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Brown fat

Eun Hee Koh, Yong Chen, David A Bader, Mark P Hamilton, Bin He, Brian York, Shingo Kajimura, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
The acquisition of beige adipocyte features by white fat cells corresponds to protection against obesity-induced metabolic diseases in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, expression of the E2-SUMO ligase Ubiquitin Carrier Protein 9 (Ubc9) is positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and corresponds with impaired browning of human white adipocytes. However, the molecular regulation of Ubc9 expression in adipocytes and other cells remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the mRNA and protein expression of Ubc9 are regulated by the microRNA miRNA-30a (miR-30a) in human subcutaneous adipocytes...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Grace Hubert, Theresa Tam Chung, Connie Prosser, Dale Lien, Justin Weinkauf, Neil Brown, Marianne Goodvin, Kathy Jackson, Joan Tabak, Josette Salgado, Abeer Salman Alzaben, Diana R Mager
PURPOSE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often experience low bone mineral density (BMD) pre- and post-lung transplantation (LTX). The study purpose was to describe BMD and micronutrient status in adults with CF pre- and post-LTX. METHODS: Twelve patients with CF (29 ± 8 years) were recruited from the CF clinic at the University of Alberta Lung Transplant Program. BMD and vitamins A, D, E, K status, and parathyroid hormone were measured pre- and post-LTX. RESULTS: No significant differences pre- and post-LTX were observed at the different bone sites measured (lumber-spine, femoral-neck (FN), hip, and femoral-trochlea) (P > 0...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Xu Zhang, Qianni Cheng, Yixiang Wang, Po Sing Leung, Kinglun Kingston Mak
Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones and causes WAT browning. Injection of PTHrP-neutralizing antibody attenuates WAT browning and improves the circulating blood glucose level while high-fat diet treatment only rescues hypoglycemia...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jonathan C Jun, Ronald Devera, Dileep Unnikrishnan, Mi-Kyung Shin, Shannon Bevans-Fonti, Qiaoling Yao, Aman Rathore, Haris Younas, Nils Halberg, Philipp E Scherer, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Richard T Jaspers, M Carola Zillikens, Edith C H Friesema, Giuseppe Delli Paoli, Wilhelm Bloch, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni, Pieter de Lange
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yasuhiro Kamata, Kazutaka Kikuta, Michiro Susa, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Aya Sasaki, Kaori Kameyama, Koji Murakami, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Hibernoma is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor arising from brown fat that cannot be distinguished from other lipogenic tumors on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. On the other hand, the image of hibernoma on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) is different from that of other lipogenic tumors. However, fewer studies have investigated the typical features of hibernoma on PET scans. We present the case of a hibernoma that was incidentally detected on (18)F-FDG-PET...
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Rui Pang, Meng Chen, Zhikun Liang, Xiangzhao Yue, Hu Ge, Wenqing Zhang
The cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1 has been reported to play an important role in imidacloprid resistance of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and is overexpressed in most resistant populations. In the present study, we confirmed that CYP6ER1 expression can be induced by certain levels of imidacloprid. Developmental expression analysis revealed that CYP6ER1 was expressed highly in the adult stage, and tissue distribution analysis showed that CYP6ER1 was expressed mainly in the fat body and midgut. RNA interference (RNAi) of CYP6ER1 and transgenic expression of CYP6ER1 in Drosophila melanogaster both suggested that the expression of CYP6ER1 is sufficient to confer imidacloprid resistance...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brian Finan, Christoffer Clemmensen, Zhimeng Zhu, Kerstin Stemmer, Karine Gauthier, Luisa Müller, Meri De Angelis, Kristin Moreth, Frauke Neff, Diego Perez-Tilve, Katrin Fischer, Dominik Lutter, Miguel A Sánchez-Garrido, Peng Liu, Jan Tuckermann, Mohsen Malehmir, Marc E Healy, Achim Weber, Mathias Heikenwalder, Martin Jastroch, Maximilian Kleinert, Sigrid Jall, Sara Brandt, Frédéric Flamant, Karl-Werner Schramm, Heike Biebermann, Yvonne Döring, Christian Weber, Kirk M Habegger, Michaela Keuper, Vasily Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Josef Köhrle, Jan Rozman, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susanna M Hofmann, Bin Yang, Matthias H Tschöp, Richard DiMarchi, Timo D Müller
Glucagon and thyroid hormone (T3) exhibit therapeutic potential for metabolic disease but also exhibit undesired effects. We achieved synergistic effects of these two hormones and mitigation of their adverse effects by engineering chemical conjugates enabling delivery of both activities within one precisely targeted molecule. Coordinated glucagon and T3 actions synergize to correct hyperlipidemia, steatohepatitis, atherosclerosis, glucose intolerance, and obesity in metabolically compromised mice. We demonstrate that each hormonal constituent mutually enriches cellular processes in hepatocytes and adipocytes via enhanced hepatic cholesterol metabolism and white fat browning...
October 5, 2016: Cell
Yu-Hong Lin, James A Brown, Carmine DiMartino, Irina Dahms, Norman Salem, Joseph R Hibbeln
Human studies and some animal work have shown more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) was accumulated or converted from precursors in females compared to males. This study explored in-depth the effect of gender on fatty acid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in rats fed one of two well-defined diets containing 10% total fat. One diet contained 15% of linoleic acid (LA) and 3% of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the total fatty acids (LA+ALA diet), while the other diet contained 15% LA and 0...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Najat Yahia, Carrie A Brown, Melyssa Rapley, Mei Chung
BACKGROUND: Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. METHODS: A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David Sánchez-Infantes, Rubén Cereijo, Marion Peyrou, Irene Piquer-Garcia, Jacqueline M Stephens, Francesc Villarroya
OBJECTIVE: Since oncostatin m (OSM) is elevated in adipose tissue in conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice and humans, the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine plays a crucial role in the impairment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and browning capacity that has been observed in people with obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice rendered obese by high-fat diet, their lean controls, and C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet and implanted subcutaneously with a mini pump through a surgical procedure to deliver OSM or placebo were used...
October 5, 2016: Obesity
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
Fat tissue is well known for its capacity to store energy and its detrimental role in obesity and metaflammation. However, humans possess different types of fat that have different functions in physiology and metabolic diseases. Apart from white adipose tissue (WAT), the body's main energy storage, there is also brown adipose tissue (BAT) that dissipates energy as a defense against cold and maintains energy balance for the whole body. BAT is present not only in newborns but also in adult humans and its mass correlates with leanness...
October 4, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Carlee Moser, Todd T Brown, Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael P Dube, James H Stein, Judith Currier, Grace A McComsey
Background.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can alter glucose metabolism, but little data exist on the association of raltegravir (RAL) with insulin resistance. Methods.  A5260s was a substudy of A5257, a prospective open-label randomized trial in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected treatment-naive participants were randomized to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r), darunavir-ritonavir (DRV/r), or RAL over 96 weeks. Baseline and changes in insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Qingzhang Zhu, Sarbani Ghoshal, Ana Rodrigues, Su Gao, Alice Asterian, Theodore M Kamenecka, James C Barrow, Anutosh Chakraborty
Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Antonia Sassmann-Schweda, Pratibha Singh, Cong Tang, Astrid Wietelmann, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1...
May 19, 2016: JCI Insight
Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita
Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through transient receptor potential channels (TRP), most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various food ingredients...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere
Ovarian steroids, such as estradiol (E2), control a vastness of physiological processes, such as puberty, reproduction, growth, development and metabolic rate. In fact, physiological, pathological, pharmacological or genetically-induced estrogen deficiency causes increased appetite and reduced energy expenditure, promoting weight gain and ultimately leading to obesity. Remarkably, estrogen replacement reverts those effects. Interestingly, although a wealth of evidence has shown that E2 can directly modulate peripheral tissues to exert their metabolic actions, novel data gathered in recent years have shown that those effects are mainly central and occur in the hypothalamus...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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