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Cocaine use disorder

Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders that attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20-30%...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
S Cuesta, J Batuecas, M J Severin, A Funes, S B Rosso, A M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psychostimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Su-Ll In, Young S Gwak, Hye Rim Kim, Abdul Razzaq, Kyeong-Seok Lee, Hee Young Kim, SuChan Chang, Bong Hyo Lee, Craig A Grimes, Chae Ha Yang
Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yudan Ren, Jun Fang, Jinglei Lv, Xintao Hu, Cong Christine Guo, Lei Guo, Jiansong Xu, Marc N Potenza, Tianming Liu
Assessing functional brain activation patterns in neuropsychiatric disorders such as cocaine dependence (CD) or pathological gambling (PG) under naturalistic stimuli has received rising interest in recent years. In this paper, we propose and apply a novel group-wise sparse representation framework to assess differences in neural responses to naturalistic stimuli across multiple groups of participants (healthy control, cocaine dependence, pathological gambling). Specifically, natural stimulus fMRI (N-fMRI) signals from all three groups of subjects are aggregated into a big data matrix, which is then decomposed into a common signal basis dictionary and associated weight coefficient matrices via an effective online dictionary learning and sparse coding method...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Krishna Vaddiparti, Catherine W Striley, Linda B Cottler
The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence...
September 1, 2016: Violence Gend
Kristen P Morie, Sarah W Yip, Charla Nich, Karen Hunkele, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alexithymia, characterized by impairments in emotional awareness, is common among individuals with substance use disorders. Research on alexithymia suggests that it is a trait that may contribute to substance dependence. This paper will review alexithymia as it relates to substance use and substance use disorders, considering its potential role in the maintenance and treatment of these disorders. We will then describe how neural correlates associated with alexithymia may shed light on how alexithymia relates to addiction...
June 2016: Current Addiction Reports
Diane Warden, Katherine Sanchez, Tracy Greer, Thomas Carmody, Robrina Walker, Adriane Dela Cruz, Marisa Toups, Chad Rethorst, Madhukar H Trivedi
This study aimed to determine if current comorbid psychiatric disorders differ in adults with cocaine use disorder, other stimulant (primarily methamphetamine) use disorder, or both, and identify demographic and clinical characteristics in those with increasing numbers of comorbid disorders. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial beginning in residential settings (N=302) was used. Mood disorders were present in 33.6%, and anxiety disorders in 29.6%, with no differences among stimulant use disorder groups...
September 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
María J Salcedo-Arellano, Reymundo Lozano, Flora Tassone, Randi J Hagerman, Wilmar Saldarriaga
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures...
August 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Margaret C Wardle, Jessica N Vincent, Robert Suchting, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
This study explored anhedonia (lack of interest or pleasure in non-drug rewards) as a potentially modifiable individual difference associated with the effectiveness of Contingency Management (CM). It also tested the hypothesis that a dopaminergic drug, levodopa (L-DOPA), would improve the effectiveness of CM, particularly in individuals high in anhedonia. The study was a single-site, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, 12-week trial comparing L-DOPA with placebo, with both medication groups receiving voucher-based CM targeting cocaine-negative urines...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Katherine R Buchholz, Kipling M Bohnert, Rebecca K Sripada, Sheila A M Rauch, Quyen M Epstein-Ngo, Stephen T Chermack
BACKGROUND: Risk factors of violence perpetration in veterans include substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, it is unknown whether these factors are associated with greater risk for partner or non-partner violence. This study investigated the associations between probable PTSD, heavy drinking, marijuana use, cocaine use, and partner and non-partner violence perpetration. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires assessing past-year partner and non-partner aggression (CTS2) as well as past-month substance use (SAOM), probable PTSD (PCL-C), and probable depression (PHQ-9) were administered to 810 substance using veterans entering VA mental health treatment...
August 31, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Courtney M Cameron, R Mark Wightman, Regina M Carelli
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that is difficult to treat in part because addicts relapse even after extended periods of abstinence. Given the importance of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in drug addiction, we sought to characterize cocaine abstinence induced changes in rapid DA signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 14 consecutive days, then divided into two groups. Day 1 rats (D1; n = 7) underwent 24 h of abstinence; Day 30 rats (D30; n = 7) underwent one month of abstinence...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
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