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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441119/comparable-efficacy-of-behavioral-and-pharmacological-treatments-among-african-american-and-white-cocaine-users
#1
LaTrice Montgomery, Kathleen M Carroll
Multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated a range of treatments for cocaine dependence, but few of these have focused specifically on the racial diversity observed among cocaine-dependent patients. The present analyses evaluated racial variation in cocaine use and addiction-related psychosocial outcomes at baseline and follow-up among 388 African American and White adults participating in 1 of 5 RCTs evaluating a range of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for cocaine use disorders. General linear modeling (GLM) indicated significant racial variation in cocaine and psychosocial indicators at baseline...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434890/brain-lipidomic-changes-after-morphine-cocaine-and-amphetamine-administration-desi-ms-imaging-study
#2
Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna Antolak, Anna Drabik, Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Jolanta Kotlińska, Piotr Suder
Drug addiction is a complex disorder, evoking significant changes in the proteome of the central nervous system. To check if there are also changes in the lipidomic profiles we used desorption electrospray-MS technique for imaging of the brain slices of rats exposed to morphine, cocaine and amphetamine. Our investigations showed alternative regulation of selected lipid's levels in the central nervous system structures, under the influence of applied drugs. Results of our investigations can show changes in the brain treated with drugs of abuse in the new light, indicating role of the lipids in the addiction development...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434182/recent-trends-in-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-police-detainees-in-new-zealand-2010-2015
#3
Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert, Helen Moewaka Barnes
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. AIMS: This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. METHOD: The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i...
April 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#4
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427930/the-relative-prevalence-of-schizophrenia-among-cannabis-and-cocaine-users-attending-addiction-services
#5
Nicolás Libuy, Valeria de Angel, Carlos Ibáñez, Robin M Murray, Adrian P Mundt
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and cocaine are the most common illicit drugs for which people are treated in addiction services in Latin America. Much research has suggested that the use of cannabis increases the risk of schizophrenia; there is less evidence concerning cocaine. The aim of the present study was to establish the relative prevalence of schizophrenia in people treated for cannabis use and cocaine use disorders in Chile. METHODS: A sample of 22,615 people treated for illicit drug use disorders was obtained from a national registry of addiction service users in Chile...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426361/sociodemographic-and-substance-use-disorder-determinants-of-hiv-sexual-risk-behavior-in-men-and-women-in-outpatient-drug-treatment-in-the-nida-national-drug-abuse-treatment-clinical-trials-network
#6
Jeremy D Kidd, Susan Tross, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Aimee N C Campbell, Edward V Nunes
BACKGROUND: Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424105/specific-impact-of-stimulant-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders-on-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-functional-and-symptomatic-outcomes
#7
C Ouellet-Plamondon, A Abdel-Baki, É Salvat, S Potvin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have concluded that cannabis use disorder (CUD) negatively influences outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, few have taken into account the impact of concurrent misuse of other substances. METHODS: This 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to early intervention programs in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, examined the specific influence of different substance use disorders (SUD) (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines) on service utilization, symptomatic and functional outcomes in FEP...
April 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#8
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418645/brain-region-and-isoform-specific-phosphorylation-alters-kalirin-sh2-domain-interaction-sites-and-calpain-sensitivity
#9
Megan B Miller, Yan Yan, Kazuya Machida, Drew D Kiraly, Aaron D Levy, Yi I Wu, TuKiet T Lam, Thomas Abbott, Anthony J Koleske, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains
Kalirin7 (Kal7), a postsynaptic Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor (RhoGEF), plays a crucial role in long-term potentiation and in the effects of cocaine on behavior and spine morphology. The KALRN gene has been linked to schizophrenia and other disorders of synaptic function. Mass spectrometry was used to quantify phosphorylation at 26 sites in Kal7 from individual adult rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex before and after exposure to acute or chronic cocaine. Region- and isoform-specific phosphorylation was observed along with region-specific effects of cocaine on Kal7 phosphorylation...
April 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#10
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401284/targeting-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-a-preclinical-model-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Yann Pelloux, Christelle Baunez
BACKGROUND: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been considered to have a role in reward processing. In rats, inactivation of the STN by lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreases motivation for cocaine but increases motivation for sucrose. For ethanol, the effect of STN lesion depends on the individual's baseline intake; decreasing motivation for ethanol in rats with lower ethanol intake, while increasing motivation for ethanol in rats with higher-but still limited-ethanol intake...
April 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399488/intentional-cannabis-use-to-reduce-crack-cocaine-use-in-a-canadian-setting-a-longitudinal-analysis
#12
M Eugenia Socías, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Stephanie Lake, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: No effective pharmacotherapies exist for the treatment of crack cocaine use disorders. Emerging data suggests that cannabinoids may play a role in reducing cocaine-related craving symptoms. This study investigated the intentional use of cannabis to reduce crack use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Data were drawn from three prospective cohorts of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Using data from participants reporting intentional cannabis use to control crack use, we used generalized linear mixed-effects modeling to estimate the independent effect of three pre-defined intentional cannabis use periods (i...
April 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#13
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and post-stroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391178/mirtazapine-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#14
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Phillipe Leff, Adriana Arías-Caballero, Ricardo Hernández-Miramontes, Gerardo Heinze, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. METHODS: We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alters-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#15
Christopher P King, Leah Militello, Amy Hart, Celine L St Pierre, Emily Leung, Cassandra L Versaggi, Nathaniel Roberson, James Catlin, Abraham A Palmer, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knock-out rats and AdipoQ knock-out mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and knock-out (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared to wild-type rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387975/insular-and-cingulate-attenuation-during-decision-making-is-associated-with-future-transition-to-stimulant-use-disorder
#16
Jennifer L Stewart, Mamona Butt, April C May, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
AIMS: To understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Occasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed three years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using)...
April 7, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373066/role-of-d-amphetamine-and-d-methamphetamine-as-active-metabolites-of-benzphetamine-evidence-from-drug-discrimination-and-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Matthew L Banks, Rodney W Snyder, Timothy R Fennell, S Stevens Negus
Benzphetamine is a Schedule III anorectic agent that is a prodrug for d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine and may have utility as an "agonist" medication for cocaine use disorder treatment. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile of benzphetamine using a drug discrimination procedure in rhesus monkeys. The potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were compared for benzphetamine (10-18mg/kg, intramuscular (IM)) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg, IM) in monkeys (n=3-4) trained to discriminate IM cocaine (0...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367515/shared-microstructural-features-of-behavioral-and-substance-addictions-revealed-in-areas-of-crossing-fibers
#18
Sarah W Yip, Kristen P Morie, Jiansong Xu, R Todd Constable, Robert T Malison, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Similarities between behavioral and substance addictions exist. However, direct neurobiological comparison between addictive disorders is rare. Determination of disorder-specificity (or lack thereof) of alterations within white-matter microstructures will advance understanding of the pathophysiology of addictions. METHODS: We compared white-matter microstructural features between individuals with gambling disorder (GD; n=38), cocaine-use disorder (CUD; n=38) and healthy comparison (HC; n=38) participants, as assessed using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363516/vascular-disease-in-cocaine-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Keren Bachi, Venkatesh Mani, Devi Jeyachandran, Zahi A Fayad, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best...
March 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347636/knowledge-of-hepatitis-c-and-treatment-willingness-amongst-people-who-inject-drugs-in-an-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#20
Allison Mah, Mark W Hull, Kora DeBeck, Michael John Milloy, Sabina Dobrer, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to be important in altering risk behaviour, improving engagement in care, and promoting willingness to initiate HCV treatment. We assessed factors associated with HCV knowledge and treatment willingness amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in an era of direct acting antivirals. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between June 2014 and May 2015...
March 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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