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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935195/the-dimensionalities-of-lesion-deficit-mapping
#1
Tianbo Xu, Ashwani Jha, Parashkev Nachev
Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926706/structural-and-kinetic-characterization-of-the-intrinsically-disordered-protein-sev-ntail-through-enhanced-sampling-simulations
#2
Mattia Bernetti, Matteo Masetti, Fabio Pietrucci, Martin Blackledge, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Maurizio Recanatini, Luca Mollica, Andrea Cavalli
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are emerging as an important class of the proteome. Being able to interact with different molecular targets, they participate in many physiological and pathological activities. However, due to their intrinsically heterogeneous nature, determining the equilibrium properties of IDPs is still a challenge for biophysics. Herein, we applied state-of-the-art enhanced sampling methods to Sev NTAIL, a test case of IDPs, and constructed a bin-based kinetic model to unveil the underlying kinetics...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916134/novel-technique-to-accurately-measure-femoral-diameter-using-a-thomas-splint
#3
Ignatius Liew, Mobeen Qureshi, Jibu Joseph, Oliver Bailey
INTRODUCTION: During surgical management of femoral shaft fractures, difficulties arise when treating patients with narrow femoral diaphyseal canals, such as young patients and those with dysplastic femurs secondary to underlying pathology. Accurate pre-operative assessment of the femoral diaphyseal canal diameter would allow the surgeon to plan surgical technique and ensure appropriate equipment was available, such as narrow, unreamed or paediatric sized nails. TECHNIQUE: When secured to the patient both longitudinal rods of the main Thomas Splint component lie parallel with the femoral shaft and horizontal to the radiographic x-ray plate...
September 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915313/a-metabolomic-approach-applied-to-a-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-hplc-esi-hrms-ms-towards-the-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-chemical-composition-of-cannabis-medicinal-extracts
#4
Cinzia Citti, Umberto Maria Battisti, Daniela Braghiroli, Giuseppe Ciccarella, Martin Schmid, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giuseppe Cannazza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis sativa L. is a powerful medicinal plant and its use has recently increased for the treatment of several pathologies. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure...
September 15, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904332/identification-of-sites-of-2-o-methylation-vulnerability-in-human-ribosomal-rnas-by-systematic-mapping
#5
Sunny Sharma, Virginie Marchand, Yuri Motorin, Denis L J Lafontaine
Ribosomal RNA modifications are important in optimizing ribosome function. Sugar 2'-O-methylation performed by fibrillarin-associated box C/D antisense guide snoRNAs impacts all steps of translation, playing a role in disease etiology (cancer). As it renders adjacent phosphodiester bonds resistant to alkaline treatment, 2'-O-methylation can be monitored qualitatively and quantitatively by applying next-generation sequencing to fragments of randomly cleaved RNA. We remapped all sites of 2'-O-methylation in human rRNAs in two isogenic diploid cell lines, one producing and one not producing the antitumor protein p53...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899199/transcriptional-regulation-by-nrf2
#6
Claudia Tonelli, Iok In Christine Chio, David A Tuveson
SIGNIFICANCE: Nrf2 is a transcription factor that coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. Understanding the regulation of Nrf2 activity and downstream pathways has major implications for human health. Recent Advances: Nrf2 regulates the transcription of components of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, as well as enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification of exogenous and endogenous products, NADPH regeneration, and heme metabolism...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892911/benign-beale-gland-hyperplasia-mimicking-malignant-biliary-obstruction
#7
Durairaj Segamalai, Anand Lakshmanan, Abdul Rehman Abdul Jameel, Sofiya Chandrabapulu, Kannan Devy Gounder
Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction can be caused by various pathologies, most of them being malignant. Painless, progressive jaundice is the usual mode of presentation. We report a case of distal Common Bile Duct (CBD) obstruction due to a Benign Intramural Beale gland hyperplasia mimicking a periampullary carcinoma. Peribiliary glands (Beale Glands) are a group of seromucinous glands, normally seen within the fibromuscular wall and periductal connective tissue in the extrahepatic and large intrahepatic ducts and also in the neck of the Gall bladder...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867652/the-neuropsychology-and-neurobiology-of-late-onset-schizophrenia-and-very-late-onset-schizophrenia-like-psychosis-a-critical-review
#8
REVIEW
Lies Van Assche, Manuel Morrens, Patrick Luyten, Luc Van de Ven, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
OBJECTIVE: The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. METHOD: A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. RESULTS: Although mildly progressive cognitive impairment is usually present, only a subgroup of LOS/VLOSLP develops dementia during a 10-year follow-up succeeding the onset of psychosis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867259/early-and-late-cns-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-two-extremes-of-a-continuum
#9
REVIEW
A Claudio Cuello
In 1990 it was reported that individuals receiving NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) showed a markedly reduced prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the overall population. Large epidemiological studies corroborated this assertion and provoked numerous prospective AD clinical trials with a variety of NSAIDs, all of which demonstrated lack of efficacy. It is postulated that the explanation for the success of NSAIDS in preventing AD onset when given at preclinical stages, and for their failure when administered after AD clinical presentation, lies in the changing nature of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in the decades-long continuum of AD pathology...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866262/groin-pain-associated-with-sacroiliac-joint-dysfunction-and-lumbar-disorders
#10
Daisuke Kurosawa, Eiichi Murakami, Toshimi Aizawa
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of groin pain in patients with sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction, lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS), and lumbar disc herniation (LDH) who did not have hip disorders, and evaluated the clinical features that distinguished SIJ dysfunction from LSS and LDH. PATIENT AND METHODS: We evaluated 127 patients (57 men, 70 women, average age 55 years) with SIJ dysfunction, 146 (98 men, 48 women, average age 71 years) with LSS, and 124 (83 men, 41 women, average age 50 years) with LDH...
October 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836253/-effect-of-nano-carbon-tattooing-on-the-lesion-localization-in-the-early-colon-cancer-for-additional-surgical-procedure-after-endoscopic-resection
#11
Chen Lin, Zaizhong Zhang, Lie Wang, Nan Lin, Weijin Yang, Weihang Wu, Wen Wang, Rong Wang, Yu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of nano carbon tattooing on the lesion localization in the early colon cancer for additional surgical procedure after endoscopic resection. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with early colon cancer accepted additional surgical procedures after endoscopic resection in Fuzhou General Hospital of PLA from May 2014 to November 2016. All the patients underwent nano carbon tattooing before the end of endoscopic resection: 0.1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension was respectively injected into the normal intestinal submucosa from 1 cm outside the 4 sites (upper, lower, left and right) of the lesion border by colonoscopy, marking the original lesion location and guiding the subsequent additional surgery...
August 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828618/development-of-non-gat1-selective-inhibitors-challenges-and-achievements
#12
Maria Damgaard, Anne Stæhr Haugaard, Stefanie Kickinger, Anas Al-Khawaja, Maria E K Lie, Gerhard F Ecker, Rasmus Prætorius Clausen, Bente Frølund
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission is terminated by the GABA transporters (GATs) via uptake of GABA into neurons and surrounding glial cells. Four different transporters have been identified: GAT1, GAT2, GAT3, and the betaine/GABA transporter 1 (BGT1). The GAT1 subtype is the most explored transporter due to its high abundance in the brain and the existence of selective and potent GAT1 inhibitors. Consequently, less is known about the role and therapeutic potential of the non-GAT1 subtypes. Emerging pharmacological evidence suggests that some of these transporters pose interesting targets in several brain disorders...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814984/protective-mechanisms-of-the-mitochondrial-derived-peptide-humanin-in-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-rpe-cells
#13
REVIEW
Leonid Minasyan, Parameswaran G Sreekumar, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible vision loss and is characterized by progressive degeneration of the retina resulting in loss of central vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical site of pathology of AMD. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum which lie in close anatomic proximity to each other are targets of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, respectively, and contribute to the progression of AMD. The two organelles exhibit close interactive function via various signaling mechanisms...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813199/hypoglossal-canal-lesions-distinctive-imaging-features-and-simple-diagnostic-algorithm
#14
Steven M Weindling, Christopher P Wood, Joseph M Hoxworth
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of hypoglossal canal lesions and identify differentiating imaging features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 15-year retrospective review of lesions of the hypoglossal nerve and hypoglossal canal, excluding those in patients with metastasis or prior head and neck cancer and those treated with radiation or surgery, was performed. Clinical findings and lesion imaging features were documented. The contrast-enhanced T1-weighted non-enhancing cystic component of hypoglossal schwannomas was compared with size-matched pathologically proven vestibular schwannomas...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810073/implications-of-pseudologia-fantastica-in-criminal-forensic-evaluations-a-review-and-case-report
#15
Richard L Frierson, Kaustubh G Joshi
Pseudologia fantastica, a psychological phenomenon that has been described in the literature for at least a century, is an understudied and poorly understood entity. Sometimes referred to as pathological lying, pseudologia fantastica involves disproportionate fabrication that may be present for many years or a lifetime. In a forensic context, it can significantly complicate the evaluation of capacity to stand trial and, in certain jurisdictions, criminal responsibility. We review the current literature regarding pseudologia fantastica and present a case to highlight the clinical and forensic challenges it may create...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796681/vasa-previa-diagnosis-clinical-practice-and-outcomes-in-australia
#16
Elizabeth A Sullivan, Nasrin Javid, Gregory Duncombe, Zhuoyang Li, Nadom Safi, Robert Cincotta, Caroline S E Homer, Lesley Halliday, Yinka Oyelese
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of women with vasa previa in Australia and to describe risk factors, timing of diagnosis, clinical practice, and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: A prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System between May 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, in hospitals in Australia with greater than 50 births per year. Women were included if they were diagnosed with vasa previa during pregnancy or childbirth, confirmed by clinical examination or placental pathology...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791481/anterior-transarticular-c1-c2-fixation-with-contralateral-screw-insertion-a-report-of-two-cases-and-technical-note
#17
Ivan Lvov, Andrey Grin, Aleksandr Kaykov, Vladimir Smirnov, Vladimir Krylov
PURPOSE: Anterior transarticular fixation of the C1-C2 vertebrae is a well-known technique that involves screw insertion through the body of the C2 vertebra into the lateral masses of the atlas through an anterior transcervical approach. Meanwhile, contralateral screw insertion has been previously described only in anatomical studies. METHODS: We describe two case reports of the clinical application of this new technique. RESULTS: In Case 1, the patient was diagnosed with an unstable C1 fracture...
August 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783137/acetylation-and-methylation-related-epigenetic-proteins-in-the-context-of-their-targets
#18
REVIEW
Nasir Javaid, Sangdun Choi
The nucleosome surface is covered with multiple modifications that are perpetuated by eight different classes of enzymes. These enzymes modify specific target sites both on DNA and histone proteins, and these modifications have been well identified and termed "epigenetics". These modifications play critical roles, either by affecting non-histone protein recruitment to chromatin or by disturbing chromatin contacts. Their presence dictates the condensed packaging of DNA and can coordinate the orderly recruitment of various enzyme complexes for DNA manipulation...
August 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782904/role-of-olfactory-reactions-nociception-and-immunoendocrine-shifts-in-addictive-disorders
#19
Elena Masterova, Tatiana Nevidimova, Dariya Savochkina, Valentina Nikitina, Olga Lobacheva, Tamara Vetlugina, Nikolay Bokhan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addictive pathology is associated with nervous, immune, and endocrine shifts. Meanwhile, the nature of intersystemic relationship lying beneath addictive disorders remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify neuroimmunoendocrine markers of addictive disorders in male subjects defining the nature of their interaction. METHODS: The study enrolled 69 subjects aged 18-43 years: 59 males and 10 females divided into those with addictive disorders (n = 39) and conditionally healthy subjects (n = 30)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777699/multidetector-ct-for-evaluation-of-the-extrapleural-space
#20
Mario G Santamarina, Ignacio Beddings, Guillermo V Lermanda Holmgren, Hector Opazo Sanchez, Mariano M Volpacchio
The extrapleural space (EPS) is an anatomic space at the periphery of the chest that can be involved in a number of disease processes. This space lies between the inner surface of the ribs and the parietal pleura and contains adipose tissue, loose connective tissue, lymph nodes, vessels, endothoracic fascia, and the innermost intercostal muscle. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and almost invariably overlooked on conventional radiographic studies. At conventional radiography, the EPS occasionally can be seen when there is extrapleural fat proliferation, which might be confused with pleural thickening or pleural effusion...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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