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Nathaniel E Anderson, Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Vikram Rao, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
January 16, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Inge Jeandarme, John F Edens, Petra Habets, Liesbeth Bruckers, Karel Oei, Stefan Bogaerts
Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of ...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Evelyn Klein Haneveld, Jan H Kamphuis, Wineke Smid, Johnathan D Forbey
This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive understanding of the nature of the 4 PCL-R facets and to discern possible implications for the treatment of psychopathic patients. A sample of 127 male forensic psychiatric offenders admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital completed the PCL-R and the MMPI-2...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Samantha J Fede, Jana Schaich Borg, Prashanth K Nyalakanti, Carla L Harenski, Lora M Cope, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Mike Koenigs, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by severe and frequent moral violations in multiple domains of life. Numerous studies have shown psychopathy-related limbic brain abnormalities during moral processing; however, these studies only examined negatively valenced moral stimuli. Here, we aimed to replicate prior psychopathy research on negative moral judgments and to extend this work by examining psychopathy-related abnormalities in the processing of controversial moral stimuli and positive moral processing...
December 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Frances P Churcher, Jeremy F Mills, Adelle E Forth
Over the past few decades many structured risk appraisal measures have been created to respond to this need. The Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimates Scale (TTV) is a measure designed to integrate both an actuarial estimate of violence risk with critical risk management indicators. The current study examined interrater reliability and the predictive validity of the TTV in a sample of violent offenders (n = 120) over an average follow-up period of 17.75 years. The TTV was retrospectively scored and compared with the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), the Statistical Information of Recidivism Scale-Revised (SIR-R1), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Ghena Ismail, Jan Looman
Strong inter-rater reliability has been established for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), specifically by examiners in research contexts. However, there is less support for inter-reliability in applied settings. This study examined archival data that included a sample of sex offenders (n = 178) who entered federal custody between 1992 and 1998. The offenders were assessed using the PCL-R on two occasions. The first assessment occurred at Millhaven Institution, the intake unit for federally incarcerated offenders in the province of Ontario...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Ashleigh Walton, Elizabeth L Jeglic, Brandy L Blasko
There is a growing body of research demonstrating that the therapeutic alliance (TA) affects outcomes among specialized forensic populations, including sexual offenders. Despite this consensus, researchers continue to question whether higher levels of psychopathic traits are conducive to the formation of a therapeutic relationship for high-risk sexual offenders. Thus, the current study adds to the literature by examining the relationship between the TA and levels of psychopathy among a sample of incarcerated sexual offenders participating in sexual offender treatment...
March 21, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Dustin B Wygant, Martin Sellbom, Chelsea E Sleep, Tina D Wall, Kathryn C Applegate, Robert F Krueger, Christopher J Patrick
For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Reports an error in "A Test of Core Psychopathic Traits as a Moderator of the Efficacy of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Substance-Using Offenders" by Marc T. Swogger, Kenneth R. Conner, Eric D. Caine, Nicole Trabold, Melissa N. Parkhurst, Laurel M. Prothero and Stephen A. Maisto (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Jan 4, 2016, np). The sentence in the 1st paragraph of the Intervention and Control Conditions section, "Over the course of the study, individuals in the intervention condition averaged 3...
March 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Brett Murphy, Scott Lilienfeld, Jennifer Skeem, John F Edens
Researchers are vigorously debating whether psychopathic personality includes seemingly adaptive traits, especially social and physical boldness. In a large sample (N = 1,565) of adult offenders, we examined the incremental validity of 2 operationalizations of boldness (Fearless Dominance traits in the Psychopathy Personality Inventory [Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996]; Boldness traits in the triarchic model of psychopathy [Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009]), above and beyond other characteristics of psychopathy, in statistically predicting scores on 4 psychopathy-related measures, including the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
December 2016: Psychological Assessment
Suzanne Brugman, Jill Lobbestael, A Katinka L von Borries, Berend Erik H Bulten, Maaike Cima, Teresa Schuhmann, Franziska Dambacher, Alexander T Sack, Arnoud Arntz
This study tested the predictive value of attentional bias, emotion recognition, automatic associations, and response inhibition, in the assessment of in-clinic violent incidents. Sixty-nine male forensic patients participated and completed an Emotional Stroop to measure attentional bias for threat and aggression, a Single Target - Implicit Association Task to assess automatic associations, a Graded Emotional Recognition Task to measure emotion recognition, and an Affective Go/NoGo to measure response inhibition...
March 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Neil R Hogan, Mark E Olver
The present study examined risk for inpatient aggression, including treatment-related changes in risk, using a battery of 5 forensic instruments. The relative contributions of different types of risk factors to the assessment of risk for inpatient outcomes were also assessed. The Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20V3, Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability, Violence Risk Scale, Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised, and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised were rated from archival information sources on a sample of 99 adult forensic inpatients from a Canadian psychiatric hospital...
June 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Marc T Swogger, Kenneth R Conner, Eric D Caine, Nicole Trabold, Melissa N Parkhurst, Laurel M Prothero, Stephen A Maisto
OBJECTIVE: In a randomized controlled trial we studied a brief motivational intervention (BMI) for substance use, examining core psychopathic traits as a moderator of treatment efficacy. METHOD: Participants were 105 males and females who were 18 years of age and older and in a pretrial jail diversion program. The sample was approximately 52% Black and other minorities and 48% White. Outcome variables at a 6-month follow-up were frequency of substance use (assessed with the Timeline Follow-back Interview and objective toxicology screens), substance use consequences (Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drug version), and self-reported participation in nonstudy mental health and/or substance use treatment...
March 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Frida C A van der Veeken, Stefan Bogaerts, Jacques Lucieer
Forensic psychiatry embodies a highly heterogeneous population differing widely in terms of diagnoses, crimes committed, and risk factors. All of these are vitally important for treatment indications and should be accounted for in research. However, there is limited empirical knowledge of patient profiles. This study constructed patient profiles on the basis of the three domains mentioned above. Participants were found guilty of having committed crimes due to psychiatric disorders and were admitted to Forensic Psychiatric Center (FPC) 2landen or FPC De Kijvelanden in the Netherlands...
December 31, 2015: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Vanessa Pera-Guardiola, Iolanda Batalla, Javier Bosque, David Kosson, Josep Pifarré, Rosa Hernández-Ribas, Ximena Goldberg, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, José M Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas, Narcís Cardoner
Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high)...
January 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jennifer E Storey, Stephen D Hart, David J Cooke, Christine Michie
The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual...
April 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Scott O Lilienfeld, Sarah Francis Smith, Katheryn C Sauvigné, Christopher J Patrick, Laura E Drislane, Robert D Latzman, Robert F Krueger
Two recent meta-analyses have suggested that boldness, as assessed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) Fearless Dominance dimension, is largely unrelated to total or factor scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), raising questions concerning the relevance of largely adaptive features to psychopathy. Nevertheless, given that the PCL was developed and validated among prisoners, it may place less emphasis than do other psychopathy measures on adaptive traits, such as fearlessness, social poise, and emotional resilience...
November 30, 2015: Psychological Assessment
Sonja Krstic, Raymond A Knight, Carrie A Robertson
The etiology of psychopathy remains poorly understood, despite the wealth of studies focused on examining this serious and complex personality disorder. The present study explored the contribution of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in predicting PCL-R facet and total scores. The study was conducted on a sample of 397 adult male sexual offenders, using archival ratings and developmental data gathered with a self-report inventory, the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression (the MASA). All types of abuse covaried with the total PCL-R score, but the kinds of abuse were differentially associated with the facet scores...
October 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nathan D Gillard, Richard Rogers
Risk assessments for offenders often combine past records with current clinical findings from observations, interviews, and test data. Conclusions based on these risk assessments are highly consequential, sometimes resulting in increased criminal sentences or prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, many offenders are motivated to intentionally minimize risk factors and their negative consequences. Positive impression management (PIM) is especially likely to occur in offenders with high psychopathic traits because goal-directed deception is reflected in several of psychopathy's core traits of the disorder, such as manipulativeness, glibness, and superficial charm...
September 2015: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Edward M Bernat, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder characterized by dysfunctional affective and behavioral symptoms. In incarcerated populations, elevated psychopathic traits have been linked to increased rates of violent recidivism. Cognitive processes related to error processing have been shown to differentiate individuals with high and low psychopathic traits and may contribute to poor decision making that increases the risk of recidivism. Error processing abnormalities related to psychopathy may be attributable to error-monitoring (error detection) or posterror processing (error evaluation)...
January 2016: Personality Disorders
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