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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344350/the-sensitivity-of-the-human-thirst-response-to-changes-in-plasma-osmolality-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Fintan Hughes, Monty Mythen, Hugh Montgomery
Background: Dehydration is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse cardiovascular and renal events. Clinical assessment of dehydration lacks sensitivity. Perhaps a patient's thirst can provide an accurate guide to fluid therapy. This systematic review examines the sensitivity of thirst in responding to changes in plasma osmolality in participants of any age with no condition directly effecting their sense of thirst. Methods: Medline and EMBASE were searched up to June 2017...
2018: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341897/toxicity-and-toxicokinetics-of-amanita-exitialis-in-beagle-dogs
#2
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336979/prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-the-truth-lies-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder
#3
Joseph C Riney, Nabeel E Sarwani, Shehzad Siddique, Jay D Raman
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability of radiologic interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for surgical planning before prostatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 233 men undergoing prostatectomy with presurgical multiparametric 3T surface body coil MRI were reviewed. All initial films were read by a fellowship-trained body radiologist provided with relevant clinical information. A senior radiologist then reread all pelvic MRIs blinded to the initial interpretation with findings from both readings compared to final pathology...
January 11, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326183/transvaginal-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-vnotes-adnexectomy-for-benign-pathology-compared-with-laparoscopic-excision-notable-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Jan Filip Baekelandt, Peter A De Mulder, Ilse Le Roy, Chantal Mathieu, Annouschka Laenen, Paul Enzlin, Steven Weyers, Ben W J Mol, Jan J A Bosteels
INTRODUCTION: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses natural orifices to access the cavities of the human body to perform surgical interventions. NOTES limits the magnitude of surgical trauma and potentially reduces postoperative pain. Our group published a protocol on a randomised study comparing transvaginal NOTES (vNOTES) versus laparoscopy for hysterectomy (HALON). We simultaneously designed a similar randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing vNOTES with laparoscopy for adnexectomy...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317248/cognitive-decline-and-increased-hippocampal-p-tau-expression-in-mice-with-hearing-loss
#5
So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Dong Kee Kim, Sang Won Yeo, Shi Nae Park
Hearing and cognition are commonly involved in both normal and pathological aging. Current clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline. In our previous publication, the authors have shown a causal relationship between hearing and cognitive impairments in C57BL/6 mice. Here we extended the follow-up to 12 months to determine the long-term effects of hearing loss on cognition and to observe hippocampal p-tau and lipofuscin. One month old male mice were randomly allocated into two groups, the control (n = 12) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (n = 12)...
January 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315187/intra-and-interexaminer-variability-of-two-separate-video-head-impulse-test-systems-assessing-all-six-semicircular-canals
#6
Emil Riis Abrahamsen, Ann-Eva Christensen, Dan Dupont Hougaard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and interexaminer variability of the video Head Impulse Test (v-HIT) when assessing all six semicircular canals (SCCs) of two separate v-HIT systems. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty healthy subjects. INTERVENTION: Four separate tests of all six SCCs with either system A or system B...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291551/ghrelin-prevents-articular-cartilage-matrix-destruction-in-human-chondrocytes
#7
REVIEW
Jie Liu, Lie Cao, Xueming Gao, Zhixin Chen, Shifang Guo, Zongru He, Yaowen Qian, Yongzhi Yu, Gang Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis worldwide. Excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of OA. OA is generally characterized by degradation of extracellular matrixes such as type II collagen and aggrecans mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS). Ghrelin is a secreted peptide hormone regulating appetite and the distribution and rate of use of energy...
December 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239330/expression-of-ng2-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-in-the-developing-neonatal-rat-brain
#8
Ping Li, Heng-Xi Li, Hong-Yan Jiang, Lie Zhu, Hai-Ying Wu, Jin-Tao Li, Jiang-Hua Lai
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+) cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236568/richard-bright-s-observations-on-diseases-of-the-nervous-system-due-to-inflammation
#9
Henry S Schutta
This study examines case reports of brain diseases attributed to inflammation in Richard Bright's Reports of Medical Cases, Volume II. The rationale for the belief that these cases were due to inflammation is discussed in light of theories of inflammation that were current in Bright's time. The consequences of these theories for the therapy of brain diseases are evaluated. The value of Bright's reports lies in the accuracy of the descriptions of a number of brain diseases, featuring descriptions of symptoms or conditions that were novel or not well known in the early nineteenth century...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232533/laparoscopic-abdominal-transanal-proctocolectomy-with-coloanal-anastomosis-is-a-good-surgical-option-in-selective-patients-with-low-lying-rectal-cancer-a-retrospective-analysis-based-on-a-single-surgeon-s-experience
#10
Bong-Hyeon Kye, Jun-Gi Kim, Hyeon-Min Cho, Hyung-Jin Kim, Chung-Soo Chun
PURPOSE: We intended to identify the oncological outcome for rectal cancer over the past 20 years and whether or not sphincter-preserving surgery is an appropriate approach for low-lying rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oncological outcomes from a total of 418 patients who electively underwent rectal cancer surgery for a lesion located within 8 cm of the anal verge by a single colorectal surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 418 patients, 175 patients underwent low anterior resection (LAR), 172 laparoscopic abdominal transanal proctocolectomy with coloanal anastomosis (LATA), and 71 abdominoperineal resection (APR)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#11
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215465/expression-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-ischemic-brain-of-photothrombosis-model-mice
#12
Junsuke Hirono, Haruka Sanaki, Kana Kitada, Haruka Sada, Atsushi Suzuki, Laurensius K Lie, Eri Segi-Nishida, Kimie Nakagawa, Hiroshi Hasegawa
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is the most widely used animal model of ischemic stroke. This model well recapitulates the pathological features of most human cases; however, MCAO is technically difficult to achieve in mice and has some disadvantages for investigating the molecular mechanisms of pathological progression in stroke. The recently developed photothrombosis model may be more suitable for research on the molecular mechanisms of ischemic stroke in mice. Yet, similarities and differences between the photothrombosis and MCAO models are not well characterized...
December 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209617/mirroring-the-multiple-potentials-of-micrornas-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#13
REVIEW
Solenne Paiva, Onnik Agbulut
At present, cardiovascular diseases are depicted to be the leading cause of death worldwide according to the World Health Organization. In the future, projections predict that ischemic heart disease will persist in the top main causes of illness. Within this alarming context, some tiny master regulators of gene expression programs, namely, microRNAs (miRNAs) carry three promising potentials. In fact, miRNAs can prove to be useful not only in terms of biomarkers allowing heart injury detection but also in terms of therapeutics to overcome limitations of past strategies and treat the lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207387/comparative-effects-of-education-and-bilingualism-on-the-onset-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Subasree Ramakrishnan, Shailaja Mekala, Annapurna Mamidipudi, Sireesha Yareeda, Rukmini Mridula, Thomas H Bak, Suvarna Alladi, Subhash Kaul
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that life course factors such as education and bilingualism may have a protective role against dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of education and bilingualism on the onset of cognitive decline at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A total of 115 patients with MCI evaluated in a specialty memory clinic in Hyderabad, India, formed the cohort. MCI was diagnosed according to Petersen's criteria following clinical evaluation and brain imaging...
2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189905/complementary-research-models-and-methods-to-study-axonal-regeneration-in-the-vertebrate-retinofugal-system
#15
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Lien Veys, Emiel Geeraerts, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Tom Buyens, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Lieve Moons, Inge Van Hove
Due to the lack of axonal regeneration, age-related deterioration in the central nervous system (CNS) poses a significant burden on the wellbeing of a growing number of elderly. To overcome this regenerative failure and to improve the patient's life quality, the search for novel regenerative treatment strategies requires valuable (animal) models and techniques. As an extension of the CNS, the retinofugal system, consisting of retinal ganglion cells that send their axons along the optic nerve to the visual brain areas, has importantly contributed to the current knowledge on mechanisms underlying the restricted regenerative capacities and to the development of novel strategies to enhance axonal regeneration...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187888/advantage-of-pet-ct-in-target-delineation-of-mri-negative-cervical-lymph-nodes-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-planning-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
Guanzhu Shen, Weiwei Xiao, Fei Han, Wei Fan, Xiao-Ping Lin, Lixia Lu, Lie Zheng, Ning Yue, Bruce Haffty, Chong Zhao, Xiaowu Deng
Introduction: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) that appear negative on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can be difficult to target. The purpose of this study was to assess the advantage of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for distinguishing MRI-negative CLNs and the effect of 18F-FDG PET/CT on diagnosis, target delineation, and dose prescription in IMRT planning for NPC...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158832/clinical-translation-and-first-in-human-use-of-44sc-sc-psma-617-for-pet-imaging-of-metastasized-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
Elisabeth Eppard, Ana de la Fuente, Martina Benešová, Ambreen Khawar, Ralph A Bundschuh, Florian C Gärtner, Barbara Kreppel, Klaus Kopka, Markus Essler, Frank Rösch
BACKGROUND: Various trivalent radiometals are well suited for labeling of DOTA-conjugated variants of Glu-ureido-based prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors. The DOTA-conjugate PSMA-617 has proven high potential in PSMA radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) of prostate cancer as well as PET imaging when labeled with lutetium-177 and gallium-68 respectively. Considering the relatively short physical half-life of gallium-68 this positron emitter precludes prolonged acquisition periods, as required for pre-therapeutic dosimetry or intraoperative applications...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158204/definition-of-a-snomed-ct-pathology-subset-and-microglossary-based-on-1-17-million-biological-samples-from-the-catalan-pathology-registry
#18
Xavier Sanz, Laura Pareja, Ariadna Rius, Pepi Rodenas, Núria Abdón, Jordi Gálvez, Laura Esteban, Josep Maria Escribà, Josep Maria Borràs, Josepa Ribes
SNOMED CT terminology is not backed by standard norms of encoding among pathologists. The vast number of concepts ordered in hierarchies and axes, together with the lack of rules of use, complicates the functionality of SNOMED CT for coding, extracting, and analyzing the data. Defining subgroups of SNOMED CT by discipline could increase its functionality. The challenge lies in how to choose the concepts to be included in a subset from a total of over 300,000. Besides, SNOMED CT does not cover daily need, as the clinical reality is dynamic and changing...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154250/functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-fess-in-unilateral-sinus-disease
#19
Daniela Mielcarek-Kuchta, Karolina Simon, Dawid Kondratowicz, Zofia Łukomska, Aleksandra Rybak-Korytowska
BACKGROUND: Unilateral sinus disease (USD) occurs in 23 % of all cases. It is believed that it is mainly associated with cancer development. Retrospective data from large rhinological centers show that the most common USD is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), followed by mycosis, inverted papilloma and finally cancer, but only in a small percent of cases. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The analysis of USD in the group of patients who underwent FESS at the secondary referral center...
October 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124550/gastrectomy-with-extended-lymphadenectomy-a-north-american-perspective
#20
Alexandre Gosselin-Tardif, Jessica Lie, Ioana Nicolau, Juan Carlos Molina, Jonathan Cools-Lartigue, Liane Feldman, Jonathan Spicer, Carmen Mueller, Lorenzo Ferri
PURPOSE: Despite evidence of oncologic benefits from extended (D2) lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer from many East Asian studies, there is persistent debate over its use in the West, mainly due to perceived high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of D2 dissection in a high-volume North American center. METHODS: A prospectively entered database of all patients undergoing gastrectomy for cancer at a North American referral center from 2005 to 2016 was reviewed...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
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