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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909354/screening-emergency-department-patients-for-opioid-drug-use-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Preet Kaur Sahota, Siri Shastry, Dana B Mukamel, Linda Murphy, Narisu Yang, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy
INTRODUCTION: The opioid drug epidemic is a major public health concern and an economic burden in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the reliability and validity of screening instruments used in emergency medicine settings to detect opioid use in patients and to assess psychometric data for each screening instrument. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and ClinicalTrials...
May 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909013/impact-and-prevalence-of-physical-and-verbal-violence-toward-healthcare-workers
#2
Lisa J Rosenthal, Ashley Byerly, Adrienne D Taylor, Zoran Martinovich
BACKGROUND: Threatening and assaultive behaviors against healthcare workers is a growing national concern.1,2,3 To assess the incidence and impact of aggression against healthcare workers, a safety and quality improvement project was initiated in an academic, tertiary care, and urban hospital. METHODS: Through the Northwestern Academy of Quality and Safety Initiatives program, an invitation to complete an online survey was sent to healthcare workers. The survey inquired about prevalence, location, and type of experience of physical or verbal abuse by patients or families...
May 9, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908971/why-are-maternally-separated-females-inflexible-brain-activity-pattern-of-cox-and-c-fos
#3
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908917/potential-effectiveness-of-long-acting-injectable-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-modelling-study
#4
Brandon D L Marshall, William C Goedel, Maximilian R F King, Alyson Singleton, David P Durham, Philip A Chan, Jeffrey P Townsend, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM); however, adherence is an ongoing concern. Long-acting injectable PrEP is being tested in phase 3 trials and could address challenges associated with adherence. We examined the potential effectiveness of long-acting injectable PrEP compared with oral PrEP in MSM. METHODS: We used an agent-based model to simulate HIV transmission in a dynamic network of 11 245 MSM in Atlanta, GA, USA...
June 13, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908818/dermatoses-caused-by-cultural-practices-therapeutic-cultural-practices
#5
REVIEW
Neelam A Vashi, Nicole Patzelt, Stephen Wirya, Mayra B C Maymone, Pedro Zancanaro, Roopal V Kundu
With globalization and widespread immigration, physicians increasingly encounter patients from varying backgrounds and diverse customs. Although certain cultural practices are widely performed, there is limited medical literature describing their dermatologic and systemic effects and complications. Population diversity and sharing of traditions make it increasingly important for dermatologists to understand the role of cultural practices and recognize physiologic and pathologic sequelae. In addition, dermatologists are often adjured to assess skin findings that may be mistaken for abuse...
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908582/dangerous-plants-in-dermatology-legal-and-controlled
#6
Deeptej Singh, Juliya Fisher, Devorah Shagalov, Aakaash Varma, Daniel M Siegel
The plant and mushroom kingdoms have species used for intoxication, inebriation, or recreation. Some of these species are toxic. Given that many of these plants or substances are illegal and have histories of abuse, much of the research regarding therapeutic application is based on basic science, animal studies, and traditional use. This review examines Cannabis, Euphorbia, Ricinus, Podophyllum, Veratrum, mushrooms, and nightshades, along with resveratrol and cocaine as they relate to dermatology.
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908241/environmental-enrichment-enhances-conditioned-place-preference-to-ethanol-via-an-oxytocinergic-dependent-mechanism-in-male-mice
#7
Mariana Rae, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Priti Chivers, Alexis Bailey, Rosana Camarini
Environmental conditions, such as stress and environmental enrichment (EE), influence predisposition to alcohol use/abuse; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To assess the effect of environmental conditions on the initial rewarding effects of alcohol, we examined conditioned place-preference (CPP) to alcohol following exposure to EE in mice. Since social context is a major factor contributing to initial alcohol-drinking, we also assessed the impact of EE on the levels of the "social neuropeptide" oxytocin (OT) and its receptor, OTR...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908239/the-psychostimulant-%C3%A2-cis-4-4-dimethylaminorex-4-4-dmar-interacts-with-human-plasmalemmal-and-vesicular-monoamine-transporters
#8
Julian Maier, Felix P Mayer, Dino Luethi, Marion Holy, Kathrin Jäntsch, Harald Reither, Lena Hirtler, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti, Christian Pifl, Simon D Brandt, Harald H Sitte
(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction of 4,4'-DMAR with the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells and synaptic vesicles prepared from human striatum...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908234/agmatine-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-and-camkii-%C3%AE-gene-expression-deteriorations-in-hippocampus-of-rat
#9
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908024/sociodemographic-predictors-of-tobacco-smoking-among-expatriate-and-national-adolescents-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#10
Ayesha Siddiqua, Rania Dghaim, Caroline Barakat-Haddad
Background: Tobacco use among adolescents is an important public health concern as it causes various forms of smokingrelated health problems and can create a gateway for other substance abuse. Aim: This study examined the prevalence, profile and predictors of tobacco use among expatriate and national adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design (2007-2009), we collected data on the prevalence of tobacco use in 6363 adolescents aged 13-20 years, including current smokers of cigarettes, midwakh, shisha and any other form of tobacco...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907914/asylum-seekers-in-a-time-of-record-forced-global-displacement-the-role-of-physicians
#11
Katherine C McKenzie, Jon Bauer, P Preston Reynolds
In 2016, over 65 million individuals were displaced from their homes due to human rights abuses, and 262,000 people applied for asylum in the USA. Individuals who have experienced persecution are present in many primary and specialty clinics. A medical forensic evaluation can increase the likelihood of a successful asylum case. This paper reviews the legal framework for asylum and the contribution forensic evaluations can make to this vulnerable population. Physicians without asylum expertise can help these patients by recognizing their legal right to residential protection and referring them to lawyers and physicians with expert skills...
June 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907343/dietary-supplement-use-in-a-large-representative-sample-of-the-us-armed-forces
#12
Joseph J Knapik, Krista G Austin, Emily K Farina, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement (DS) use is prevalent among the US Armed Forces personnel, but representative cross-service comparisons and characteristics of personnel using DSs are limited. OBJECTIVE: Examine DS use and characteristics associated with use in a representative sample of US Armed Forces personnel (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) using data from the 2011 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sample of service members (SMs) was contacted and asked to complete a questionnaire assessing personal characteristics and DS use...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907299/the-effect-of-a-service-dog-on-salivary-cortisol-awakening-response-in-a-military-population-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#13
Kerri E Rodriguez, Crystal I Bryce, Douglas A Granger, Marguerite E O'Haire
Recent studies suggest a therapeutic effect of psychiatric service dogs for military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but are limited by self-report biases. The current study assessed the effect of PTSD service dogs on the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) and arousal-related functioning in a population of military veterans with PTSD. Participants included 73 post-9/11 military veterans with PTSD including 45 with a service dog and 28 on the waitlist to receive one. Saliva samples were collected on two consecutive weekday mornings at awakening and 30 min later to quantify the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and its area under the curve (AUCi) in addition to standardized survey measures of anxiety, anger, sleep quality and disturbance, and alcohol abuse...
April 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907181/a-patient-presents-with-a-history-suggestive-of-potential-elder-abuse
#14
Ghislaine Young
Catherine is an Advanced Nurse Practitioner and runs clinics in primary care where she is qualified to assess and manage patients autonomously. Today Joan, an elderly woman in her mid-80s, attends for a general health check-up. She is hypertensive and has a history of coronary artery disease. Joan is widowed and lives with her only son.
June 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907087/factors-associated-with-missed-assessments-in-a-2-year-longitudinal-study-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-survivors
#15
Sara E Heins, Amy W Wozniak, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Kristin A Sepulveda, Pedro A Mendez-Tellez, Cheryl Dennison-Himmelfarb, Dale M Needham, Victor D Dinglas
BACKGROUND: To evaluate participant-related variables associated with missing assessment(s) at follow-up visits during a longitudinal research study. METHODS: This is a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site study of 196 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors. More than 30 relevant sociodemographic, physical status, and mental health variables (representing participant characteristics prior to ARDS, at hospital discharge, and at the immediately preceding follow-up visit) were evaluated for association with missed assessments at 3, 6, 12, and 24-month follow-up visits (89-95% retention rates), using binomial logistic regression...
June 15, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906739/an-effective-measure-of-childhood-adversity-that-is-valid-with-older-adults
#16
Ramona Danielson, Gregory F Sanders
Childhood adversity (CA) has life-long effects that we are just beginning to understand. The Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) data is a rich resource that could contribute to the knowledge of the impact of CA in the later years but, while a number of CA items are included in MIDUS, a cumulative CA scale based on those items has not been created. Development of a CA scale would create numerous research opportunities within MIDUS and overcome some of the challenges of using a secondary dataset. The present study aimed to demonstrate that a cumulative measure of CA that is valid with older adults could be created using retrospective MIDUS Refresher study data (Ryff et al...
June 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906478/does-nicotine-impact-tramadol-abuse-insights-from-neurochemical-and-neurobehavioral-changes-in-mice
#17
Shimaa M Azmy, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Somia A Nada, Omar M E Abdel Salam, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Noha N Nassar
Nicotine and tramadol concomitant drug dependence pose increasing social, economic as well as public threats. Accordingly, the present study investigated neurochemical, neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes in the brain subsequent to the interaction of nicotine and tramadol. To this end, tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to male albino mice once daily for 30 days. Consequent to microglial activation, nicotine exacerbated oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by tramadol as manifest by the step-up in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide subsequent to the enhanced levels of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases; paralleled by decreased non-protein sulfhydryls...
June 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905667/burden-of-schizophrenia-or-psychosis-related-symptoms-in-adults-undergoing-substance-abuse-evaluation
#18
Kimberlee J Trudeau, Joanna Burtner, Albert J Villapiano, Megan Jones, Stephen F Butler, Kruti Joshi
This study evaluated the biopsychosocial characteristics of adults undergoing substance abuse evaluation with potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, or possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms, compared with those with no schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms. A cross-sectional, observational study examined 170,201 adults, aged 18 to 30, who completed the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV). Approximately 10% were classified as having possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms or potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905502/hiv-risk-characteristics-associated-with-violence-against-women-a-longitudinal-study-among-women-in-the-united-states
#19
Brooke E E Montgomery, Paula M Frew, James P Hughes, Jing Wang, Adaora A Adimora, Danielle F Haley, Irene Kuo, Larissa Jennings, Nabila El-Bassel, Sally L Hodder
BACKGROUND: Using data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 064, a multisite, observational cohort study conducted to estimate HIV incidence rates among women living in areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in the United States, we examined the use of HIV risk characteristics to predict emotional abuse, physical violence, and forced sex. METHODS: Participants included 2099 women, 18-44 years of age, who reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a male partner and an additional personal or perceived male partner HIV risk characteristic in the past 6 months...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905133/a-model-to-improve-detection-of-nonaccidental-pediatric-burns
#20
Lauren C Nigro, Michael J Feldman, Robin L Foster, Andrea L Pozez
Context: Pediatric burn patients warrant thorough evaluation because a sizeable proportion of pediatric burns are nonaccidental. Design: A multidisciplinary method involving an internal child protection team (CPT) was developed and used to identify suspected nonaccidental pediatric burns in all pediatric burn patients 5 years of age or younger who were evaluated by the CPT and social workers at our institution over a 55-month period. Results: We identified 343 cases for review that fit our age criteria, 6 of which we identified as cases of suspected abuse or neglect...
June 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
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