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Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Andrew M K Law, Abbas Hejri, Mohsen Asadnia, Christopher J Ormandy, David Gallego-Ortega, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
We present here a new method to easily and reliably generate an array of hundreds of dispersed nanoliter-volume semi-droplets for single-cells culture and analysis. The liquid segmentation step occurs directly in indexed traps by a tweezer-like mechanism and is stabilized by spatial confinement. Unlike common droplet-based techniques, the semi-droplet wets its surrounding trap walls thus supporting the culturing of both adherent and non-adherent cells. To eliminate cross-droplet cell migration and chemical cross-talk each semi-droplet is separated from a nearby trap by an ∼80 pL air plug...
June 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Caitlin S Sayegh, Jacqueline R Szmuszkovicz, Jondavid Menteer, Sara Sherer, Daniel Thomas, Rachel Lestz, Marvin Belzer
For many adolescent and young adult solid organ transplant recipients, medication non-adherence is a mortal issue. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a 12-week cell phone support intervention to improve immunosuppressant medication adherence. A small sample (N = 8) of non-adherent adolescent and young adult transplant recipients, aged 15-20.5 years, was enrolled. Cell phone support consisted of short calls each weekday including medication reminders, discussion of needs, problem-solving support, and promotion of clinic and community resources...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Luca Neri, Ketty Peris, Caterina Longo, Stefano Calvieri, Pasquale Frascione, Aurora Parodi, Eibenschuz Laura, Ugo Bottoni, Giovanni Pellacani
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple actinic keratoses (AK) should be treated with field-directed therapy. Such treatments challenge patients' adherence due out-of-pocket costs, length of treatment and severity of Local Skin Reactions (LSRs). Effective physician-patient communication (PPC) may buffer therapy-related distress thus improving quality of life, treatment satisfaction and adherence. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the interplay between PPC, LSR intensity (safety) and lesion clearance rates (effectiveness) on treatment satisfaction, quality of life and treatment adherence among patients with multiple AK receiving topical field-directed therapies...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Sarah K Sonnenschein, Carlota Betzler, Rebecca Kohnen, Johannes Krisam, Ti-Sun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To assess the oral health-related quality of life (OH-QoL) in patients under supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the influence of the individual periodontal risk as well as different degrees of adherence during SPT on OH-QoL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 309 patients with at least 5 years of SPT were re-examined. Periodontal risk profile (according to Lang and Tonetti) was assessed and the adherence to SPT-appointments within the last 30(±6) months was reviewed for each patient (fully adherent: adherence to all appointments ±6 weeks, partially adherent: SPT-interval not extended more than half of the recommended interval, insufficiently adherent: SPT-interval extended more than half of the recommended interval, non-adherent: recommended SPT-interval interruption ≥12 months)...
June 19, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
A M Müller, C S Osório, D R Silva, G Sbruzzi, P de Tarso, Roth Dalcin
SETTING: One of the most serious problems in tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to treatment. Several strategies have been developed to improve adherence and increase the cure rate. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review interventions to improve adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to ascertain whether providing directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS), financial incentives, food incentives and/or patient education/counselling improved adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Marian C Brady, Jon Godwin, Helen Kelly, Pam Enderby, Andrew Elders, Pauline Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Attention control comparisons in trials of stroke rehabilitation require care to minimize the risk of comparison choice bias. We compared the similarities and differences in SLT and social support control interventions for people with aphasia. DATA SOURCES: Trial data from the 2016 Cochrane systematic review of SLT for aphasia after stroke Methods: Direct and indirect comparisons between SLT, social support and no therapy controls. We double-data extracted intervention details using the template for intervention description and replication...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Vidura Jayasinghe, Pk Buddhika Mahesh, Cmd Sooriaarachchi, Jimutha Jayalath, Weranga Karunarathne, S N Liyanage
Background and Aims: Non-adherence to standard fasting guidelines may result in perioperative complications. We aimed to determine the association between pre-operative over-fasting and post-operative vomiting amongst children undergoing bone marrow aspiration under general anaesthesia. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 in children undergoing bone marrow aspiration under general anaesthesia and their caregivers. Children fasted for ≥3 hours from last clear fluid intake constituted the exposed group ( n = 202) while children fasting for <3 h constituted the non-exposed group ( n = 202)...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
G Georgiopoulos, Z Kollia, V Katsi, D Oikonomou, C Tsioufis, D Tousoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension consists a major risk factor for cardiovascular events. Despite the proven effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment, approximately half of hypertensive patients have inadequate blood pressure control. Non-adherence to medication has been shown to be an important barrier to achieving adequate blood pressure control and nurse interventions can substantially improve therapeutic compliance. We sought to evaluate the role of nurse interventions in alleviating non-adherence to medication in patients with hypertension by performing a systematic review of the literature for all relevant articles...
June 15, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Robert J Mentz, Melissa A Greiner, Paul Muntner, Daichi Shimbo, Mario Sims, Tanya M Spruill, Benjamin F Banahan, Wei Wang, Stanford Mwasongwe, Karen Winters, Adolfo Correa, Lesley H Curtis, Emily C O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medications is common and leads to suboptimal outcomes. Non-adherence can be intentional (e.g., deciding to skip dosages) or unintentional (e.g., forgetting), yet few studies have distinguished these reasons. An improved understanding of the reasons for non-adherence could inform the development of effective interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study who were prescribed medications for one or more chronic conditions...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Gundula Krack, Rolf Holle, Inge Kirchberger, Bernhard Kuch, Ute Amann, Hildegard Seidl
BACKGROUND: Adherence to recommendations and medication is deemed to be important for effectiveness of case management interventions. Thus, reasons for non-adherence and effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) should be fully understood. The objective of this research was to identify determinants of non-adherence to medication and recommendations, and to test whether increased adherence improved HRQoL in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) in a case management intervention...
June 7, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Jasper M M Vanhoof, Bert Vandenberghe, David Geerts, Pieter Philippaerts, Patrick De Mazière, Annette DeVito Dabbs, Sabina De Geest, Fabienne Dobbels
Traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods inadequately capture the complexity of patients' daily self-management. Contextual inquiry methodology, using home visits, allows a more in-depth understanding of how patients integrate immunosuppressive medication intake, physical activity and healthy eating in their daily lives, and which difficulties they experience when doing so. This mixed-method study comprised two home visits in 19 purposively selected adult heart, lung, liver and kidney transplant patients, asking them to demonstrate how they implement the aforementioned health behaviours...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Alison Bruce, Brian Kelly, Bette Chambers, Brendan T Barrett, Marina Bloj, John Bradbury, Trevor A Sheldon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of adherence to spectacle wear on visual acuity (VA) and developing literacy following vision screening at age 4-5 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal study nested within the Born in Bradford birth cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Observation of 944 children: 432 had failed vision screening and were referred (treatment group) and 512 randomly selected (comparison group) who had passed (<0.20 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in both eyes)...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Alison J Hughes, Amadeia Rector, Veronica Jimenez, Jon Brock, Susan Scheer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize disparities in cumulative plasma HIV burden in a sample of adults accessing HIV care in San Francisco, California. DESIGN: Observational cohort and supplemental HIV surveillance data. METHODS: Data from the San Francisco Medical Monitoring Project 2012-2014 cycles and HIV surveillance data were used to create an analytic cohort followed for two years. Matched HIV viral load (VL) test results from HIV surveillance were used to create five viral outcome measures: any unsuppressed VL (>200 copies/mL), any transmittable VL (>1500 copies/mL), person-time spent unsuppressed, person-time spent transmittable, and 2-year viremia copy-years, a measure of cumulative plasma HIV burden...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Andrea M Burden, Ilja C W Arts, Bart Spaetgens, Patrick Souverein, Frank de Vries, Annelies Boonen
Objectives: When urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients with gout, medication adherence is essential. This study assesses non-persistence and non-adherence in patients with newly diagnosed gout, and identifies factors associated with poor medication adherence. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1987-2014) among incident gout patients, aged ⩾40 years and starting allopurinol (n = 48 280)...
June 8, 2018: Rheumatology
Josep Maria Pepió Vilaubí, Domingo Orozco-Beltrán, Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves, Dolors Rodriguez Cumplido, Carina Aguilar Martin, Adriana Lopez-Pineda, Vicente F Gil-Guillen, Jose A Quesada, Concepcion Carratala-Munuera
To provide a better understanding of the actions taken within health systems and their results, this study aims to assess clinicians&rsquo; adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding recommended treatments in patients with cardiovascular disease in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors. We conducted an ambispective cohort study in 21 primary care centres in 8 Spanish regions. Patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke and/or peripheral arterial disease were included...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mark S Dworkin, Apurba Chakraborty, Diana Zychowski, Geri Donenberg, Richard Novak, Robert Garofalo
Determining the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral adherence among former and current substance users may be useful in the creation of successful interventions that target this hard-to-reach population. We performed a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients (N = 123) prescribed antiretroviral therapy at four Chicago healthcare venues. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors associated with non-adherence based on definitions of non-adherence (any missed doses) within the past 4-day, 14-day, and 1-month time periods...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Brittany Humphries, Stéphanie Collins, Laurence Guillaumie, Julie Lemieux, Anne Dionne, Louise Provencher, Jocelyne Moisan, Sophie Lauzier
Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) taken for a minimum of five years reduces the recurrence and mortality risks among women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. However, adherence to AET is suboptimal. To guide the development of theory-based interventions to enhance AET adherence, we conducted a study to explore beliefs regarding early adherence to AET. This qualitative study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). We conducted focus groups and individual interviews among women prescribed AET in the last two years ( n = 43)...
June 9, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Esther Kalule Nanfuka, David Kyaddondo, Sarah N Ssali, Narathius Asingwire
BACKGROUND: Despite the national roll-out of free HIV medicines in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African countries, many HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at risk of non-adherence due to poverty and other structural and health system related constraints. However, several patients exhibit resilience by attaining and sustaining high levels of adherence amid adversity. Social capital, defined as resources embedded within social networks, is key in facilitating resilience but the mechanism through which it operates remains understudied...
2018: PloS One
Andrew D Revell, Dechao Wang, Maria-Jesus Perez-Elias, Robin Wood, Dolphina Cogill, Hugo Tempelman, Raph L Hamers, Peter Reiss, Ard I van Sighem, Catherine A Rehm, Anton Pozniak, Julio S G Montaner, H Clifford Lane, Brendan A Larder
Objectives: Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis can be challenging, particularly in settings with limited access to drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare their predictive accuracy with that of genotyping. Methods: Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of virological response to a new therapy introduced following virological failure using up to 50 000 treatment change episodes (TCEs) without a genotype and 18 000 TCEs including genotypes...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Khem N Pokhrel, Vidya D Sharma, Kalpana G Pokhrel, Sanjeev R Neupane, Linda B Mlunde, Krishna C Poudel, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use when the disease progresses. In resource limited settings, mental health services are not integrated into HIV services. In Nepal, HIV-positive people do receive psychosocial support and other basic health care services from a community home-based care intervention; however, the effects of the intervention on health outcomes is not yet known. Therefore, we examined the impact of the intervention on mental health and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence...
June 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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