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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212449/energy-intake-and-energy-expenditure-of-pre-professional-female-contemporary-dancers
#1
Meghan A Brown, Glyn Howatson, Edel Quin, Emma Redding, Emma J Stevenson
Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#2
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210769/preprocedural-risk-assessment-prior-to-ppvi-with-cmr-and-cardiac-ct
#3
Ladonna Malone, Brian Fonseca, Thomas Fagan, Jane Gralla, Neil Wilson, Micheal DiMaria, Uyen Truong, Lorna P Browne
Percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention (PPVI) is a less invasive and less costly approach to pulmonary valve replacement compared with the surgical alternative. Potential complications of PPVI include coronary compression and pulmonary arterial injury/rupture. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological risk factors for PPVI complication with cardiac MRI and cardiac CTA. A retrospective review of 88 PPVI procedures was performed. 44 patients had preprocedural cardiac MRIs or CTAs available for review...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#4
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202906/bar502-a-dual-fxr-and-gpbar1-agonist-promotes-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-reverses-liver-steatosis-and-fibrosis
#5
Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Silvia Marchianò, Michele Biagioli, Chiara Santorelli, Annibale Donini, Angela Zampella, Maria Chiara Monti, Stefano Fiorucci
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease. Here, we have investigated whether BAR502, a non-bile acid, steroidal dual ligand for FXR and GPBAR1, reverses steato-hepatitis in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and fructose. After 9 week, mice on HFD gained ≈30% of b.w (P < 0.01 versus naïve) and were insulin resistant. These overweighting and insulin resistant mice were randomized to receive HFD or HFD in combination with BAR502. After 18 weeks, HFD mice developed NASH like features with severe steato-hepatitis and fibrosis, increased hepatic content of triacylglycerol and cholesterol and expression of SREPB1c, FAS, ApoC2, PPARα and γ, α-SMA, α1 collagen and MCP1 mRNAs...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199799/the-efficacy-of-protein-supplementation-during-recovery-from-muscle-damaging-concurrent-exercise
#6
Lee Eddens, Sarah Browne, Emma J Stevenson, Brad Sanderson, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to three independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of four days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g•kg<sup>-1</sup>•d<sup>-1</sup> carbohydrate, 1...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198109/progenitors-in-peripheral-nerves-launch-heterotopic-ossification
#7
Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A Salisbury, Diana Hoang, Eleanor L Davis, ZaWaunyka Lazard, Corinne Sonnet, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg, Alan R Davis
Studies presented here, using a murine model of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP2)-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) show that the protein initiates HO by signaling through progenitors in the endoneurium of peripheral nerves. In the mouse, these cells were identified in the endoneurium one day after BMP2 induction using antibody against phosphoSMAD (PS) 1, 5, and 8. Studies conducted in a tracking mouse that contains a tamoxifen-regulated Wnt1-Cre recombinase crossed with a td Tomato red (TR) reporter (Wnt1(CreErt) :Ai9Tm) confirmed their neural origin...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192219/a-qualitative-study-of-overweight-and-obese-australians-views-of-food-addiction
#8
A J Cullen, A Barnett, P A Komesaroff, W Brown, K S O'Brien, W Hall, A Carter
The concept of food addiction is increasingly used in the academic literature and popular media to explain some forms of overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on how this term is understood by and impacts overweight and obese individuals. This qualitative study investigated the views of overweight and obese individuals on food addiction, and its likely impact upon stigma, treatment-seeking, and support for public policies to reduce overeating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 overweight and obese individuals (Mage = 38, MBMI = 33, 74% female) and analysed thematically...
February 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187240/factors-involved-in-white-to-brown-adipose-tissue-conversion-and-in-thermogenesis-a-review
#9
REVIEW
T Montanari, N Pošćić, M Colitti
Obesity is the result of energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. Classical treatments against obesity do not provide a satisfactory long-term outcome for the majority of patients. After the demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults, great effort is being devoted to develop therapies based on the adipose tissue itself, through the conversion of fat-accumulating white adipose tissue into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue. Anti-obesity treatments that exploit endogenous, pharmacological and nutritional factors to drive such conversion are especially in demand...
February 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186086/hoxc10-suppresses-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues
#10
Yvonne Ng, Shi-Xiong Tan, Sook Yoong Chia, Hwee Yim Angeline Tan, Sin Yee Gun, Lei Sun, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes...
February 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183446/genetic-ablation-of-phosphatidylcholine-transfer-protein-stard2-in-ob-ob-mice-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-increasing-energy-expenditure
#11
Tibor I Krisko, Katherine B LeClair, David E Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is highly expressed in liver and oxidative tissues. PC-TP promotes hepatic glucose production during fasting and aggravates glucose intolerance in high fat fed mice. However, because PC-TP also suppresses thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), its direct contribution to obesity-associated diabetes in mice remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of genetic PC-TP ablation on glucose homeostasis in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which exhibit both diabetes and altered thermoregulation...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181829/marked-augmentation-of-plga-nanoparticle-induced-metabolically-beneficial-impact-of-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-fuel-dyshomeostasis-in-genetically-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#12
Chisayo Kozuka, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Kaku Nakano, Hidetaka Morinaga, Ayano Kinjo, Kotaro Fukuda, Asuka Kamei, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Kensuke Egashira, Hiroaki Masuzaki
Our previous works demonstrated that brown rice-specific bioactive substance, γ-oryzanol acts as a chaperone, attenuates exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in brain hypothalamus and pancreatic islets, thereby ameliorating metabolic derangement in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese diabetic mice. However, extremely low absorption efficiency from intestine of γ-oryzanol is a tough obstacle for the clinical application. Therefore, in this study, to overcome extremely low bioavailability of γ-oryzanol with super-high lipophilicity, we encapsulated γ-oryzanol in polymer poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano-Orz), and evaluated its metabolically beneficial impact in genetically obese-diabetic ob/ob mice, the best-known severest diabetic model in mice...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181539/dissecting-the-brown-adipogenic-regulatory-network-using-integrative-genomics
#13
Rachana N Pradhan, Johannes J Bues, Vincent Gardeux, Petra C Schwalie, Daniel Alpern, Wanze Chen, Julie Russeil, Sunil K Raghav, Bart Deplancke
Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178626/reference-genes-for-quantitative-pcr-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-mice-with-metabolic-disease
#14
Fernanda Almeida-Oliveira, João G B Leandro, Priscila Ausina, Mauro Sola-Penna, David Majerowicz
Obesity and diabetes are metabolic diseases and they are increasing in prevalence. The dynamics of gene expression associated with these diseases is fundamental to identifying genes involved in related biological processes. qPCR is a sensitive technique for mRNA quantification and the most commonly used method in gene-expression studies. However, the reliability of these results is directly influenced by data normalization. As reference genes are the major normalization method used, this work aims to identify reference genes for qPCR in adipose tissues of mice with type-I diabetes or obesity...
February 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164456/a-systems-perspective-on-brown-adipogenesis-and-metabolic-activation
#15
REVIEW
R N Pradhan, M Zachara, B Deplancke
Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling. This makes these fat cells attractive therapeutic targets to tackle the burgeoning issue of obesity, which itself is coupled to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and fatty liver disease. Recent research has revealed a complex network underlying brown fat cell differentiation and thermogenic activation, involving secreted factors, signal transduction, metabolic pathways and gene regulatory components. Given that brown fat is now reported to be present in adult humans, it is desirable to harness the knowledge from each network module to design effective therapeutic strategies...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161179/methane-production-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics-nutrient-digestibility-nitrogen-excretion-and-milk-production-of-dairy-cows-fed-conventional-or-brown-midrib-corn-silage
#16
F Hassanat, R Gervais, C Benchaar
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159559/blunting-of-adaptive-thermogenesis-as-a-potential-additional-mechanism-to-promote-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass
#17
Matthew G Browning, Charlotte Rabl, Guilherme M Campos
BACKGROUND: Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) is described as a change in resting metabolic rate (RMR) that is greater than would be predicted from changes in lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) alone during periods of energy imbalance. Whereas an AT-related downregulation of RMR has been implicated in suboptimal weight loss and weight regain after nonsurgical weight loss, defense against AT may underpin the durable weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and other bariatric surgeries...
November 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158227/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-on-energy-metabolism-and-visceral-fat-volume-through-a-possible-mechanism-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-human-subjects-and-rats
#18
Ichiro Tokubuchi, Yuji Tajiri, Shimpei Iwata, Kento Hara, Nobuhiko Wada, Toshihiko Hashinaga, Hitomi Nakayama, Hiroharu Mifune, Kentaro Yamada
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats. METHODS: In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#19
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149429/physiological-nutritional-and-performance-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes
#20
Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas Fs Santos, João Vdc Esteves, Valeria Lg Panissa, Ursula F Julio, Emerson Franchini
This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
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