted in 2013/2014 based on 62 interviews with women who had participated in an improved firewood cookstove program in 2005. Thematic qualitative content analysis was performed...
2018: PloS One
Gitanjali Srivastava, Cynthia Buffington
INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery results in massive weight loss, weight regain over time up to as much as 25% is not uncommon. Weight regain in this population often leads to long-term weight loss failure and non-compliance in clinical follow-up and program recommendations. METHODS: We analyzed early weight outcomes at 3 and 6 months of 48 bariatric patients referred to an individualized, multidisciplinary medical management program at the Center for Obesity Medicine (COM) to address weight regain in 2015 and compared to a group of matched non-bariatric patients...
February 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
U Toelch, A Pooresmaeili, R J Dolan
Societal norms exert a powerful influence on our decisions. Behaviours motivated by norms, however, do not always concur with the responses mandated by decision relevant information potentially generating a conflict. To probe the interplay between normative and informational influences, we examined how prosocial norms impact on perceptual decisions subjects made in the context of a simultaneous presentation of social information. Participants displayed a bias in their perceptual decisions towards that mandated by social information...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexis M Garcia, Paulo A Graziano, Katie C Hart
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2...
February 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Iyoni Ranasinghe, Jacqueline Sin, Ian Norman, Margaret Lau-Walker
BACKGROUND: despite a 450% increase in UK alcohol-related liver disease mortality over the past 30 years, little evidence-based guidance exists regarding preventing recidivism post-liver transplant for alcohol-related liver disease. METHOD: a systematic literature review was conducted to identify demographic variables predictive of alcohol relapse and effective psychosocial interventions for alcohol-related liver disease patients post-liver transplant. RESULTS: variables most significantly predictive of alcohol relapse post-transplant were-less than 12 months pre-liver transplant abstinence; patients with children; poor pre-liver transplant psychosomatic evaluation; non-compliance with post-liver transplant treatment plan; and patients with active insurance policies...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Andrew Turner
Samples of plastic collected from two beaches in southwest England (n = 185) have been analysed by XRF spectrometry for elements that are hazardous or restricted in synthetic polymers (namely, As, Ba, Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb and Se). Overall, one or more restricted element was detected in 151 samples, with 15 cases exhibiting non-compliance with respect to the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. Twelve plastics that were RoHS-non-compliant were subsequently processed into microplastic-sized fragments and subjected to an avian physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) that simulates the chemical conditions in the gizzard-proventriculus of the northern fulmar...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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