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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933221/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-apoptosis-bcl-xl-upregulation-and-recovery-of-neurological-function-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Ai-Lan Pang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Qing-Jie Xia, Fen Liu, You-Cui Wang, Fei Liu, Piao Zhang, Bu-Liang Meng, Sheng Tan, Ting-Hua Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disease that usually causes severe neurological damage, and current treatment is far from satisfactory. The neuroprotective effects of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in the injured nervous system have largely been known, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and their limited sources impede their clinical application. Here, we established a rat model of TBI by dropping a weight onto the cortical motor area of the brain and explored the effect of engrafted NSCs (passage 3, derived from the hippocampus of embryonic 12- to 14-d green fluorescent protein transgenic mice) on TBI rats...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922334/common-malignant-brain-tumors-can-18f-fdg-pet-ct-aid-in-differentiation
#2
Nilendu C Purandare, Ameya Puranik, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Tejpal Gupta, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Prakash Shetty, Epari Shridhar, Rakesh Jalali, Venkatesh Rangarajan
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evalute the metabolic characteristics of common malignant space-occupying lesions (SOL) of the brain and to determine the utility of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in differentiating between the common types of malignant brain SOL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with brain SOL who were referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan by a multidisciplinary team were included in this retrospective study. The metabolic characteristics of the brain lesions in the form of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) along with tumor-to-background activity ratios were determined and differences were compared using nonparametric statistical tests...
September 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920509/diagnosis-of-hyponatremia-and-increased-risk-of-a-subsequent-cancer-diagnosis-results-from-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Louise Holland-Bill, Christian Fynbo Christiansen, Dóra Körmendiné Farkas, Frede Donskov, Jens Otto L Jørgensen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has recently been associated with subsequent cancer risk. This population-based nationwide study assessed whether the diagnosis of hyponatremia can predict a cancer diagnosis within most common cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using Danish medical registries, we identified 16,220 patients with a first-time diagnosis of hyponatremia, without a cancer diagnosis, from January 2006 through November 2013. We quantified the relative risk of a subsequent cancer diagnosis by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing observed cancer incidence among patients diagnosed with hyponatremia to that expected, based on national cancer incidence during that period...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916896/involvement-of-il-17-in-secondary-brain-injury-after-a-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#4
Tan Li, Yong-Mei Zhang, Dong Han, Rong Hua, Bing-Nan Guo, Shu-Qun Hu, Xian-Liang Yan, Tie Xu
The pro-inflammatory activity of interleukin 17, which is produced by the IL-23/IL-17 axis, has been associated with the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study investigated the potential role of IL-17 in secondary brain injury of TBI in a rat model. Our data showed that the levels of IL-17 increased from 6 h to 7 days and peaked at 3 days, in both the CNS and serum, which were consistent with the severity of secondary brain injury. The IL-23 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment markedly decreased the expressions of IL-17 and apoptosis-associated proteins cleaved caspase-3 and increased the protein ratio of Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2)/Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein)...
September 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900468/cancer-of-childhood-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
REVIEW
Cristina Stefan, Freddie Bray, Jacques Ferlay, Biying Liu, D Maxwell Parkin
Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899515/the-water-extract-of-liuwei-dihuang-possesses-multi-protective-properties-on-neurons-and-muscle-tissue-against-deficiency-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#6
Yu-Ting Tseng, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Wei-Fang Liang, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890232/complete-progressive-ophthalmoplegia-and-numb-chin-syndrome-the-first-clinical-manifestations-of-a-lethal-abdominal-burkitt-lymphoma
#7
Smaranda Maier, Rodica Bălaşa, Zoltan Bajko, Iunius Simu, Emoke Horvath
A 57-year-old patient was admitted to the Neurology Clinic for hypoesthesia, intense pain in the right chin and double vision. During the hospitalization, the patient developed progressive complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia and numbness of both sides of the chin. Brain CT and MRI scans with gadolinium were normal. Standard laboratory tests on admission were normal. The cerebral spinal fluid examination and the infectious and autoimmune workup were also normal. A thoracic-abdominal and pelvic CT scan revealed two hypodense lesions in the liver, irregular thickening of the gastric and ileal wall, and multiple abdominal adenopathies...
August 18, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870957/comparing-the-efficacy-of-devic-therapy-and-high-dose-methotrexate-monotherapy-with-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-for-newly-diagnosed-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-a-single-institution-study
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lushun Chalise, Kazuya Motomura, Fumiharu Ohka, Masaki Hirano, Masahito Hara, Yusuke Nishimura, Atsushi Natsume, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND/AIM: In the current study, we aimed to compare DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and carboplatin) chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) monotherapy plus whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for newly-diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), in terms of their efficacies and tolerability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 21 consecutive patients with PCNSL were treated with DeVIC therapy and WBRT, between 2002 and 2010...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860902/optimal-factors-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-predicting-corticospinal-tract-injury-in-patients-with-brain-tumors
#9
Zhi-Gang Min, Chen Niu, Qiu-Li Zhang, Ming Zhang, Yu-Cheng Qian
OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal factors in diffusion tensor imaging for predicting corticospinal tract (CST) injury caused by brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 33 patients with motor weakness and 64 patients with normal motor function. The movement of the CST, minimum distance between the CST and the tumor, and relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) of the CST on diffusion tensor imaging, were compared between patients with motor weakness and normal function...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859023/isolated-third-cranial-nerve-palsy-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-disseminated-burkitt-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Arens Taga, Marco Russo, Irene Florindo, Giovanni Pavesi
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the third cranial nerve can result from lesions anywhere along its course between the midbrain and the orbit. Lymphoma is a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy (OMP), with only 19 cases reported in the literature. We describe a case of an isolated OMP leading to the diagnosis of disseminated Burkitt lymphoma (BL). CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man presented with acute onset diplopia and right ptosis and was found to have a right pupillary sparing OMP...
September 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858401/histopathology-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronovirus-mers-cov-infection-clinicopathological-and-ultrastructural-study
#11
Khaled O Alsaad, Ali H Hajeer, Mohammed Al Balwi, Mohammed Al Moaiqel, Nourah Al Oudah, Abdulaziz Al Ajlan, Sameera AlJohani, Sami Alsolamy, Giamal E Gmati, Hanan Balkhy, Hamdan H Al-Jahdali, Salim A Baharoon, Yaseen M Arabi
AIMS: The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in human are not sufficiently described. The aims of this study were to explore and define the spectrum of histological and ultrastructural pathological changes affecting various organs in a patient with MERS-CoV infection and represent a base of MERS-CoV histopathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the postmortem histopathological findings and investigated viral particles localization in the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tissue by transmission electron microscopic examination in a 33-year-old male patient of T-cell lymphoma, who acquired MERS-CoV infection...
August 31, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845389/ebv-driven-natural-killer-cell-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system-presenting-as-subacute-cognitive-decline
#12
Francesca M Brett, Richard Flavin, Daphne Chen, Teresa Loftus, Seamus Looby, Allan McCarthy, Cillian de Gascun, Elaine S Jaffe, Nurul Nor, Mohsen Javadpour, Dominick McCabe
Brain biopsy in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathyis never straightforward and only undertaken when a 'treatable condition' is a realistic possibility. This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, 'dizziness', dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy...
November 2017: Human Pathology (New York)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845330/mantle-cell-lymphoma-presenting-with-acute-bilateral-ophthalmoplegia
#13
Yaran Koban, Hatice Özlece, Orhan Ayar, Mustafa Koç, Hüseyin Çelik, Zeliha Yazar, Ayşe Burcu
A 72-year-old woman presented with acute onset of double vision, bilateral complete blepharoptosis, and nearly complete ophthalmoplegia. Orbital and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Further investigation revealed bicytopenia with hepatosplenomegaly. Liver biopsy revealed mantle cell lymphoma. Cytology later showed the presence of mantle cells in cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Her ophthalmoplegia improved from her first cycle of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature of mantle cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement presenting with ophthalmoplegia...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840069/hydrocephalus-as-the-sole-presentation-of-primary-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-of-the-brain-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#14
Ahmad Pourrashidi Boshrabadi, Ali Naiem, Seyed Shahab Ghazi Mirsaeid, Kourosh Karimi Yarandi, Abbas Amirjamshidi
BACKGROUND: The most common lymphoid malignancy in adults is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The median age of occurrence of DLBCL is between 6(th) and 7(th) decade of life, although some other types of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are present in younger age. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon type of extranodal NHL, which is either more prevalent or is diagnosed more often than before. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 22-year-old man with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) performed at another center was referred with manifestations of shunt malfunction, unusual behavior, dysphasia, and hallucination...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838397/management-of-ceritinib-therapy-and-adverse-events-in-patients-with-alk-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Raffaele Califano, Alastair Greystoke, Rohit Lal, Joyce Thompson, Sanjay Popat
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement (ALK+) occurs in approximately 2-7% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), contributing to a considerable number of patients with ALK+ NSCLC worldwide. Ceritinib is a next generation ALK inhibitor (ALKi), approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2015. In the first-in-human, phase I study, ceritinib demonstrated rapid and durable responses in ALK patients previously treated with a different ALKi and in those who were ALKi-naive. As ceritinib is starting to be used routinely for the treatment of patients with ALK+ NSCLC, experience is growing with regard to ideal therapy management...
September 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836277/the-risk-of-preterm-birth-and-growth-restriction-in-pregnancy-after-cancer
#16
Kathleen P Hartnett, Kevin C Ward, Michael R Kramer, Timothy L Lash, Ann C Mertens, Jessica B Spencer, Amy Fothergill, Penelope P Howards
It is unclear whether cancer and its treatments increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to examine whether cancer survivors have higher risks of poor outcomes in pregnancies conceived after diagnosis than women without cancer, and whether these risks differ by cancer type and race. Diagnoses from cancer registries were linked to pregnancy outcomes from birth certificates in three U.S. states. Analyses were limited to the first, live singleton birth conceived after diagnosis. Births to women without a previous cancer diagnosis in the registry were matched to cancer survivors on age at delivery, parity, race/ethnicity and education...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832891/outcome-of-cancer-related-seizures-in-patients-treated-with-lacosamide
#17
M Toledo, A Molins, M Quintana, E Santamarina, F Martinez-Ricarte, E Martínez-Saez, J Salas-Puig
OBJECTIVES: Lacosamide is an antiepileptic drug (AED), which has proven to be effective to control seizures, including acute conditions such as status epilepticus. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical experience with lacosamide in neuro-oncological patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study in patients with cancer-related seizures, who received lacosamide as an add-on therapy. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients with benign and malignant tumors, including primary brain tumors, lymphomas, systemic cancer with central nervous system involvement, or paraneoplastic encephalitis, were included...
August 22, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831736/intravascular-lymphoma-in-the-cns-options-for-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Damir Nizamutdinov, Nitesh P Patel, Jason H Huang, Ekokobe Fonkem
Purpose of review The purpose of this review was to discuss therapeutic manipulations and effective current interventions available to treat intravascular lymphoma in the central nervous system. Recent findings Patients experienced resolution and remission of disease for 14 months and up to 2 years after eight cycles of R-CHOP and four courses of intrathecal therapy with MTX, cytarabine, and prednisolone. Intravascular use of unfractionated heparin during therapy may contribute to better outcome. Summary Series of therapeutic avenues were analyzed and compared...
August 23, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829592/5-4-6-dimorpholino-1-3-5-triazin-2-yl-4-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-amine-pqr309-a-potent-brain-penetrant-orally-bioavailable-pan-class-i-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-as-clinical-candidate-in-oncology
#19
Florent Beaufils, Natasa Cmiljanovic, Vladimir Cmiljanovic, Thomas Bohnacker, Anna Melone, Romina Marone, Eileen Jackson, Xuxiao Zhang, Alexander Sele, Chiara Borsari, Jürgen Mestan, Paul Hebeisen, Petra Hillmann, Bernd Giese, Marketa Zvelebil, Doriano Fabbro, Roger L Williams, Denise Rageot, Matthias P Wymann
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is deregulated in a wide variety of human tumors and triggers activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here we describe the preclinical characterization of compound 1 (PQR309, bimiralisib), a potent 4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazine-based pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, which targets mTOR kinase in a balanced fashion at higher concentrations. No off-target interactions were detected for 1 in a wide panel of protein kinase, enzyme, and receptor ligand assays...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829151/validation-of-an-immunohistochemistry-assay-for-detection-of-cd155-the-poliovirus-receptor-in-malignant-gliomas
#20
Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Jeffrey D Bryant, Hailan Piao, Stephen T Keir, Eric S Lipp, Michaela Lefaivre, Kathryn Perkinson, Darell D Bigner, Matthias Gromeier, Roger E McLendon
CONTEXT: - The oncolytic polio-rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) has demonstrated promise in currently ongoing phase I/II clinical trials against recurrent glioblastoma and was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. A reliable clinical assay to document expression of the poliovirus receptor, CD155, in routinely available patient tumor samples is needed for continued clinical development of PVSRIPO oncolytic immunotherapy in primary brain tumors and beyond...
August 22, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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