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Sara de Souza Silva, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Maria Aparecida Turci, James Macinko, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
This study compared the use of health services and medication, screening test coverage, characteristics of primary care, and health behaviors in 370 diabetics 45 years or older according to sources of care: private health policyholders regardless of place of residence; residents in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy; and individuals covered by a "traditional" Primary Care Unit. The study used data from the 2nd Adult Health Survey in Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region (2010), Minas Gerais State, Brazil...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Joanna P MacEwan, Felicia M Forma, Jason Shafrin, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence contributes to negative treatment response, symptom relapse, and hospitalizations in schizophrenia. Many health plans use claims-based measures like medication possession ratios or proportion of days covered (PDC) to measure patient adherence to antipsychotics. Classifying patients solely on the basis of a single average PDC measure, however, may mask clinically meaningful variations over time in how patients arrive at an average PDC level. OBJECTIVE: To model patterns of medication adherence evolving over time for patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with an oral atypical antipsychotic and, based on these patterns, to identify groups of patients with different adherence behaviors...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Babette Bais, Wouter A Karst, Bela Kubat, Robert M Verdijk
Retinal hemosiderin deposition is a histologic indicator of sustained hemorrhage but cannot be used to precisely estimate the elapsed time since an episode of trauma. A 5-month-old male infant was admitted to hospital after acute deterioration. Examination revealed encephalopathy, subdural hematomas, and retinal hemorrhages consistent with abusive head trauma (AHT). At the age of 3, he was readmitted to hospital with spontaneous osteopenic fracture of the right femur. The patient deteriorated and died after unsuccessful resuscitation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
William Schneider
Family structure as a risk for child maltreatment has long been viewed as a static state in the child maltreatment literature. Drawing on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, the author uses a series of individual fixed-effects models to investigate whether particular types of relationship transitions over children's first decade of life are associated with increased risk for maternal and paternal child abuse and maternal neglect. Findings question and confirm a number of long-standing theoretical and empirical findings from the child maltreatment literature...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Benfu Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Anna Sun, Lanman Xu, Sicong Wang, Wenxuan Lin, Miaojun Lai, Huaqiang Zhu, Wenhua Zhou, Qingquan Lian
Clinical and animal studies have indicated that propofol has potential for abuse, but the specific neurobiological mechanism underlying propofol reward is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in propofol self-administration. We tested the expression of p-ERK in the NAc following the maintenance of propofol self-administration in rats. We also assessed the effect of administration of SCH23390, an antagonist of the D1 dopamine receptor, on the expression of p-ERK in the NAc in propofol self-administering rats, and examined the effects of intra-NAc injection of U0126, an MEK inhibitor, on propofol reinforcement in rats...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Arno K Kumagai, Brittani Jackson, Saleem Razack
Learning the societal roles and responsibilities of the physician may involve difficult, contentious conversations about topics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and class, as well as violence, inequities, sexual assault, and child abuse. If not done well, these discussions may be deeply traumatizing to learners for whom these subjects "cut close to the bone." Equally traumatizing is exposure to injustice and mistreatment, as well as to the sights, sounds, and smells of suffering and pain in the clinical years...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Verónica Vitriol, Alfredo Cancino, Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi, Carlos Serrano, Soledad Ballesteros, Andrea Asenjo, Cristian Cáceres, Soledad Potthoff, Carolina Salgado, Francisca Orellana, Marcela Ormazábal
: Childhood trauma is associated with different psychiatric disorders during adulthood. These disorders are often presented in comorbidity with depression. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between psychiatric comorbidities and childhood traumatic events in patients with depression in Chile. METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-four patients with major depression were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a screening for childhood trauma...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Andre B Rosay, Carrie F Mulford
This study examines the prevalence and correlates of psychological abuse and physical abuse against women and men aged 70 or older. Self-report data from 2,185 respondents in the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) were used to create weighted estimates for past-year experiences of abuse. Correlates were then examined using survey logistic regression models. More than 1 in 10 adults who are 70 years of age or older (14.0%) have experienced some form of abuse in the past year, with 12...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Beatrice Setnik, Carl L Roland, Glenn C Pixton, Kenneth W Sommerville
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of two open-label primary care-based studies that examined investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion relative to patient self-reports and urine drug tests (UDTs). METHODS: Risk assessment data from two open-label, multicenter, primary care-based US studies in patients with chronic pain were compared. RESULTS: In one study (n = 1487), 54.4% of patients were at moderate, 24...
October 26, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
N L Weaver, T L Weaver, S E Nicks, K A Jupka, H Sallee, H Jacobsen, W Henley, M Jaques
BACKGROUND: Health care providers fill a central role in the prevention of both child abuse and neglect (CA/N) and unintentional childhood injury. Health communication interventions hold promise for promoting attitudes and behaviours among parents that increase positive parenting practices, which may be linked to decreased rates of intentional and unintentional childhood injuries. This manuscript describes the development of 'RISE Up', an ambulatory clinic-based childhood injury prevention programme that provides tailored, injury prevention print materials to parents of children ages 0-5...
October 25, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Donald Paul Sullins
OBJECTIVE: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. METHOD: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss)...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Ashok Jangra, Chandra Shaker Sriram, Suryanarayan Pandey, Priyansha Choubey, Prabha Rajput, Babita Saroha, Babul Kumar Bezbaruah, Mangala Lahkar
Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype...
October 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Seunghyun Hwang, Youngjun Choi
Collegiate student athletes face psychological stressors in adjusting to campus life. This study used preexisting, nationally representative data administered by the National Collegiate Athletic Association for student athletes in 2010 to explore the conjunctive relationships among demographics, personal characteristics, social contexts, and physical condition in predicting perceived stress. The number of valid samples was 19,967 from 609 member institutions. A data mining methodology (i.e., SEARCH) was applied to model the distribution of the perceived stress...
December 2016: Psychological Reports
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
BACKGROUND: Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. METHODS: Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders)...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Marianne Goodman, David Banthin, Nicholas J Blair, Kathryn A Mascitelli, Jaime Wilsnack, Jennifer Chen, Julie W Messenger, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Joseph Triebwasser, Harold W Koenigsberg, Raymond R Goetz, Erin A Hazlett, Antonia S New
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in suicide prevention implemented throughout the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) including the hiring of Suicide Prevention Coordinators (SPCs) at every VA hospital, enhanced monitoring, and the availability of 24-hour crisis hotline services, suicide by veterans remains a critical problem affecting 20 veterans daily. Few empirically based treatment strategies for suicide prevention for postdeployment military personnel exist. This study aimed to test whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), one of the few psychosocial treatments with proven efficacy in diminishing suicidal behavior in individuals with personality disorder, can be applied to veterans irrespective of personality diagnosis...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Lori L Jervis, William Sconzert-Hall
The problem of how to conceptualize elder mistreatment goes back several decades, and is especially important for ethnic minority populations, who may have perspectives that differ from the dominant society. This Community Based Participatory Research study, which examined perceptions of mistreatment by family among 100 urban and rural older American Indians, permits a rare glimpse into how Native elders themselves understand this issue. Here, good treatment was conceptualized in terms of being taken care of, having one's needs met, and being respected...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
P Speetjens, F Thielen, M Ten Have, R de Graaf, F Smit
Child maltreatment occurs frequently. This has detrimental effects later in life on mental health and is linked to considerable costs due to health care use and sick leave. Self-mastery, however, is a factor that may well mitigated the effects of child maltreatment . <br/> AIM: To quantify the long-term costs of child abuse and to test the hypothesis that self-mastery can modify the after-effects of maltreatment .<br/> METHOD: Data were obtained from a psychiatric cohort study (n=5618). The risk factors were emotional neglect and mental, physical and sexual abuse before the age of 16...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Teresa Rincón-Del Toro, Adela Villanueva-Guerra, Ricardo Rodríguez-Barrientos, Elena Polentinos-Castro, Mª José Torijano-Castillo, Emilia de Castro-Monteiro, Blanca Escrivá de Romaní de Gregorio, Margarita Barba Calderón, María Soledad de Frías Redondo, Nury Alejo Brú, Concepción Blanco Morales, Margarita Vázquez Pinilla, Cristina Besora Altés, Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Juan Ángel Infantes Rodríguez, Pilar Bustamante Fernández, Victorina de Blas Salvador
OBJECTIVE: The number of aggressions towards health care professionals has risen over the past few years. There are no previous studies in primary care covering an entire region and to all professional categories. The aim of this study was to characterize aggressions in Primary Care in the Community of Madrid. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study. Analysis of a Registration System that reports any type of aggression suffered by Primary Care workers, in the Community of Madrid...
October 25, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
R B Raffa, G Burdge, J Gambrah, H E Kinecki, F Lin, B Lu, J T Nguyen, V Phan, A Ruan, M A Sesay, T N Watkins
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain presents a difficult clinical challenge because of the limited efficacy, the limiting adverse-effect profile or the abuse potential of current analgesic options. Cebranopadol is a novel new agent in clinical trials that combines dual agonist action at opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors. It is the first truly unique, centrally acting analgesic in several years. We here review the basic and clinical pharmacology of cebranopadol...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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