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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455575/exercise-counteracts-the-homeostatic-decrease-in-thermogenesis-caused-by-caloric-restriction-in-sheep
#1
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454047/renal-perivascular-adipose-tissue-form-and-function
#2
Carolina Baraldi A Restini, Alex Ismail, Ramya K Kumar, Robert Burnett, Hannah Garver, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Renal sympathetic activity affects blood pressure in part by increasing renovascular resistance via release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves onto renal arteries. Here we test the idea that adipose tissue adjacent to renal blood vessels, i.e. renal perivascular adipose tissue (RPVAT), contains a pool of NE which can be released to alter renal vascular function. RPVAT was obtained from around the main renal artery/vein of the male Sprague Dawley rats. Thoracic aortic PVAT and mesenteric PVAT also were studied as brown-like and white fat comparators respectively...
February 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453460/development-and-initial-characterization-of-a-novel-ghrelin-receptor-crispr-cas9-knockout-wistar-rat-model
#3
L J Zallar, B J Tunstall, C T Richie, Y J Zhang, Z B You, E L Gardner, M Heilig, J Pickel, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, B K Harvey, L Leggio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone implicated in numerous behaviors including feeding, reward, stress, and addictive behaviors, acts by binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Here, we present the development, verification, and initial characterization of a novel GHSR knockout (KO) Wistar rat model created with CRISPR genome editing. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed a GHSR KO in a Wistar background. Loss of GHSR mRNA expression was histologically verified using RNAscope in wild-type (WT; n = 2) and KO (n = 2) rats...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#4
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447836/sensory-denervation-of-inguinal-white-fat-modifies-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-in-siberian-hamsters
#5
REVIEW
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and sensory innervations. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed central neuroanatomical evidence of WAT sensory and BAT SNS crosstalk with double labeling of inguinal WAT (IWAT) sensory and interscapular BAT (IBAT) SNS neurons. We previously demonstrated that WAT lipolysis increases IBAT temperature, but this effect is absent when IWAT afferents are surgically denervated, which severs both sensory and SNS nerves...
February 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438845/-brain-over-body-a-study-on-the-willful-regulation-of-autonomic-function-during-cold-exposure
#6
Otto Muzik, Kaice T Reilly, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM")...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433735/regulation-of-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-by-foxo-proteins-an-integrated-approach
#7
Terry G Unterman
FoxO proteins are ancient targets of insulin action and play an important role in mediating effects of insulin on gene expression and metabolism. Regulation of FoxO function in the liver is critical for the ability of insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis and suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP), and dysregulation of FoxO function is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Signaling by the insulin/PI3 kinase/Akt pathway suppresses FoxO function, and FoxO proteins also are regulated by counterregulatory factors and sirtuin deacetylases which increase their activity...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425508/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-l-baiba-is-a-muscle-derived-osteocyte-survival-factor
#8
Yukiko Kitase, Julian A Vallejo, William Gutheil, Harika Vemula, Katharina Jähn, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Marco Brotto, Lynda F Bonewald
Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolism and on tissues. The exercise-induced muscle factor β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) plays a critical role in the browning of white fat and in insulin resistance. Here we show another function for BAIBA, that of a bone-protective factor that prevents osteocyte cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). l-BAIBA was as or more protective than estrogen or N-acetyl cysteine, signaling through the Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Type D (MRGPRD) to prevent the breakdown of mitochondria due to ROS...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425401/community-structure-dispersal-ability-and-functional-profiling-of-microbiome-existing-in-fat-body-and-ovary-of-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#9
Jian-Hua Zhang, Na Yu, Xi-Xia Xu, Ze-Wen Liu
The endosymbionts play vital roles in growth, development and reproduction in insects. Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) have been well studied in Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), but little is known about the tissue-specific bacterial microbiomes, especially on the microbial intersection among internal tissues. Here, the correlation of microbial composition, structure, dispersal ability and functional profiling were illuminated in two tissues, the fat body and ovary in N. lugens. A total of 11 phyla and 105 genera were captured from all samples; Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant and accounted for more than 99% in all samples...
February 9, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424439/divergent-response-of-murine-and-porcine-adipocytes-to-stimulation-of-browning-genes-by-18-carbon-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-beta-receptor-agonists
#11
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are known to activate brown and beige adipocytes. However, very little is known about the effects of the number and the position of double bonds in LCFA with the same length on brown fat-specific gene expression. To determine the specificity of LCFA in the regulation of these genes in different adipocyte models, fully differentiated 10T1/2, 3T3-L1, murine, or porcine primary adipocytes (obtained from the subcutaneous fat pad of C57BL/6 mice or Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred piglets) were treated with 50 μM of the following 18-carbon fatty acids: stearic acid (STA; 18:0), oleic acid (OLA; 18:1, Δ9), linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2, Δ9,12), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3, Δ9,12,15), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3, Δ6,9,12), or pinolenic acid (PLA; 18:3, Δ5,9,12) for 24 h with or without 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment...
February 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421190/identification-of-a-high-affinity-binding-site-for-abscisic-acid-on-human-lanthionine-synthetase-component-c-like-protein-2
#12
Elena Cichero, Chiara Fresia, Lucrezia Guida, Valeria Booz, Enrico Millo, Claudia Scotti, Luisa Iamele, Hugo de Jonge, Denise Galante, Antonio De Flora, Laura Sturla, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Elena Zocchi, Paola Fossa
Lanthionine synthetase component C-like protein 2 (LANCL2) has been identified as the mammalian receptor mediating the functional effects of the universal stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in mammals. ABA stimulates insulin independent glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes via LANCL2 binding in vitro, improves glucose tolerance in vivo and induces brown fat activity in vitro and in vivo. The emerging role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in glucose and lipid metabolism makes it an attractive target for pharmacological interventions in diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414686/kynurenic-acid-and-gpr35-regulate-adipose-tissue-energy-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#13
Leandro Z Agudelo, Duarte M S Ferreira, Igor Cervenka, Galyna Bryzgalova, Shamim Dadvar, Paulo R Jannig, Amanda T Pettersson-Klein, Tadepally Lakshmikanth, Elahu G Sustarsic, Margareta Porsmyr-Palmertz, Jorge C Correia, Manizheh Izadi, Vicente Martínez-Redondo, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Petter Brodin, Teresa Pereira, Per-Olof Berggren, Jorge L Ruas
The role of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in psychiatric disease is well established, but remains less explored in peripheral tissues. Exercise training activates kynurenine biotransformation in skeletal muscle, which protects from neuroinflammation and leads to peripheral kynurenic acid accumulation. Here we show that kynurenic acid increases energy utilization by activating G protein-coupled receptor Gpr35, which stimulates lipid metabolism, thermogenic, and anti-inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414510/adiponectin-as-lncrna-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-transferring-from-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-and-attenuating-adiponectin-mrna-translation
#14
Rui Cai, Yunmei Sun, Naren Qimuge, Guoqiang Wang, Yingqian Wang, Guiyan Chu, Taiyong Yu, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipocyte-derived hormone with positive function on systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as a vital regulator of adipogenesis. However, AdipoQ-related lncRNAs in lipid metabolism have not been explored. Here, AdipoQ antisense (AS) lncRNA was first identified, and we further found that it inhibited adipogenesis. The half-life of AdipoQ AS lncRNA was 10 h, whereas that of AdipoQ mRNA was 4 h. During adipogenic differentiation, AdipoQ AS lncRNA translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm...
January 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409712/squeezing-flux-out-of-fat
#15
Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metabolic phenotyping and the identification of potential therapeutic targets for obesity.
February 3, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405636/dietary-curcumin-intervention-targets-mouse-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-brown-adipose-tissue-ucp1-expression
#16
Zhuolun Song, Xavier Revelo, Weijuan Shao, Lili Tian, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Hong-Shuo Sun, Minna Woo, Daniel Winer, Tianru Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether dietary curcumin intervention targets both white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated energy expenditure. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a low-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD plus curcumin. In addition to assessing the effect of curcumin intervention on metabolic profiles, this study assessed WAT macrophage infiltration and composition and inflammatory cytokine production...
February 6, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405372/melatonin-increases-brown-adipose-tissue-mass-and-function-in-z%C3%A3-cker-diabetic-fatty-rats-implications-for-obesity-control
#17
Gumersindo Fernández Vázquez, Russel J Reiter, Ahmad Agil
Melatonin limits obesity in rodents without affecting food intake and activity, suggesting a thermogenic effect. Previously we demonstrated that melatonin browns subcutaneous fat in Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Other works pointed to melatonin as a signal that increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and function in rodents. However, direct proof of thermogenic properties (uncoupled mitochondria) of the newly recruited BAT in response to melatonin is still lacking. Therefore, in the present work we investigated if melatonin recruits thermogenic BAT in ZDF rats...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401621/il-10-suppresses-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-human-aromatase-gene-in-mammary-adipose-tissue
#18
Gabriela Martínez-Chacón, Kristy A Brown, Maria M Docanto, Himanshu Kumar, Seppo Salminen, Niina Saarinen, Sari Mäkelä
White adipose tissue inflammation is linked with increased aromatase gene expression and estrogen production, a major risk factor for breast cancer in obese postmenopausal women. TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is a key driver of aromatase promoter I.4-mediated expression in adipose tissue. In this study, we have shown that IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, suppressed both TNF-α-stimulated human aromatase reporter-luciferase (hARO-Luc) expression in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and aromatase gene expression in human breast adipose stromal cells (ASCs)...
January 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396370/distinct-adipocyte-progenitor-cells-are-associated-with-regional-phenotypes-of-perivascular-aortic-fat-in-mice
#19
Khanh-Van Tran, Timothy Fitzgibbons, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Silvia Corvera
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue depots around the aorta are regionally distinct and have specific functional properties. Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (tPVAT) expresses higher levels of thermogenic genes and lower levels of inflammatory genes than abdominal aorta perivascular adipose tissue (aPVAT). It is not known whether this distinction is due to the in-vivo functional environment or to cell-autonomous traits that persist outside the in-vivo setting. In this study, we asked whether the progenitor cells in tPVAT and aPVAT have cell-autonomous traits that lead to formation of regionally distinct PVAT...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396369/cardiac-natriuretic-peptides-promote-adipose-browning-through-mtor-complex-1
#20
Dianxin Liu, Ryan P Ceddia, Sheila Collins
OBJECTIVE: Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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