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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676768/exposure-of-bacillus-subtilis-to-silver-inhibits-activity-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-in-vivo-via-interaction-with-sco-the-cu-a-assembly-protein
#1
Shina Hussain, Diann Andrews, Bruce C Hill
Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent in general and medicinal use. Here, we observe that exposure of the Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis to Ag(i) effects growth in a biphasic manner. In the first phase at Ag(i) concentrations below 50 μM B. subtilis growth is not affected, but activity of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome c oxidase is disrupted completely. Between 50 to 100 μM Ag(i) B. subtilis growth is drastically diminished and completely absent above 100 μM Ag(i)...
April 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676665/an-ecological-exploration-of-facilitators-to-participation-in-a-mosque-based-physical-activity-program-for-south-asian-muslim-women
#2
Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey, Ananya Tina Banerjee
BACKGROUND: This descriptive qualitative study informed by an ecological framework explored factors influencing South Asian Muslim women's decisions to participate in a mosque-based physical activity intervention. METHODS: Individual, face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted in English, Hindi, or Urdu with 12 South Asian Muslim women at their home or mosque in Ontario, Canada. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and managed, sorted, and analyzed for themes through a process of descriptive analysis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675788/recent-advances-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-in-resource-limited-settings
#3
REVIEW
Mitsuko Seki, Chang-Ki Kim, Satoshi Hayakawa, Satoshi Mitarai
Smear-negative and drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis (TB) disease necessitate the development of new diagnostic methods, especially in resource-limited settings. To improve the current TB situations, sensitive and specific TB point-of-care tests (POCTs) should be developed. This review addresses the current status of TB, novel diagnostic methodologies for TB, and the impact of those new diagnostics on TB control in such situations. Moreover, the perspective of TB management based on laboratory examinations is described...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675543/improved-vaccine-induced-immune-responses-via-a-ros-triggered-nanoparticle-based-antigen-delivery-system
#4
Xiaoyu Liang, Jianwei Duan, Xuanling Li, Xiaowei Zhu, Youlu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Hongfan Sun, Deling Kong, Chen Li, Jing Yang
Subunit vaccines that are designed based on recombinant antigens or peptides have shown promising potential as viable substitutes for traditional vaccines due to their better safety and specificity. However, the induction of adequate in vivo immune responses with appropriate effectiveness remains a major challenge for vaccine development. More recently, the implementation of a nanoparticle-based antigen delivery system has been considered a promising approach to improve the in vivo efficacy for subunit vaccine development...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675262/genotyping-and-molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-lymphadenitis-cases-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#5
O Zewdie, A Mihret, T Abebe, A Kebede, K Desta, A Worku, G Ameni
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major public health problem. Drug-resistance surveillance data show that 3.9% of new and 21% of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have had rifampicin/ multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in 2015. This implies that the MDR-TB is increasing alarmingly. Hence, a better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and genotypes associated with multidrug resistance in M. tuberculosis is crucial for improving diagnostic and therapeutic methods to treat individuals with MDR-TB...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#6
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674754/preparation-of-a-nile-red-pd-based-fluorescent-co-probe-and-its-imaging-applications-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Keyin Liu, Xiuqi Kong, Yanyan Ma, Weiying Lin
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key gaseous signaling molecule in living cells and organisms. This protocol illustrates the synthesis of a highly sensitive Nile Red (NR)-Pd-based fluorescent probe, NR-PdA, and its applications for detecting endogenous CO in tissue culture cells, ex vivo organs, and zebrafish embryos. In the NR-PdA synthesis process, 3-diethylamine phenol reacts with sodium nitrite in the acidic condition to afford 5-(diethylamino)-2-nitrosophenol hydrochloride (compound 1), which is further treated with 1-naphthalenol at a high temperature to provide the NR dye via a cyclization reaction...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674661/donor-dependent-variation-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-response-to-hypoxic-preconditioning-and-amelioration-of-limb-ischemia
#8
Insung Kang, Byung-Chul Lee, Soon Won Choi, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Bo-Eun Kim, Da-Hyun Kim, Seung Eun Lee, Nari Shin, Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Dong-Ik Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang
With the rapidly growing demand for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, numerous strategies using MSCs for different diseases have been studied and reported. Because of their immunosuppressive properties, MSCs are commonly used as an allogeneic treatment. However, for the many donors who could potentially be used, it is important to understand the capacity for therapeutic usage with donor-to-donor heterogeneity. In this study, we aimed to investigate MSCs as a promising therapeutic strategy for critical limb ischemia...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674034/a-voltammetric-test-for-the-rapid-discrimination-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-blood-cultures
#9
Laetitia Betelli, Catherine Neuwirth, Sébastien Solanas, Benoît Chantemesse, Fabienne Vienney, Alain Hartmann, Murielle Rochelet
The accurate identification of β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae is a major challenge in clinical laboratories in order to optimize antimicrobial treatment and patient care. We describe here a rapid voltammetric-based method to detect and to discriminate β-lactamase activity in Enterobacteriaceae i.e., penicillinase, cephalosporinase (inducible or overproduced), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase producers. After a 2-h growth step of the sample under three separate conditions: 1) LB (Luria-Bertani) medium, 2) LB supplemented with 4 μg/mL cefotaxime and 3) LB supplemented with 4 μg/mL cefotaxime and 100 μg/mL potassium clavulanate, the β-lactamase activity was measured by incubating a 0...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672858/neonates-colonized-with-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-airways-have-a-low-grade-systemic-inflammation
#10
Nadia Rahman Fink, Bo Lund Chawes, Jonathan Thorsen, Jakob Stokholm, Karen Krogfelt, Susanne Schjørring, Marie Kragh, Klaus Bønnelykke, Susanne Brix, Hans Bisgaard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The development of childhood asthma is associated with neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx. Furthermore, established asthma is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. We here report on the association between neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx and the development of systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS: Bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx with M. catharralis, H. influenzae and/or S...
April 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672123/interferon-%C3%AE-enhances-the-cough-reflex-sensitivity-via-calcium-influx-in-vagal-sensory-neurons
#11
Zheng Deng, Wenliang Zhou, Jiayang Sun, Chenhui Li, Bonian Zhong, Kefang Lai
RATIONALE: Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is often triggered by a viral infection. The viral infection might trigger cough hypersensitivity via increasing the release of interferon-γ from T lymphocytes in the lung. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of interferon-γ on the vagal sensory neurons and the cough reflex. METHODS: Effects of interferon-γ on the cough reflex were investigated in guinea pigs. Cellular immunofluorescence imaging, calcium imaging and patch clamp techniques were used to study effects of interferon-γ in primary cultured rat vagal sensory neurons...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671903/a-review-of-mycoplasma-diagnostics-in-cattle
#12
REVIEW
Alysia M Parker, Paul A Sheehy, Mark S Hazelton, Katrina L Bosward, John K House
Mycoplasma species have a global distribution causing serious diseases in cattle worldwide including mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia, otitis media and reproductive disorders. Mycoplasma species are typically highly contagious, are capable of causing severe disease, and are difficult infections to resolve requiring rapid and accurate diagnosis to prevent and control disease outbreaks. This review discusses the development and use of different diagnostic methods to identify Mycoplasma species relevant to cattle, with a particular focus on Mycoplasma bovis...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671769/cgmp-signaling-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-plasticity
#13
REVIEW
Moritz Lehners, Hyazinth Dobrowinski, Susanne Feil, Robert Feil
Cyclic GMP regulates multiple cell types and functions of the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the effects of cGMP on the growth and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which display remarkable phenotypic plasticity during the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that VSMCs contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques by clonal expansion and transdifferentiation to macrophage-like cells. VSMCs express a variety of cGMP generators and effectors, including NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI), respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671723/evaluation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-eradication-therapy-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#14
S T J Tsang, M P McHugh, D Guerendiain, P Gwynne, J Boyd, I F Laurenson, K E Templeton, S Lewis, A H R W Simpson, T S Walsh
PURPOSE: Despite WHO recommendations, there is currently no national screening and eradication policy for the detection of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in the UK prior to elective orthopaedic surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of current standard methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) eradication therapies in the context of S. aureus (both MRSA and MSSA) decolonization in an elective orthopaedic population. METHODOLOGY: A total of 100 patients awaiting joint replacement surgery who were positive for S...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671721/the-bceabrs-four-component-system-that-is-essential-for-cell-envelope-stress-response-is-involved-in-sensing-and-response-to-host-defence-peptides-and-is-required-for-the-biofilm-formation-and-fitness-of-streptococcus-mutans
#15
Xiao-Lin Tian, Hasan Salim, Gaofeng Dong, Madison Parcells, Yung-Hua Li
PURPOSE: Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic pathogen worldwide. In dental biofilms, S. mutans often faces life-threatening insults, such as killing by antimicrobial compounds from competing species and from the host. How such insults affect the physiology and virulence of S. mutans is poorly understood. In this study, we explored this question by investigating the responses of S. mutans strains to several host defence peptides and bacitracin. METHODOLOGY: S...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671598/impact-of-oxygen-concentration-on-metabolic-profile-of-human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-determined-by-chemical-isotope-labeling-lc-ms
#16
Dan Wang, Deying Chen, Jiong Yu, Jingqi Liu, Xiaowei Shi, Yanni Sun, Qiaoling Pan, Xian Luo, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Li, Hongcui Cao, Liang Li, Lanjuan Li
The placenta resides in a physiologically low oxygen microenvironment of the body. Hypoxia induces a wide range of stem cell cellular activities. Here, we report a workflow for exploring the role of physiological (hypoxic, 5% oxygen) and original cell culture (normoxic, 21% oxygen) oxygen concentrations in regulating the metabolic status of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs). The general biological characteristics of hPMSCs were assessed via a variety of approaches such as cell counts, flow cytometry and differentiation study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671516/vaginitis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Heather L Paladine, Urmi A Desai
Vaginitis is defined as any condition with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, itching, or burning. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Bacterial vaginosis is implicated in 40% to 50% of cases when a cause is identified, with vulvovaginal candidiasis accounting for 20% to 25% and trichomoniasis for 15% to 20% of cases. Noninfectious causes, including atrophic, irritant, allergic, and inflammatory vaginitis, are less common and account for 5% to 10% of vaginitis cases...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671369/internalized-homophobia-scale-for-gay-chinese-men-conceptualization-factor-structure-reliability-and-associations-with-hypothesized-correlates
#18
Zhengjia Ren, Ralph W Hood
This study reports the development of an inventory to assess the perceived internalized homophobia of gay men in a collectivistic Chinese cultural context. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using two samples suggested the viability and stability of a three-factor model: internalized heteronormativity (IHN), family-oriented identity (FOI), and socially oriented identity (SOI). The 11-item internalized homophobia inventory demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671250/measurement-properties-of-thypro-short-form-thypro-39-for-use-in-chinese-patients-with-benign-thyroid-diseases
#19
Carlos K H Wong, Edmond P H Choi, Y C Woo, Brian H H Lang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity and reliability of a newly-translated Thyroid-specific Patient-Reported Outcome short-form (ThyPRO-39) instrument for ethnic-Chinese patients suffering from benign thyroid diseases. METHODS: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the English ThyPRO-39 were performed using the double forward translation, reconciliation, single backward translation, and cognitive debriefing, followed by a panel review. Cross-sectional data of 308 patients with benign thyroid diseases were utilized for this psychometric evaluation of ThyPRO-39 instrument...
April 18, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670874/rapid-colorimetric-assay-for-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-food-samples-using-lamp-formation-of-dna-concatemers-and-gold-nanoparticle-dna-probe-complex
#20
Sirirat Wachiralurpan, Thayat Sriyapai, Supatra Areekit, Pichapak Sriyapai, Suphitcha Augkarawaritsawong, Somchai Santiwatanakul, Kosum Chansiri
Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen of global health concern. Herein, the rapid diagnosis of L. monocytogenes has been achieved using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on the phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C gene ( plcB ). Colorimetric detection was then performed through the formation of DNA concatemers and a gold nanoparticle/DNA probe complex (GNP/DNA probe). The overall detection process was accomplished within approximately 1 h with no need for complicated equipment...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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