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Browning fat

Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Natasha McDonald, Peter J Eddowes, James Hodson, Scott I K Semple, Nigel P Davies, Catherine J Kelly, Stella Kin, Miranda Phillips, Amy H Herlihy, Timothy J Kendall, Rachel M Brown, Desley A H Neil, Stefan G Hübscher, Gideon M Hirschfield, Jonathan A Fallowfield
LiverMultiScan is an emerging diagnostic tool using multiparametric MRI to quantify liver disease. In a two-centre prospective validation study, 161 consecutive adult patients who had clinically-indicated liver biopsies underwent contemporaneous non-contrast multiparametric MRI at 3.0 tesla (proton density fat fraction (PDFF), T1 and T2* mapping), transient elastography (TE) and Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test. Non-invasive liver tests were correlated with gold standard histothological measures. Reproducibility of LiverMultiScan was investigated in 22 healthy volunteers...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nienke M van Loon, Roelof Ottenhoff, Sander Kooijman, Martina Moeton, Saskia Scheij, Reinout L P Roscam Abbing, Marion J J Gijbels, Johannes H M Levels, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Jimmy F P Berbée, Patrick C N Rensen, Noam Zelcer
OBJECTIVE: The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR [LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor]) is a post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Model systems and human genetics support a role for IDOL in regulating circulating LDL levels. Whether IDOL plays a broader metabolic role and affects development of metabolic syndrome-associated comorbidities is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied WT (wild type) and Idol ( -/ - ) (Idol-KO) mice in 2 models: physiological aging and diet-induced obesity...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Wojciech Danysz, Yan Han, Fugang Li, Jim Nicoll, Philipp Buch, Thomas Hengl, Maarten Ruitenberg, Chris Parsons
Transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to a brown adipose tissue-like (BAT-like) phenotype has emerged as an attractive approach against e.g. using g ß3 adrenergic receptor agonists. These could however, produce side-effects following systemic exposure. The present study explored the possibility of local use of CL-316,243 - a selective ß3 agonist - to circumvent this problem. Rats treated s.c. for 2 weeks (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) showed decreased inguinal fat pad (IFP) weight/volume, increased UCP-1 staining and expressed BAT-like features in H&E stained micrographs...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sayuri Fuse, Shinsuke Nirengi, Shiho Amagasa, Toshiyuki Homma, Ryotaro Kime, Tasuki Endo, Naoki Sakane, Mami Matsushita, Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) along with computed tomography (CT) is a standard method for assessing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. We tested the usefulness of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (NIRTRS) as a simple and noninvasive method for evaluating BAT density (BAT-d) by examining the effects of some factors known to influence BAT activity. The total hemoglobin concentration as a parameter of BAT-d was evaluated using NIRTRS in the supraclavicular region in 413 Japanese individuals...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lei Pei, Ting Wan, Sufan Wang, Mingtong Ye, Yun Qiu, Rui Jiang, Nengzhi Pang, Yuanling Huang, Yujia Zhou, Xuye Jiang, Wenhua Ling, Zhenfeng Zhang, Lili Yang
AIM: Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) the most abundant monomer of anthocyanins has multiple protective effects on many diseases. To date, whether Cy-3-G could regulate the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is still unclear and whether this regulation could influence the secretion of adipokines from BAT to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indirectly remains to be explored. In this study we investigated the effect of Cy-3-G on BAT and the potential role of Cy-3-G to prevent fatty liver through regulating the secretion of BAT...
June 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Angelos Karlas, Josefine Reber, Evangelos Liapis, Korbinian Paul-Yuan, Vasilis Ntziachristos
MSOT has revolutionized biomedical imaging because it allows anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging of deep tissues in vivo in an entirely noninvasive, label-free, and real-time manner. This imaging modality works by pulsing light onto tissue, triggering the production of acoustic waves, which can be collected and reconstructed to provide high-resolution images of features as deep as several centimeters below the body surface. Advances in hardware and software continue to bring MSOT closer to clinical translation...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
S I Mortimer, N M Fogarty, J H J van der Werf, D J Brown, A A Swan, R H Jacob, G H Geesink, D L Hopkins, J E Hocking Edwards, E N Ponnampalam, R D Warner, K L Pearce, D W Pethick
Genetic correlations between 16 meat quality and nutritional value traits and live weight at various ages, ultrasound fat and muscle depth, carcass measures and carcass dissection traits were estimated for Merino sheep in the Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations between live weight at various ages and the carcass traits are also reported. The IN comprises 8 genetically linked flocks managed across a range of Australian sheep environments. Meat quality traits included between 1,200 and 1,300 records for progeny from over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), lean meat yield (LMY), shear force (SF5), pH, meat color and meat nutritional value traits including iron and zinc levels and long chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Erin L Brown, Bethany C Hazen, Elodie Eury, Jean-Sébastien Wattez, Marin L Gantner, Verena Albert, Sarah Chau, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Bruno Conti, Anastasia Kralli
Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) induces acute and long-term responses. The acute adrenergic response activates thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and enabling increased substrate oxidation. Long-term, adrenergic signaling remodels BAT, inducing adaptive transcriptional changes that expand thermogenic capacity. Here, we show that the estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRα, ERRγ) are collectively critical effectors of adrenergically stimulated transcriptional reprogramming of BAT...
April 27, 2018: iScience
Samantha M Logan, Kenneth B Storey
Background: Inflammation is generally suppressed during hibernation, but select tissues (e.g. lung) have been shown to activate both antioxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, particularly during arousal from torpor when breathing rates increase and oxidative metabolism fueling the rewarming process produces more reactive oxygen species. Brown and white adipose tissues are now understood to be major hubs for the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, yet how these potentially damaging processes are regulated by fat tissues during hibernation has hardly been studied...
2018: PeerJ
Jun Namkung, Ko Eun Shong, Hyeongseok Kim, Chang Myung Oh, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic stress associated with a positive lipid balance, such as insulin resistance and obesity. Previously we have shown the anti-obesity effects of inhibiting serotonin synthesis, which eventually improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. However, it is not clear whether serotonin has direct effect on hepatic lipid accumulation. Here, we showed the possibility of direct action of serotonin on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Mice were treated with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or LP-533401 to inhibit serotonin synthesis and fed with high fat diet (HFD) or high carbohydrate diet (HCD) to induce hepatic steatosis...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Michael Evers, Nunciada Salma, Sam Osseiran, Malte Casper, Reginald Birngruber, Conor L Evans, Dieter Manstein
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of intrinsic fluorophores such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) allows for label-free quantification of metabolic activity of individual cells over time and in response to various stimuli, which is not feasible using traditional methods due to their destructive nature and lack of spatial information. This study uses FLIM to measure pharmacologically induced metabolic changes that occur during the browning of white fat. Adipocyte browning increases energy expenditure, making it a desirable prospect for treating obesity and related disorders...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel E Brown, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Lincoln A Gotshalk
BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in Native Hawaiians, is an important health risk. A possible contributing factor to obesity is reduced physical activity levels. AIM: This study investigates the relationship between measured levels of physical activity and body composition in two grade cohorts of school children of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) and non-NHPI ethnicity. METHODS: A sample of 105 Kindergarteners and third graders were measured for adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity levels...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Moloud Payab, Parisa Goodarzi, Najmeh Foroughi Heravani, Mahdieh Hadavandkhani, Zeinab Zarei, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Fakher Rahim, Babak Arjmand
Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Despite of gaining partially desirable results, the problem is remained unsolved. Therefore, finding a new approach that can overcome previous limitations is very attractive for both researchers and clinicians...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yiming Cheng, Li Jiang, Susanne Keipert, Shuyue Zhang, Andreas Hauser, Elisabeth Graf, Tim Strom, Matthias Tschöp, Martin Jastroch, Fabiana Perocchi
Activation and recruitment of thermogenic cells in human white adipose tissues ("browning") can counteract obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, quantifying the effects of therapeutic interventions on browning remains enigmatic. Here, we devise a computational tool, named ProFAT (profiling of fat tissue types), for quantifying the thermogenic potential of heterogeneous fat biopsies based on prediction of white and brown adipocyte content from raw gene expression datasets. ProFAT systematically integrates 103 mouse-fat-derived transcriptomes to identify unbiased and robust gene signatures of brown and white adipocytes...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Giovanni Corsetti, Evasio Pasini, Claudia Romano, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Vincenzo Flati, Francesco S Dioguardi
Objective: Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance thus leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets, with various EAA/NEAA blends, on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Methods: Six groups of late middle-aged male mice were fed for 35 days with iso-nutrients, iso-caloric, and iso-nitrogenous special diets containing different EAA/NEAA ratios ranging from 100/0% to 0/100%...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Jenifer Monks, David J Orlicky, James L McManaman
Mice lacking Perilipin-2 (Plin2-null) are resistant to obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver induced by western or high fat diets. In the current study, we found that compared to wild type (WT) mice on western diet, Plin2-null adipose tissue was more insulin sensitive, and that inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) exhibited profound browning and robust induction of thermogenic and carbohydrate responsive genetic programs at room temperature. Surprisingly, these Plin2-null responses correlated with the content of simple carbohydrates, rather than fat, in the diet, and were independent of adipose Plin2 expression...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Young-Jin Seo, Kui-Jin Kim, Jia Choi, Eun-Jeong Koh, Boo-Yong Lee
Obesity predisposes animals towards the metabolic syndrome and diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Spirulina maxima is a microalga with anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective activities, but the anti-obesity effect of Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has not yet been fully established. We investigated the effect of SM70EE on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning using in vitro and in vivo obesity models. SM70EE treatment reduced lipid droplet accumulation by the oil red O staining method and downregulated the adipogenic proteins C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2, and the lipogenic proteins SREBP1, ACC, FAS, LPAATβ, Lipin1, and DGAT1 by western blot analysis...
June 1, 2018: Nutrients
Emily A Mulawa, Jay S Kirkwood, Lisa M Wolfe, Samantha J Wojda, Jessica E Prenni, Gregory L Florant, Seth W Donahue
Hibernation is a naturally occurring model for studying diseases such as obesity and osteoporosis. Hibernators, marmots (Marmota flaviventris) among them, are able to nearly double their body mass by increasing fat stores prior to hibernation without the negative consequences of obesity. They are also physically inactive for extended periods of time without experiencing negative effects on the skeleton. The endocannabinoid system is involved in modulating neural signaling, circannual rhythms, behavior, appetite, thermogenesis, and bone and energy metabolism...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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