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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545126/the-relationship-between-cavum-septum-pellucidum-and-psychopathic-traits-in-a-large-forensic-sample
#1
Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Michael Koenigs, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neuroanatomical variant of the septum pellucidum that is considered a marker for disrupted brain development. Several small sample studies have reported CSP to be related to disruptive behavior, persistent antisocial traits, and even psychopathy. However, no large-scale samples have comprehensively examined the relationship between CSP, psychopathic traits, and antisocial behavior in forensic samples. Here we test hypotheses about the presence of CSP and its relationship to psychopathic traits in incarcerated males (N = 1432)...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498761/aberrant-functional-network-connectivity-in-psychopathy-from-a-large-n-985-forensic-sample
#2
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472874/validation-of-the-portuguese-version-of-impulsive-premeditated-aggression-scale-in-an-inmate-population
#3
Jacinto Costa Azevedo, José Luís Pais-Ribeiro, Rui Coelho, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga
Aggression is one of the core symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. ASPD is highly prevalent among inmates, being responsible for adverse events and elevated direct and indirect economic costs for the criminal justice system. The Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS) is a self-report instrument that characterizes aggression as either predominately impulsive or premeditated. This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the IPAS in a sample of Portuguese inmates...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469581/a-comprehensive-examination-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-hare-psychopathy-checklist-revised-in-a-canadian-multisite-sample-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-offenders
#4
Mark E Olver, Craig S Neumann, Lindsay A Sewall, Kathy Lewis, Robert D Hare, Stephen C P Wong
The present study examined the psychometric properties of Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores in a multisite sample of 1,163 federally incarcerated Canadian indigenous and non-indigenous offenders from the Prairie Region of the Correctional Service of Canada. The research occurred against the backdrop of the Ewert v. Canada (2015) matter, in which the PCL-R was originally impugned in Federal Court for use with indigenous persons (later overturned in Canada v. Ewert, 2016). Indigenous men scored higher than non-indigenous men on most components of the PCL-R and had higher rates of recidivism, irrespective of follow-up...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407724/a-taxometric-investigation-of-psychopathy-in-women
#5
Jean-Pierre Guay, Raymond A Knight, John Ruscio, Robert D Hare
The taxonomic status of psychopathy is the topic of considerable research interest. The latent structure of psychopathy will latent structure will guide the determination of the best assessment approaches, maximize the reliability and validity, will help to establish optimal cutting scores that minimize decision errors and will also facilitate the selection of the best research designs to advance the study of the construct. In the present study, taxometric analyses were used for assessing taxonicity, and they were applied to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) ratings of 1218 female offenders...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366397/psychopathy-and-intimate-partner-violence
#6
Olga Cunha, Teresa Braga, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves
Several studies found that psychopathy is an important predictor of criminal behavior in general and of intimate partner violence in particular. However, these conclusions are often based on scales with less well-established validity, and some inconsistent results have emerged with regard to the contribution of specific psychopathic facets to intimate partner violence. In a sample of 152 batterers from Portugal aged between 22 and 70 years old, we examined whether Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) total scores and the four facets (scored based on a semistructured interview and on file information) predicted the frequency of intimate partner violence...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294686/working-alliance-and-psychopathy-linkages-to-treatment-outcome-in-a-sample-of-treated-sexual-offenders
#7
Danielle R DeSorcy, Mark E Olver, J Stephen Wormith
The present study examined the working alliance, as measured by the full-length Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and its association with psychopathy, treatment completion, and recidivism in a sample of 111 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. The men completed the WAI 3 months into their treatment program, while psychopathy was measured via file-based ratings of the Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and outcome data were collected via the Canadian Police Information Centre. The majority (85%) of high PCL-R scoring men (PCL-R 25+) successfully completed their treatment program, and by and large, the men demonstrated strong working alliances with their primary therapists...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172600/what-features-of-psychopathy-might-be-central-a-network-analysis-of-the-psychopathy-checklist-revised-pcl-r-in-three-large-samples
#8
Bruno Verschuere, Sophia van Ghesel Grothe, Lourens Waldorp, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld, John F Edens, Jennifer L Skeem, Arjen Noordhof
Despite a wealth of research, the core features of psychopathy remain hotly debated. Using network analysis, an innovative and increasingly popular statistical tool, the authors mapped the network structure of psychopathy, as operationalized by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) in two large U.S. offender samples (nNIMH = 1559; nWisconsin = 3954), and 1 large Dutch forensic psychiatric sample (nTBS = 1937). Centrality indices were highly stable within each sample, and indicated that callousness/lack of empathy was the most central PCL-R item in the 2 U...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120846/firesetting-and-general-criminal-recidivism-among-a-consecutive-sample-of-finnish-pretrial-male-firesetters-a-register-based-follow-up-study
#9
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
The rate of criminal reoffending among firesetters varies greatly. Our aim was to investigate firesetting and general criminal recidivism in a consecutive sample of Finnish males who were sent for a forensic psychiatric examination (FPE)1 after committing firesetting offenses. We also wanted to evaluate the relationships between psychopathy and criminal recidivism, and between schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and criminal recidivism. The sample comprised 113 firesetters with a mean age of 32.8 years, and the average follow-up time was 16...
January 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987062/aggressiveness-and-the-intensity-of-psychopathic-symptoms-gender-differences
#10
Marlena Banasik, Krzysztof Gierowski, Krzysztof Nowakowski
OBJECTIVES: The analysis of the recent international reports in the literature on psychopathy has proved irrefutablythat there is a necessity for the in-depth studies on psychopathy among the female sentenced offenders. Although there is no disagreement among the researchers on the 'male' form of this disorder, there are still very few gender comparative studies. The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between the intensity of particular psychopathic features and aggressive tendencies in a group of female and male inmates...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741393/psychometric-properties-in-forensic-application-of-the-screening-version-of-the-psychopathy-checklist
#11
Tamsin Higgs, Ruth J Tully, Kevin D Browne
The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) is a short form of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), an expert-rated assessment that measures psychopathic personality traits in research, clinical, and community settings. The PCL-R is an extensively relied upon tool in psycho-legal contexts. The screening version is also widely used; however, it has received far less empirical attention than the PCL-R. This review examines the psychometric properties of the PCL: SV, specifically in relation to forensic samples, and evaluates its comparability with the full PCL-R...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638202/characteristics-of-aggressive-behavior-among-male-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Xiaomin Zhu, Wen Li, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of the aggressive behavior is higher among the patients with severe mental disorder such as schizophrenia than the general population. The study of factors related to aggressive behavior has great meaning in designing prevention and intervention methods with this population of patients. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of assaultive behavior of male patients with schizophrenia who have been hospitalized. METHODS: Using a continuous sampling method, data from 75 male inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was collected at the psychiatric unit of Central South University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594218/examining-the-interrater-reliability-of-the-hare-psychopathy-checklist-revised-across-a-large-sample-of-trained-raters
#13
Julie Blais, Adelle E Forth, Robert D Hare
The goal of the current study was to assess the interrater reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) among a large sample of trained raters (N = 280). All raters completed PCL-R training at some point between 1989 and 2012 and subsequently provided complete coding for the same 6 practice cases. Overall, 3 major conclusions can be drawn from the results: (a) reliability of individual PCL-R items largely fell below any appropriate standards while the estimates for Total PCL-R scores and factor scores were good (but not excellent); (b) the cases representing individuals with high psychopathy scores showed better reliability than did the cases of individuals in the moderate to low PCL-R score range; and (c) there was a high degree of variability among raters; however, rater specific differences had no consistent effect on scoring the PCL-R...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594208/field-measures-of-psychopathy-and-sexual-deviance-as-predictors-of-recidivism-among-sexual-offenders
#14
Paige B Harris, Marcus T Boccaccini, Amanda K Rice
Offenders with high levels of both psychopathy and deviant sexual interests are often described as being more prone to recidivate than other sexual offenders, and many forensic evaluators report considering this psychopathy and sexual deviance interaction when coming to conclusions about sex offender risk. However, empirical support for the interaction comes from studies using sexual deviance measures that are rarely used in the field. We examined the ability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) field scores and possible field measures of sexual deviance (e...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594206/actuarial-risk-assessment-of-sexual-offenders-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-sex-offender-risk-appraisal-guide-sorag
#15
Martin Rettenberger, Marnie E Rice, Grant T Harris, Reinhard Eher
The Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG) is one of the most commonly used actuarial risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders. The aims of the present field study were to examine the predictive validity of the German version of the SORAG and its individual items for different offender subgroups and recidivism criteria in sexual offenders released from the Austrian Prison System (N = 1,104; average follow-up period M = 6.48 years) within a prospective-longitudinal research design. For the prediction of violent recidivism the German version of the SORAG yielded an effect size of AUC = ...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556964/psychopathy-and-mortality
#16
Olli Vaurio, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen
It is not known how mortality differs between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic individuals. We linked data from subjects having been in forensic mental examinations at Niuvanniemi Hospital during 1984-1993 to the data from the National Death Registry to estimate the association between psychopathy and mortality. One hundred psychopathic individuals scoring 25 or higher in the PCL-R scale were followed up for 20-30 years. Two control groups were used as follows: 178 offenders scoring less than 25 on the PCL-R, and sample of general population drawn from the Finnish National Statistics database...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406657/using-latent-variable-and-person-centered-approaches-to-examine-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-in-sex-offenders
#17
Sonja Krstic, Craig S Neumann, Sandeep Roy, Carrie A Robertson, Raymond A Knight, Robert D Hare
The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375716/does-the-convergent-validity-of-the-pai-antisocial-features-scale-depend-on-offender-response-style
#18
Brett O Gardner, Marcus T Boccaccini
Researchers have recently questioned the utility of the response style indicators included on many self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. We examined whether the size of convergent validity coefficients for Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Antisocial Features (ANT) scores depends on PAI validity scale scores. Using PAI and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores from 477 offenders evaluated for civil commitment as sexually violent predators, we found that PAI Positive Impression (PIM), Negative Impression (NIM), Malingering Index (MAL), Defensiveness Index (DEF), and Infrequency (INF) scores moderated the association between ANT and PCL-R scores...
September 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367514/impulsive-antisocial-dimension-of-psychopathy-linked-to-enlargement-and-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-the-striatum
#19
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a mental health disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, and is associated with a high incidence of violent crime, substance abuse, and recidivism. Recent studies suggest that the striatum may be a key component of the neurobiological basis for the disorder, though structural findings have been mixed and functional connectivity of the striatum in psychopathy has yet to be fully examined. METHODS: We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of striatum volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a large sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287840/a-statistical-consideration-regarding-the-threshold-of-the-psychopathy-checklist-revised
#20
Steve Balsis, Alexander J Busch, Kevin M Wilfong, Joseph W Newman, John F Edens
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) is one of the most commonly used measures of psychopathy. Scores range from 0 to 40, and legal and mental health professionals sometimes rely on a cut score or threshold to classify individuals as psychopaths. This practice, among other things, assumes that all items contribute equally to the overall raw score. Results from an item response theory analysis (Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004 ), however, indicate that PCL-R items differ in the amount of information they can provide about psychopathy...
September 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
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