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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#2
Alicia J Avelar, J Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular dopamine (DA) levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623859/self-reported-cognitive-scales-in-a-u-s-national-survey-reliability-validity-and-preliminary-evidence-for-associations-with-alcohol-and-drug-use
#3
Efrat Aharonovich, Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M Wall, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
AIMS: To evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population. DESIGN: Two cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618284/differences-in-biomarkers-of-crack-cocaine-adolescent-users-before-after-abstinence
#4
Thiago Gatti Pianca, Ronaldo Lopes Rosa, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Bianca Wollenhaupt de Aguiar, Rafaela Carvalho de Abrahão, Patrícia Mafra Lazzari, Flávio Kapczinski, Flávio Pechansky, Luis Augusto Rohde, Cláudia Maciel Szobot
AIMS: To measure the variation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and interleukin (IL) levels in crack-cocaine dependent adolescents after 21days of abstinence, comparing to levels found in a group of healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nested on a short follow-up study. SETTING: Two inpatient treatment units for adolescents, and a low-income neighborhood. PARTICIPANTS: 90 adolescents, of both genders, with diagnosis of crack cocaine dependence, and 81 healthy adolescents...
June 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601964/choice-between-variable-and-fixed-cocaine-injections-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#5
S L Huskinson, K B Freeman, N M Petry, J K Rowlett
RATIONALE: The schedule of drug availability may enhance choice of a drug. In non-human subjects, reinforcers are chosen more often when available under variable schedules of reinforcement relative to fixed schedules. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether variable-drug access is an important determinant of cocaine choice by manipulating the schedule, drug dose, and combination of schedule + dose. METHOD: Four male rhesus monkeys chose between cocaine doses (0...
June 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600754/substance-use-disorder-treatment-following-clinician-initiated-discontinuation-of-long-term-opioid-therapy-resulting-from-an-aberrant-urine-drug-test
#6
Shannon M Nugent, Steven K Dobscha, Benjamin J Morasco, Michael I Demidenko, Thomas H A Meath, Joseph W Frank, Travis I Lovejoy
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is offered to, or utilized by, patients who are discontinued from long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) following aberrant urine drug tests (UDTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of patients who were referred to, and engaged in, SUD treatment following LTOT discontinuation and to examine differences in SUD treatment referral and engagement based on the substances that led to discontinuation...
June 9, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590392/pilot-studies-examining-feasibility-of-substance-use-disorder-screening-and-treatment-linkage-at-urban-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics
#7
Jan Gryczynski, Courtney D Nordeck, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Kathleen R Page, Luke L Johnsen, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics provide critical public health services for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections throughout the United States. These settings serve high-risk populations, often on a walk-in basis, and may be promising venues for integrating substance use disorder (SUD) services. METHODS: We report findings from 2 pilot studies conducted at Baltimore City Health Department's STD clinics. The screening study characterized rates of SUDs among STD clinic patients...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579787/the-impact-of-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-on-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Tea Rosic, Leen Naji, Monica Bawor, Brittany B Dennis, Carolyn Plater, David C Marsh, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
OBJECTIVE: There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. METHODS: Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554603/association-between-executive-function-and-outcome-measure-of-treatment-in-therapeutic-community-among-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#9
Esperanza Vergara-Moragues, Antonio Verdejo-García, Oscar M Lozano, Sandra Santiago-Ramajo, Francisco González-Saiz, Patricia Betanzos Espinosa, Miguel Pérez García
The aim of this study was to examine the association between baseline executive functioning and outcome measure of treatment in 226 cocaine dependent individuals who initiated treatment in therapeutic communities TCs. The study was conducted across six TCs located in the region of Andalusia (southern Spain). Neuropsychological testing included tests of working memory, reasoning, inhibition, switching, attention interference and decision making. The outcome measures were type of discharge (treatment dropout vs...
July 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550519/drug-abuse-associated-mortality-across-the-lifespan-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-analysis
#10
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
PURPOSE: Nationwide data have been lacking on drug abuse (DA)-associated mortality. We do not know the degree to which this excess mortality results from the characteristics of drug-abusing individuals or from the effects of DA itself. METHOD: DA was assessed from medical, criminal, and prescribed drug registries. Relative pairs discordant for DA were obtained from the Multi-Generation and Twin Registers. Mortality was obtained from the Swedish Mortality registry...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535798/using-kalirin-conditional-knockout-mice-to-distinguish-its-role-in-dopamine-receptor-mediated-behaviors
#11
Taylor P LaRese, Yan Yan, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains
BACKGROUND: Mice lacking Kalirin-7 (Kal7(KO)), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, self-administer cocaine at a higher rate than wildtype mice, and show an exaggerated locomotor response to experimenter-administered cocaine. Kal7, which localizes to post-synaptic densities at glutamatergic synapses, interacts directly with the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; GluN) receptor. Consistent with these observations, Kal7 plays an essential role in NMDA receptor dependent long term potentiation and depression, and glutamatergic transmission plays a key role in the response to chronic cocaine...
May 23, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#12
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528115/alcohol-and-other-substance-use-after-bariatric-surgery-prospective-evidence-from-a-u-s-multicenter-cohort-study
#13
Wendy C King, Jia-Yuh Chen, Anita P Courcoulas, Gregory F Dakin, Scott G Engel, David R Flum, Marcelo W Hinojosa, Melissa A Kalarchian, Samer G Mattar, James E Mitchell, Alfons Pomp, Walter J Pories, Kristine J Steffen, Gretchen E White, Bruce M Wolfe, Susan Z Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, prospective assessment of substance use disorders (SUD) after bariatric surgery is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report SUD-related outcomes after RYGB and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). To identify factors associated with incident SUD-related outcomes. SETTING: 10 U.S. hospitals METHODS: The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a prospective cohort study...
March 31, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526048/men-s-and-women-s-response-to-treatment-and-perceptions-of-outcomes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-injectable-opioid-assisted-treatment-for-severe-opioid-use-disorder
#14
Heather Palis, Kirsten Marchand, Daphne Guh, Suzanne Brissette, Kurt Lock, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
BACKGROUND: To test whether there are gender differences in treatment outcomes among patients receiving injectable opioids for the treatment of long-term opioid-dependence. The study additionally explores whether men and women have different perceptions of treatment effectiveness. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis from SALOME, a double-blind, phase III, randomized controlled trial testing the non-inferiorirty of injectable hydromorphone to injectable diacetylmorphine among 202 long-term street opioid injectors in Vancouver (Canada)...
May 19, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514694/the-association-of-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-externalizing-behavior-and-adolescent-substance-use
#15
Sonia Minnes, Meeyoung O Min, June-Yung Kim, Meredith W Francis, Adelaide Lang, Miaoping Wu, Lynn T Singer
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may increase adolescent substance use through alterations of neurotransmitter systems affecting fetal brain development. The relationship between PCE and substance use at 15 and 17 years was examined. Subjects (365: 186 PCE; 179 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)) supplied biologic and self-report data using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC 4) at ages 15 and 17. The relationship between PCE and substance use was assessed using General Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses controlling for confounding factors including violence exposure and preschool lead level...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511097/the-relationship-between-social-desirability-bias-and-self-reports-of-health-substance-use-and-social-network-factors-among-urban-substance-users-in-baltimore-maryland
#16
Carl A Latkin, Catie Edwards, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self-reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. METHODS: The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501735/dose-and-time-dependent-effects-of-mirtazapine-on-the-expression-of-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats
#17
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Maura Matus-Ortega, Anabel Flores-Zamora, Noe Jurado, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine dependence. Antidepressant medications have been studied as potential therapeutic drugs to relieve a cocaine dependence disorder. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant implicated in reducing behavioral alterations induced by drugs of abuse. We have reported elsewhere that 30mg/kg mirtazapine administered for 30 days during cocaine extinction significantly attenuated the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and decreased the duration of the cocaine-induced locomotor effect...
May 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498501/ppar-gamma-agonist-pioglitazone-modifies-craving-intensity-and-brain-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-primary-cocaine-use-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#18
Joy M Schmitz, Charles E Green, Khader M Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F Weaver, F Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A Narayana, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley, Scott D Lane
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated. DESIGN: Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). SETTING: Single-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498318/dna-methylation-dynamics-and-cocaine-in-the-brain-progress-and-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Kathryn Vaillancourt, Carl Ernst, Deborah Mash, Gustavo Turecki
Cytosine modifications, including DNA methylation, are stable epigenetic marks that may translate environmental change into transcriptional regulation. Research has begun to investigate DNA methylation dynamics in relation to cocaine use disorders. Specifically, DNA methylation machinery, including methyltransferases and binding proteins, are dysregulated in brain reward pathways after chronic cocaine exposure. In addition, numerous methylome-wide and candidate promoter studies have identified differential methylation, at the nucleotide level, in rodent models of cocaine abuse and drug seeking behavior...
May 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496418/toward-the-identification-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-substance-use-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Icro Maremmani
Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD) patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA) on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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