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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911495/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-caged-sirna-with-terminal-single-vitamin-e-modification
#1
Jiali Yang, Lijia Yu, Liangliang Zhang, Xingsu Long, Yuzhuo Ji, Xinjing Tang
RNA-induced gene silencing has been widely applied as a powerful research tool in drug development due to its sequence-specific degradation of target mRNA. Conditional regulation of gene functions with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is highly useful, especially when specific gene expression regulation with spatiotemporal resolution and amplitude is desired. Here, the synthesis of a series of new caged siRNAs with vitamin E (vitE) modification and/or a single photolabile linker at the 5' terminal is described...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911492/rolling-circle-amplification-with-chemically-modified-nucleoside-triphosphates
#2
Marcel Hollenstein, Masad J Damha
Modified nucleoside triphosphates (dN*TPs) represent facile and versatile precursors for the introduction of chemical diversity into nucleic acids. While dN*TPs have been utilized in a plethora of practical applications, very little attention has been devoted to the assessment of their compatibility with isothermal amplification strategies. In this context, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a wide-spread enzymatic replication method in which small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circles serve as templates in primer extension reactions yielding very long, ssDNA products...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911475/carboplatin-complexed-and-crgd-conjugated-unimolecular-nanoparticles-for-targeted-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#3
Yuyuan Wang, Liwei Wang, Guojun Chen, Shaoqin Gong
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancers including ovarian cancer; however, it suffers from dose-limiting toxicity. Judiciously designed drug nanocarriers can enhance the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy while reducing its systemic toxicity. Herein the authors report a stable and water-soluble unimolecular nanoparticle constructed from a hydrophilic multi-arm star block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PAsp-PEG) conjugated with both cRGD (cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptide and cyanine5 (Cy5) fluorescent dye as a platinum-based drug nanocarrier for targeted ovarian cancer therapy...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911474/is-chelation-therapy-efficient-for-the-treatment-of-intravenous-metallic-mercury-intoxication
#4
Daniela Pelclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Ondrej Bezdicek, Manuela Vaneckova, Pavel Urban, Petr Ridzon, Pavel Diblik, Tomas Navratil, Pavlina Klusackova, Kamil Vlcek, Olga Benesova, Pavel Trestik, Jiri Homolka, Sergey Zakharov
The efficacy of treatment for intravenous elemental mercury intoxication has not been fully studied with regard to clinical outcomes, and treatment recommendations vary. We treated a 41-year-old man with a history of drug abuse and depression who attempted suicide using 1 mL (13.53 g) metallic Hg i.v. He was admitted to the hospital two months later for dyspnoea and thoracic pain and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Hg deposits were seen in the lungs and extra-pulmonary organs. His blood level (372 μg/L) exceeded the population level of 5 μg/L by more than 70-fold...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911446/treatment-patterns-of-ranibizumab-intravitreal-injection-and-dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant-for-retinal-vein-occlusion-in-the-usa
#5
S Nghiem-Buffet, S Baillif, S Regnier, A Skelly, N Yu, A Sodi
PurposeRanibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, have been shown to be effective in treating macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (central RVO (CRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO)). Their real-world usage, however, has yet to be compared. We therefore evaluated ophthalmology visits for both drugs using US patient-level data.MethodsThe IMS Health Real-World Data Medical Claims database was used to identify treatment-naive patients receiving ranibizumab intravitreal injections or dexamethasone intravitreal implants between June 2010 and February 2014 who had 12 months of follow-up data...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911360/development-of-a-more-sensitive-and-specific-chromogenic-agar-medium-for-the-detection-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-other-vibrio-species
#6
Marie Yeung, Trevor Thorsen
Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#7
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911327/anticholinergic-exposure-and-risk-of-pneumonia-in-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#8
Pasi Lampela, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Heidi Taipale
BACKGROUND: Risk of pneumonia is increased in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some studies, anticholinergic drugs (AC) have been associated with an increased pneumonia risk. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the risk of pneumonia associated with ACs in persons with AD. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using register-based data from a Finnish nationwide MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911294/deleterious-effect-of-butyrylcholinesterase-k-variant-in-donepezil-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Sophie Sokolow, Xiaohui Li, Lucia Chen, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, Robert A Rissman, Paul S Aisen, Liana G Apostolova
BACKGROUND: Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor frequently prescribed for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. In Alzheimer's disease, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity increases with disease progression and may replace acetylcholinesterase function. The most frequent polymorphism of BChE is the K-variant, which is associated with lower acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity. BChE-K polymorphism has been studied in Alzheimer's disease progression and donepezil therapy, and has led to contradictory results...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911272/foxo4-expression-is-related-to-stem-cell-like-properties-and-resistance-to-treatment-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#10
Kyung Ju Ryu, Chaehwa Park, Mineui Hong, Young Hyeh Ko, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Cancer stem cells are proposed to be responsible for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, including doxorubicin. As phenylbutyrate enhances cancer stem cell properties, we analyzed surviving lymphoma cells after treatment with doxorubicin and phenylbutyrate. Human B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including Toledo, BJAB, Daudi, and Raji were incubated with IC90 concentrations of doxorubicin (300 nM) or phenylbutyrate (8 mM). After 48 h, live cells were sorted and analyzed for their resistance to treatment by examining gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray and biological characteristics...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#11
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#12
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911087/%C3%AE-amyrin-attenuates-high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#13
Pankaj Prabhakar, K H Reeta, Subir Kumar Maulik, Amit Kumar Dinda, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
This study investigated the effect of α-amyrin (a pentacyclic triterpene) on high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into different groups. The control group was fed normal rat chow diet. The HFD group was fed HFD (60%; w/w) for 42 days. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was used as a standard drug. α-Amyrin was administered in 3 doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, orally, once daily along with HFD). Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated...
September 2, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911052/synthesis-and-cytotoxicity-of-dendritic-platinum-nanoparticles-with-hek-293-cells
#14
Kyubin Shim, Jeonghun Kim, Yoon-Uk Heo, Bo Jiang, Cuiling Li, Mohammed Shahabuddin, Kevin C-W Wu, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Yusuke Yamauchi, Jung Ho Kim
Dendritic platinum nanoparticles (DPNs) have been synthesized from l-ascorbic acid and an amphiphilic non-ionic surfactant (Brij-58) via a sonochemical method. The particle size and shape of the DPNs could be tuned by changing the reduction temperature, resulting in a uniform DPN with a size of 23 nm or 60 nm. The facets of DPNs have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of DPNs has been investigated using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293), and the biological adaptability exhibited by DPNs has opened a pathway to biomedical applications such as drug-delivery systems, photothermal treatment, and biosensors...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911044/utilization-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-5-4-million-children-using-population-based-longitudinal-data
#15
Kari Furu, Øystein Karlstad, Helga Zoega, Jaana E Martikainen, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler, Anton Pottegård
Use of stimulants to treat Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including co-medication with other psychothropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012; which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910983/investigation-and-intervention-of-autophagy-to-guide-cancer-treatment-with-nanogels
#16
Xudong Zhang, Xin Liang, Jianjun Gu, Danfeng Chang, Jinxie Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Wei Tao, Xiaowei Zeng, Gan Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Lin Mei, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells use autophagy to resist poor survival environmental conditions such as low PH, poor nutrients as well as chemical therapy. Nanogels have been used as efficient chemical drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, the effect of nanogels on autophagy is still unknown. Here, we used Rab proteins as the marker of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis and LC3 as the marker of autophagy to investigate the intracellular trafficking network of Rhodamine B (Rho)-labeled nanogels. The nanogels were internalized by the cells through multiple protein dependent endocytosis and micropinocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910869/multiparameter-mechanical-and-morphometric-screening-of-cells
#17
Mahdokht Masaeli, Dewal Gupta, Sean O'Byrne, Henry T K Tse, Daniel R Gossett, Peter Tseng, Andrew S Utada, Hea-Jin Jung, Stephen Young, Amander T Clark, Dino Di Carlo
We introduce a label-free method to rapidly phenotype and classify cells purely based on physical properties. We extract 15 biophysical parameters from cells as they deform in a microfluidic stretching flow field via high-speed microscopy and apply machine-learning approaches to discriminate different cell types and states. When employing the full 15 dimensional dataset, the technique robustly classifies individual cells based on their pluripotency, with accuracy above 95%. Rheological and morphological properties of cells while deforming were critical for this classification...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910855/l-type-calcium-channels-regulate-filopodia-stability-and-cancer-cell-invasion-downstream-of-integrin-signalling
#18
Guillaume Jacquemet, Habib Baghirov, Maria Georgiadou, Harri Sihto, Emilia Peuhu, Pierre Cettour-Janet, Tao He, Merja Perälä, Pauliina Kronqvist, Heikki Joensuu, Johanna Ivaska
Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910812/inflammatory-markers-associated-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Sarah Lindberg, Moncef Zarrouk, Jan Holst, Anders Gottsäter
PURPOSE: Inflammation with leukocytic infiltration, degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are pathological hallmarks of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to further evaluate relationships between AAA and inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), by comparing levels in 65-year-old men with and without AAA at ultrasound screening...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910782/chemoprevention-of-colon-cancer-through-inhibition-of-angiogenesis-and-induction-of-apoptosis-by-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#20
Preety Ghanghas, Shelly Jain, Chandan Rana, Sankar Nath Sanyal
Cancer cells require nourishment for the growth of the primary tumor mass and spread of the metastatic colony. These needs are fulfilled by tumor-associated neovasculature known as angiogenesis, which also favors the transition from hyperplasia to neoplasia, that is, from a state of cellular multiplication to uncontrolled proliferation. Therefore, targeting angiogenesis is profitable as a mechanism to inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, it is important to understand the cross-communication between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the neoplastic and proinflammatory milieu...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
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