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Pathological lying

Daniela Mielcarek-Kuchta, Karolina Simon, Dawid Kondratowicz, Zofia Łukomska, Aleksandra Rybak-Korytowska
BACKGROUND: Unilateral sinus disease (USD) occurs in 23 % of all cases. It is believed that it is mainly associated with cancer development. Retrospective data from large rhinological centers show that the most common USD is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), followed by mycosis, inverted papilloma and finally cancer, but only in a small percent of cases. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The analysis of USD in the group of patients who underwent FESS at the secondary referral center...
October 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
Alexandre Gosselin-Tardif, Jessica Lie, Ioana Nicolau, Juan Carlos Molina, Jonathan Cools-Lartigue, Liane Feldman, Jonathan Spicer, Carmen Mueller, Lorenzo Ferri
PURPOSE: Despite evidence of oncologic benefits from extended (D2) lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer from many East Asian studies, there is persistent debate over its use in the West, mainly due to perceived high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of D2 dissection in a high-volume North American center. METHODS: A prospectively entered database of all patients undergoing gastrectomy for cancer at a North American referral center from 2005 to 2016 was reviewed...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Sourav Das, Soumik Sengupta, Kangkan Pathak, Divyashree Sah, Sumit Mehta, Priya Ranjan Avinash, Aparajeeta Baruah, Sailendra Kumar Deuri, Anil Sarmah, Vijay Gogoi, Kamal Narayan Kalita, Jyoti Hazarika
Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Shing Fung Lee, Chi Leung Chiang, Francis Ann Shing Lee, Yiu Wah Wong, Chi Ming Poon, Frank Chi Sing Wong, Stewart Yuk Tung
BACKGROUND: For advanced rectal cancer with involved or threatened mesorectal fascia (MRF), current standard is pre-operative long course chemoradiotherapy (PLCRT) with either capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, few Chinese data on its clinical outcome are available, especially for those with pelvic MRI staging. METHODS: Between Jan-2009 and Oct-2014, 123 consecutive patients with biopsy proven adenocarcinoma of rectum, all with pelvic MRI staging, selected for PLCRT after multi-disciplinary team discussion were recruited...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Mara Cercignani, Samira Bouyagoub
The MRI signal is dependent upon a number of sub-voxel properties of tissue, which makes it potentially able to detect changes occurring at a scale much smaller than the image resolution. This "microstructural imaging" has become one of the main branches of quantitative MRI. Despite the exciting promise of unique insight beyond the resolution of the acquired images, its widespread application is limited by the relatively modest ability of each microstructural imaging technique to distinguish between differing microscopic substrates...
October 26, 2017: NeuroImage
Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington, Stephen P Hall
Rhythmic motor patterns in invertebrates are often driven by specialized "central pattern generators" (CPGs), containing small numbers of neurons, which are likely to be "identifiable" in one individual compared with another. The dynamics of any particular CPG lies under the control of modulatory substances, amines, or peptides, entering the CPG from outside it, or released by internal constituent neurons; consequently, a particular CPG can generate a given rhythm at different frequencies and amplitudes, and perhaps even generate a repertoire of distinctive patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Michael Strupp, Ji-Soo Kim, Toshihisa Murofushi, Dominik Straumann, Joanna C Jen, Sally M Rosengren, Charles C Della Santina, Herman Kingma
This paper describes the diagnostic criteria for bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) by the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society. The diagnosis of BVP is based on the patient history, bedside examination and laboratory evaluation. Bilateral vestibulopathy is a chronic vestibular syndrome which is characterized by unsteadiness when walking or standing, which worsen in darkness and/or on uneven ground, or during head motion. Additionally, patients may describe head or body movement-induced blurred vision or oscillopsia...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Xiao-Ning Li, Lei Wu, Lei Chi, Xue-Wei Qi, Ji-Lin Mei, Nuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention at different treatment time-points on locomotor function and neuronal apoptosis in rats with acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of ASCI. METHODS: Seventy-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation, ASCI model and EA groups which were further divided into 4 time-points:1, 3, 7 and 14 d (n=6 at each). The ASCI model was established by weight-drop striking the exposed spinal cord (T10) using a NYU impactor device...
December 25, 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Shuya Wang, Kun Liu, Yuan Wang, Shuyou Wang, Xun He, Xiang Cui, Xinyan Gao, Bing Zhu
Objective: Scalp acupuncture is a somatic stimulation therapy that produces prominent clinical effects when used to treat cerebral diseases. However, this acupuncture's therapeutic mechanisms have not yet been well-addressed. Scalp acupoints are innervated by the trigeminal nerve, which is coincident with the intracranial sensory afferents as well as with the meningeal vessels. In recent years, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons have been found and proved to transmit allergic substances between brain the parenchyma and meninges, representing a possible network between scalp acupuncture and the brain...
October 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
Mykhailo M Koptev, Nataliia I Vynnyk
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, an individual is being constantly accompanied by stresses in his/her everyday life. Stress reactions, produced in the process of evolution, have become the organisms' response to emergency action or pathological factors and are the important link in adaptation process. However, the adverse course of stress reaction can lead to derangement of the adaptation mechanisms in the body and become the element of the pathogenesis of various diseases. THE AIM: The study was aimed at morphological substantiation of derangement of adaptation mechanisms in white Wistar rats caused by the acute immobilization stress...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Russell H Swerdlow
Decades of research indicate mitochondria from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients differ from those of non-AD individuals. Initial studies revealed structural differences, and subsequent studies showed functional deficits. Observations of structure and function changes prompted investigators to consider the consequences, significance, and causes of AD-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Currently, extensive research argues mitochondria may mediate, drive, or contribute to a variety of AD pathologies. The perceived significance of these mitochondrial changes continues to grow, and many currently believe AD mitochondrial dysfunction represents a reasonable therapeutic target...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Aeman Muneeb, Hena Jawaid, Natasha Khalid, Asad Mian
The art of medicine has roots that lie deep in developing the biopsychosocial connection. Understanding a human body (both its physiology and pathology) along with components of emotional and spiritual cores can lead to provision of excellent medical care and better outcomes. The harmonization of psychosocial consequences of a biological disease is helpful not just for health care professionals but also for patients. Where it keeps the empathy and compassion alive and results in greater patient satisfaction, it also helps boost the physician's morale...
2017: Permanente Journal
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Elyse N Mowle, Karolina Sörman
OBJECTIVE: The validity of self-report psychopathy measures may be undermined by characteristics thought to be defining features of the construct, including poor self-awareness, pathological lying, and impression management. The current study examined agreement between self- and informant perceptions of psychopathic traits captured by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowler, & Krueger, 2009) and the extent to which psychopathic traits are associated with socially desirable responding. METHOD: Participants were undergraduate roommate dyads (N = 174; Mage  = 18...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sooyeun Park, Pilsoo Lee, Wi-Ho Ha, Han Sung Kim, Byeong Ryong Park, Jae Seok Kim, Sehwan Shim, Sunhoo Park, Young-Su Kim, Chan Hyeong Kim, Young-Woo Jin
Quantification of pathological progression of radiation-induced injury is essential in development of treatment methods, and a proper animal model is necessary for relevant radiological and medical studies. A minipig is a current animal model selected because of its similarities to humans in anatomy and pathology. In the present study, a minipig physical phantom was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. For dosimetry purposes, the minipig physical phantom was constructed on a slice-by-slice basis, with an array of holes to accommodate dosimeters...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Guo-Hong Cui, Jing Wu, Fang-Fang Mou, Wei-Hua Xie, Fu-Bo Wang, Qiang-Li Wang, Jie Fang, Yan-Wu Xu, You-Rong Dong, Jian-Ren Liu, Hai-Dong Guo
Administration of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could improve some neurologic conditions by transferring functional biomolecules to recipient cells. Furthermore, exosomes from hypoxic progenitor cells exerted better therapeutic effects in organ injury through specific cargoes. However, there are no related reports about whether exosomes derived from MSCs or hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs could prevent memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, the exosomes derived from MSCs or hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs were systemically administered to transgenic APP/PS1 mice...
September 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jeannie F Bailey, Stephanie L Miller, Kristine Khieu, Conor W O'Neill, Robert M Healey, Dezba G Coughlin, Jojo V Sayson, Douglas G Chang, Alan R Hargens, Jeffrey C Lotz
Background context Prolonged microgravity exposure is associated with localized low back pain and an elevated risk of post-flight disc herniation. Though the mechanisms by which microgravity impairs the spine are unclear, they should be foundational for developing in-flight countermeasures for maintaining astronaut spine health. Because human spine anatomy has adapted to upright posture on Earth, observations of how spaceflight affects the spine should also provide new and potentially important information on spine biomechanics that benefit the general population...
September 26, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Matteo Martinoni, Gianluca Marucci, Stefano Meletti, Lilia Volpi, Roberto Michelucci, Marco Giulioni
INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIb is a frequent cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, intraoperative identification of the pathological tissue still remains a challenge despite the use of neuronavigation, particularly when it lies in eloquent areas. CASE REPORT: We here report a case of intraoperative identification of a right frontal FCD type IIB through ultrasound assisted neuronavigation during awake surgery in a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Christopher P Loo, Nicholas A Nelson, Ryan S Lane, Jamie L Booth, Sofia C Loprinzi Hardin, Archana Thomas, Mark K Slifka, Jeffrey C Nolz, Amanda W Lund
Lymphatic vessels lie at the interface between peripheral sites of pathogen entry, adaptive immunity, and the systemic host. Though the paradigm is that their open structure allows for passive flow of infectious particles from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, virus applied to skin by scarification does not spread to draining lymph nodes. Using cutaneous infection by scarification, we analyzed the effect of viral infection on lymphatic transport and evaluated its role at the host-pathogen interface. We found that, in the absence of lymphatic vessels, canonical lymph-node-dependent immune induction was impaired, resulting in exacerbated pathology and compensatory, systemic priming...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Salwa M Alhammadi, Lien Abou Hashem, Zainah R Abusbeih, Fatima S Alzaabi, Salama N Alnuaimi, Ala F Jalabi, Satish C Nair, Frederick R Carrick, Mahera Abdulrahman
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum)...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Fernando Caravaca-Fontán, Eduardo Gutiérrez, Ramón Delgado Lillo, Manuel Praga
The term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) comprises a group of diseases pathogenetically characterised by proliferation of a B-cell or plasma cell clone that synthesises and secretes a monoclonal immunoglobulin or its components (light and/or heavy chains), that may deposit and cause glomerular, tubular, interstitial and/or vascular damage. The importance of differentiating the term MGRS from other monoclonal gammopathies lies in the fact that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at controlling monoclonal protein synthesis and secretion can be indicated, irrespective of the classic criteria based on malignant tumour expansion...
September 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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