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Cocaine use disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727662/paraphilic-thoughts-behaviors-and-sex-addiction-in-a-sample-of-persons-who-use-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Jales Clemente, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Jair de Jesus Mari, Claudio Jeronimo da Silva, Paulo Roberto Henrique Santana, Alessandra Diehl
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of paraphilic thoughts/behaviors (including paraphilic disorders) with and without sexual addiction and sexual-related conditions in a sample of substance disorder patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of substance-dependent individuals who sought outpatient treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Data included sociodemographic information, drug of choice, responses to questions about sexual behavior, and to the following standardized questionnaires: (a) Sexual Addiction Screening Test, and (b) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716656/atomoxetine-in-abstinent-cocaine-users-cognitive-subjective-and-cardiovascular-effects
#2
Elise E DeVito, Aryeh I Herman, Noah S Konkus, Huiping Zhang, Mehmet Sofuoglu
No pharmacotherapies are approved for the treatment of cocaine use disorders (CUD). Behavioral treatments for CUD are efficacious for some individuals, but recovery rates from CUD remain low. Cognitive impairments in CUD have been linked with poorer clinical outcomes. Cognitive enhancing pharmacotherapies have been proposed as promising treatments for CUD. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, shows potential as a treatment for CUD based on its efficacy as a cognitive enhancer in other clinical populations and impact on addictive processes in preclinical and human laboratory studies...
July 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714728/functional-neural-changes-following-behavioral-therapies-and-disulfiram-for-cocaine-dependence
#3
Elise E DeVito, Guangheng Dong, Hedy Kober, Jiansong Xu, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
A growing literature exists on neural correlates of treatment outcome. However, different types-or components of-treatment have distinct theorized mechanisms of action. And it is not yet known how changes in neural activity across treatment relate to engagement in different treatment components. Participants with cocaine use disorders in a randomized clinical trial received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus, in a 2 × 2 design, contingency management (CM) or no CM, and disulfiram or placebo. Participants performed a functional MRI Stroop task, a measure of cognitive control, at the beginning of and after the 12-week treatment...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711811/n-acetylcysteine-reduces-cocaine-cue-attentional-bias-and-differentially-alters-cocaine-self-administration-based-on-dosing-order
#4
B L Bolin, Joseph L Alcorn, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, Abner O Rayapati, Lon R Hays, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Disrupted glutamate homeostasis is thought to contribute to cocaine-use disorder, in particular, by enhancing the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli. n-Acetylcysteine might be useful in cocaine-use disorder by normalizing glutamate function. In prior studies, n-acetylcysteine blocked the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory animals and reduced the salience of cocaine stimuli and delayed relapse in humans. METHODS: The present study determined the ability of maintenance on n-acetylcysteine (0 or 2400mg/day, counterbalanced) to reduce the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli, as measured by an attentional bias task, and attenuate intranasal cocaine self-administration (0, 30, and 60mg)...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710498/gene-network-dysregulation-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-of-humans-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#5
Efrain A Ribeiro, Joseph R Scarpa, Susanna P Garamszegi, Andrew Kasarskis, Deborah C Mash, Eric J Nestler
Metabolic and functional alterations of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are thought to contribute to impulsivity, which is a hallmark of addictive behaviors that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking in humans. To determine if there is a transcriptional signature in dlPFC neurons of humans with cocaine use disorder, we performed total RNA-sequencing on neuronal nuclei isolated from post-mortem dlPFC of cocaine addicts and healthy controls. Our results point toward a transcriptional mechanism whereby cocaine alters specific gene networks in dlPFC neurons...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697386/alterations-in-functional-brain-networks-associated-with-loss-chasing-in-gambling-disorder-and-cocaine-use-disorder
#6
Patrick D Worhunsky, Marc N Potenza, Robert D Rogers
BACKGROUND: Continued, persistent gambling to recover accumulating losses, or 'loss-chasing', is a behavioral pattern linked particularly closely to gambling disorder (GD) but may reflect impaired decision-making processes relevant to drug addictions like cocaine-use disorder (CUD). However, little is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms of this complex, maladaptive behavior, particularly in individuals with addictive disorders. METHODS: Seventy participants (25 GD, 18 CUD, and 27 healthy comparison (HC)) completed a loss-chase task during fMRI...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695777/the-limited-impact-that-cocaine-use-patterns-have-on-neurocognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#7
James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
It is well-documented in the literature that cocaine use is associated with neurocognitive impairment. The manner in which patterns of cocaine use, such as years of use, recent use over the past month, and daily amount of cocaine use, moderate neurocognition has been studied in a relatively piecemeal manner. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate whether cocaine use patterns modulate neurocognition in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Cocaine users who were cocaine-negative ( n=125) were divided into tertiles based on cocaine use patterns and the performances of the highest and lowest groups were compared on the following cognitive measures: Continuous Performance Task-II, n-back, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690921/risk-factors-for-tremor-in-a-population-of-patients-with-severe-mental-illness-an-18-year-prospective-study-in-a-geographically-representative-sample-the-curacao-extrapyramidal-syndromes-study-xi
#8
Charlotte L Mentzel, P Roberto Bakker, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker, Michiel R H van den Oever, Glenn E Matroos, Hans W Hoek, Marina Aj Tijssen, Peter N van Harten
BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess incidence, prevalence and risk factors of medication-induced tremor in African-Caribbean patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHOD: A prospective study of SMI patients receiving care from the only mental health service of the previous Dutch Antilles. Eight clinical assessments, over 18 years, focused on movement disorders, medication use, and resting tremor (RT) and (postural) action tremor (AT). Risk factors were modeled with logistic regression for both current (having) tremor and for tremor at the next time point (developing)...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682218/differences-in-the-rates-of-drug-polyconsumption-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-according-to-the-mental-health-service
#9
P Araos, Esperanza Vergara-Moragues, Francisco González-Saiz, María Pedraz, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Rafael Campos-Cloute, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Marta Torrens, Fernando Rodriguez De Fonseca
Cocaine continues to be a worldwide public health concern in Europe. To improve prognosis and intervention, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the patients who depend on the services where they receive care. The objective is to analyze the differences among patients who use cocaine and between ambulatory and residential resources to better adapt treatment. This is a descriptive, observational study of two populations of cocaine users in treatment: the ambulatory therapeutic community (ATC) and the therapeutic community (TC)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673521/addiction-consultation-services-linking-hospitalized-patients-to-outpatient-addiction-treatment
#10
Paul Trowbridge, Zoe M Weinstein, Todd Kerensky, Payel Roy, Danny Regan, Jeffrey H Samet, Alexander Y Walley
BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of hospitalized patients have an active substance use disorder (SUD). Starting treatment for SUD, including medications, during acute hospitalizations can engage patients in addiction care. In July 2015, the Boston Medical Center Addiction Consult Service (ACS), began providing inpatient diagnostic, management, and discharge linkage consultations. We describe this implementation. METHODS: The ACS staff recorded SUDs diagnoses and medication recommendations and tracked follow-up data for affiliated outpatient office-based addiction clinics and methadone maintenance programs...
August 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668281/disruption-of-glua2-phosphorylation-potentiates-stress-responsivity
#11
Alexandra S Ellis, Anne Q Fosnocht, Kelsey E Lucerne, Lisa A Briand
Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs...
June 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667509/hypocretin-receptor-1-blockade-produces-bimodal-modulation-of-cocaine-associated-mesolimbic-dopamine-signaling
#12
K A Levy, Z D Brodnik, J K Shaw, D A Perrey, Y Zhang, R A España
RATIONALE: Cocaine addiction is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by pathological motivation to obtain cocaine and behavioral and neurochemical hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues. These features of cocaine addiction are thought to be driven by aberrant phasic dopamine signaling. We previously demonstrated that blockade of the hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) attenuates cocaine self-administration and reduces cocaine-induced enhancement of dopamine signaling. Despite this evidence, the effects of HCRTr1 blockade on endogenous phasic dopamine release are unknown...
June 30, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666202/the-impact-of-cocaine-use-in-patients-enrolled-in-opioid-agonist-therapy-in-ontario-canada
#13
Alexandra M Franklyn, Joseph K Eibl, Graham J Gauthier, David Pellegrini, Nancy E Lightfoot, David C Marsh
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy is the gold standard of care for opioid use disorder; however, the efficacy of this treatment may be hindered by concurrent drug use, including the use of cocaine. This study examines the impact of cocaine use on treatment retention, while accounting for various risk factors, including geographic location, age, gender, and first-month cocaine use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using anonymized electronic medical records from 58 opioid agonist therapy clinics in Ontario between 2011 and 2013...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663122/dsm-5-cannabis-use-disorder-substance-use-and-dsm-5-specific-substance-use-disorders-evaluating-comorbidity-in-a-population-based-sample
#14
Amie C Hayley, Con Stough, Luke A Downey
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is frequently associated with concurrent substance use and/or comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs); however there is little specificity with regard to commonly abused individual drug types/classes. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the degree of these co-occurring relationships across several specific newer and older generation illicit and prescription drugs. 36,309 adults aged 18+ from wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were assessed...
June 27, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660744/reconceptualizing-mental-disorders-from-symptoms-to-organs
#15
Mario Bunge
Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural...
June 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660166/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-in-the-trauma-intensive-care-unit-diagnosis-and-management-of-a-rare-disease-in-a-challenging-population
#16
Joseph David Drews, Andrew Christopher, David Clay Evans
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening neurological disorder associated with the use of antipsychotic medications. Many of its classic signs, such as fever and altered mental status, are nonspecific in trauma intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and its rarity makes it a difficult diagnosis in this population. However, delays in treatment can be costly both in terms of hospital resources and patient outcomes. We herein report a case of a 54-year-old trauma patient with NMS precipitated by a combination of cocaine withdrawal and neuroleptic medications...
April 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645915/cebranopadol-blocks-the-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-conditioned-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#17
Giordano de Guglielmo, Alessandra Matzeu, Jenni Kononoff, Julia Mattioni, Remi Martin-Fardon, Olivier George
Cebranopadol is a novel agonist of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptors with analgesic properties that is being evaluated in clinical Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials for the treatment of chronic and acute pain. Recent evidence indicates that the combination of opioid and NOP receptor agonism may be a new treatment strategy for cocaine addiction. We sought to extend these findings by examining the effects of cebranopadol on cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) and cocaine conditioned reinstatement in rats with extended access to cocaine...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#19
Alicia J Avelar, Jianjing Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular DA levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623859/self-reported-cognitive-scales-in-a-u-s-national-survey-reliability-validity-and-preliminary-evidence-for-associations-with-alcohol-and-drug-use
#20
Efrat Aharonovich, Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M Wall, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
AIMS: To evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population. DESIGN: Two cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
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