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Cocaine use disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#1
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889580/methylphenidate-modulates-dorsal-raphe-neuronal-activity-behavioral-and-neuronal-recordings-from-adolescent-rats
#2
Holly Whitt, Natasha Kharas, Nachum Dafny, Cruz Reyes-Vasquez
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a widely prescribed psychostimulants used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Unlike the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine, MPD does not exhibit direct actions on the serotonin transporter, however there is evidence suggesting that the therapeutic effects of MPD may be mediated in part by alterations in serotonin transmission. This study aimed to investigate the role of the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus, one of the major sources of serotonergic innervation in the mammalian brain, in the response to MPD exposure...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881957/the-effects-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-social-cues-on-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#3
Mark A Smith, Huailin Zhang, Andrea M Robinson
Social partners influence the likelihood of using drugs, developing a substance use disorder and relapse to drug use after a period of abstinence. Preclinical studies report that social cues influence the acquisition of cocaine use, the escalation of cocaine use over time, and the compulsive patterns of cocaine use that emerge during an extended binge. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social cues on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior after a period of abstinence. Male rats were obtained at weaning, assigned to triads (three rats/cage), reared to adulthood and implanted with intravenous catheters...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872762/understanding-the-functional-plasticity-in-neural-networks-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-cocaine-use-disorder-a-role-for-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-in-a2a-d2-heteroreceptor-complexes
#4
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Karolina Wydra, Julia Pintsuk, Manuel Narvaez, Fidel Corrales, Magdalena Zaniewska, Luigi F Agnati, Rafael Franco, Sergio Tanganelli, Luca Ferraro, Malgorzata Filip, Kjell Fuxe
Our hypothesis is that allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in homo- and heteroreceptor complexes may form the molecular basis of learning and memory. This principle is illustrated by showing how cocaine abuse can alter the adenosine A2AR-dopamine D2R heterocomplexes and their receptor-receptor interactions and hereby induce neural plasticity in the basal ganglia. Studies with A2AR ligands using cocaine self-administration procedures indicate that antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R heterocomplexes of the ventral striatopallidal GABA antireward pathway play a significant role in reducing cocaine induced reward, motivation, and cocaine seeking...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862692/ppar%C3%AE-agonism-attenuates-cocaine-cue-reactivity
#6
William R Miller, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Scott D Lane, Larry Denner, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley
Cocaine use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug seeking and taking even after prolonged abstinence periods. Subsequent exposure to drug-associated cues can promote intense craving and lead to relapse in abstinent humans and rodent models. The responsiveness to these cocaine-related cues, or 'cue reactivity', can trigger relapse and cocaine-seeking behaviors; cue reactivity is measurable in cocaine-dependent humans as well as rodent models. Cue reactivity is thought to be predictive of cocaine craving and relapse...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857126/repeated-7-day-treatment-with-the-5-ht2c-agonist-lorcaserin-or-the-5-ht2a-antagonist-pimavanserin-alone-or-in-combination-fails-to-reduce-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#7
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845741/cst-an-herbal-formula-exerts-anti-obesity-effects-through-brain-gut-adipose-tissue-axis-modulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#8
AbuZar Ansari, Shambhunath Bose, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Jing-Hua Wang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834131/recent-highlights-on-molecular-hybrids-potentially-useful-in-central-nervous-system-disorders
#9
Mariana Matias, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Molecular hybridization is a recent strategy based in the covalent fusion of two or more existing pharmacophores to create a single molecule with multiple mechanisms of action, which represents an encouraging approach in the development of new drugs with potential therapeutic application in several pathologies. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the most relevant advances in the development of hybrid molecules acting in the central nervous system. For instance, several opioid hybrids based on endogenous opioid peptides, such as enkephalins, deltorphin and endomorphin, have been developed and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists have also been designed for neuropathic pain control...
November 11, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833645/the-impact-of-psychopathological-subtypes-on-retention-rate-of-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-entering-residential-therapeutic-community-treatment
#10
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Emanuela Trogu, Federica Vigna-Taglianti, Federica Mathis, Roberto Diecidue, Ursula Kirchmayer, Laura Amato, Joli Ghibaudi, Antonella Camposeragna, Alessio Saponaro, Marina Davoli, Fabrizio Faggiano, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: A specific psychopathology of addiction has been proposed and described using the self-report symptom inventory (SCL-90), leading to a 5-factor aggregation of psychological/psychiatric symptoms: 'worthlessness and being trapped', 'somatic symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety' and 'violence-suicide' in various populations of patients with heroin use disorder (HUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs). These clusters of symptoms, according to studies that have highlighted the role of possible confounding factors (such as demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems and kind of treatment received by the patients), seem to constitute a trait rather than a state of the psychological structure of addiction...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828699/levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-toxicity-would-you-recognize-it
#11
Suneela Cherlopalle, Manasa Enja, Melanie Lippmann, Steven Lippmann
Adulteration of cocaine with levamisole is common and can induce serious medical complications. Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent originally approved as an immunomodulator in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and as a chemotherapy adjunct. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2000 but is available in veterinary medicine. Cocaine-using patients may present with nonspecific constitutional symptoms, cutaneous eruptions, leukopenia, vasculitis, and organ damage. Skin manifestations may include severe necrosis, especially of the ear lobes...
July 14, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779447/routine-drug-screening-for-patients-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-state-psychiatric-hospital-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#12
Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders who attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use, and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20% to 30%...
July 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766943/successful-classification-of-cocaine-dependence-using-brain-imaging-a-generalizable-machine-learning-approach
#13
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755988/eight-years-of-psychiatric-examination-of-detainees-by-forensic-physicians-in-the-netherlands
#14
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753720/cannabis-as-secondary-drug-is-not-associated-with-a-greater-risk-of-death-in-patients-with-opiate-cocaine-or-alcohol-dependence
#15
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738780/prevalence-and-predictors-of-substance-use-disorders-among-hiv-care-enrollees-in-the-united-states
#16
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736679/prevalence-of-driving-under-the-influence-of-psychoactive-substances-and-road-traffic-crashes-among-brazilian-crack-using-drivers
#17
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733540/enduring-loss-of-serotonergic-control-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-function-following-contingent-and-noncontingent-cocaine-exposure
#18
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729826/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-a-young-man-with-subacute-myelopathy-induced-by-abusive-nitrous-oxide-consumption-a-case-report
#19
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718509/role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-long-term-cocaine-induced-neuroplasticity-a-possible-novel-target-for-addiction-treatment
#20
S Cuesta, J Batuecas, M J Severin, A Funes, S B Rosso, A M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psychostimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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