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Econometrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516496/the-impact-of-childhood-obesity-on-health-and-health-service-use
#1
Jonas Minet Kinge, Stephen Morris
OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of obesity on health and health care use in children, by the use of various methods to account for reverse causality and omitted variables. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Fifteen rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which is representative of children and adolescents in England. STUDY DESIGN: We use three methods to account for reverse causality and omitted variables in the relationship between BMI and health/health service use: regression with individual, parent, and household control variables; sibling fixed effects; and instrumental variables based on genetic variation in weight...
May 17, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503669/dietary-diversity-and-child-malnutrition-in-ghana
#2
Raymond Boadi Frempong, Samuel Kobina Annim
The health of children in Ghana has improved in recent years. However, the current prevalence rates of malnutrition remain above internationally acceptable levels. This study, therefore, revisits the determinants of child health by using Ghana's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to investigate the effect of infant feeding practices on child health. We used the World Health Organization's Infant and Young Children Feeding guidelines to measure dietary quality. The econometric analyses show that dietary diversity may cause improvement in children's health in Ghana...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493302/instrumental-variables-estimation-of-exposure-effects-on-a-time-to-event-endpoint-using-structural-cumulative-survival-models
#3
Torben Martinussen, Stijn Vansteelandt, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, David M Zucker
The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes...
May 10, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489474/global-burden-of-sugar-related-dental-diseases-in-168-countries-and-corresponding-health-care-costs
#4
T Meier, P Deumelandt, O Christen, G I Stangl, K Riedel, M Langer
Oral diseases such as dental caries, edentulism (tooth loss), periodontal disease (PD), and oral cancer currently constitute an increased major public health burden across the globe, with significant differences between countries. One of the main drivers of caries, edentulism, and PD is the excessive intake of sugars. Here, we aimed to quantify the global sugar-related dental health and cost burden in the year 2010. This study used a health-econometrical model to calculate the disease burden as well as the direct and indirect costs attributable to the intake of free sugars (mono- and disaccharides [MDS])...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487858/a-balanced-approach-to-adaptive-probability-density-estimation
#5
Julio A Kovacs, Cailee Helmick, Willy Wriggers
Our development of a Fast (Mutual) Information Matching (FIM) of molecular dynamics time series data led us to the general problem of how to accurately estimate the probability density function of a random variable, especially in cases of very uneven samples. Here, we propose a novel Balanced Adaptive Density Estimation (BADE) method that effectively optimizes the amount of smoothing at each point. To do this, BADE relies on an efficient nearest-neighbor search which results in good scaling for large data sizes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484914/further-evidence-on-eq-5d-5l-preference-inversion-a-brazil-u-s-collaboration
#6
Benjamin M Craig, Andréa L Monteiro, Michael Herdman, Marisa Santos
PURPOSE: A preference inversion occurs when "worse" health (instead of "better" health) along a scale or score is preferred. Our aim was to confirm past findings of EQ-5D-5L preference inversions among English-speaking respondents and to explore inversions among Portuguese-speaking respondents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inversions may be more common in the Portuguese version, where the translation of the fourth level "severely" (gravemente) means "gravely." METHODS: Through an infusion clinic in Tampa, Florida, United States and a cardiology clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 740 respondents completed a tablet-based survey, which included the EQ-5D-3L and -5L followed by paired comparisons designed to assess preference inversions between the fourth and fifth levels of each of the five domains: Mobility (MO), Self-Care (SC), Usual Activity (UA), Pain/Discomfort (PD), and Anxiety/Depression (AD)...
May 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477238/identifying-societal-preferences-for-river-restoration-in-a-densely-populated-urban-environment-evidence-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment-in-central-brussels
#7
Wendy Y Chen, Inge Liekens, Steven Broekx
One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474770/analysing-model-fit-of-psychometric-process-models-an-overview-a-new-test-and-an-application-to-the-diffusion-model
#8
Jochen Ranger, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Carsten Szardenings
Cognitive psychometric models embed cognitive process models into a latent trait framework in order to allow for individual differences. Due to their close relationship to the response process the models allow for profound conclusions about the test takers. However, before such a model can be used its fit has to be checked carefully. In this manuscript we give an overview over existing tests of model fit and show their relation to the generalized moment test of Newey (Econometrica, 53, 1985, 1047) and Tauchen (J...
May 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472476/neighborhood-disorder-and-sleep-problems-in-older-adults-subjective-social-power-as-mediator-and-moderator
#9
Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee, Scott Schieman
Background and Objectives: Contextual contributors to sleep problems are important to examine among older adults because sleep problems are associated with a number of adverse outcomes in late life. We examine whether disordered neighborhoods are a key contextual determinant of sleep problems in late life, as well as how subjective social power-a sense of personal control and subjective social status-mediates and moderates this association. Central to this contribution is the use of econometric techniques that holistically control for time-stable factors that may bias estimated associations...
May 2, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472256/associations-of-neighborhood-crime-and-safety-and-with-changes-in-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Tiffany M Powell-Wiley, Kari Moore, Norrina Allen, Richard Block, Kelly R Evenson, Mahasin Mujahid, Ana V Diez Roux
Using data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of neighborhood crime and safety with adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) changes. MESA is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease among adults aged 45-84 years at baseline in 2000-2002 from six US sites, with follow-up for MESA participants until 2012. Data for this study were limited to Chicago, Illinois participants in the MESA Neighborhood Ancillary Study, for which police-recorded crime data was available, and who had complete baseline data (n = 673)...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464325/optimizing-staffing-quality-and-cost-in-home-healthcare-nursing-theory-synthesis
#11
Claire Su-Yeon Park
AIMS: To propose a new theory pinpointing the optimal nurse staffing threshold delivering the maximum quality of care relative to attendant costs in home health care. BACKGROUND: Little knowledge exists on the theoretical foundation addressing the inter-relationship among quality of care, nurse staffing, and cost. DESIGN: Theory synthesis. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost Web and Web of Science (25 February - 26 April 2013; 20 January - 22 March 2015)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460857/adjusting-for-unmeasured-confounding-in-non-randomised-longitudinal-studies-a-methodological-review
#12
REVIEW
Adam J Streeter, Nan Xuan Lin, Louise Crathorne, Marcela Haasova, Christopher Hyde, David Melzer, William E Henley
OBJECTIVE: Motivated by recent calls to use electronic health records for research, we reviewed the application and development of methods for addressing the bias from unmeasured confounding in longitudinal data. DESIGN: Methodological review of existing literature SETTING: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles addressing the threat to causal inference from unmeasured confounding in nonrandomised longitudinal health data through quasi-experimental analysis...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453058/-socioeconomic-factors-conditioning-obesity-in-adults-evidence-based-on-quantile-regression-and-panel-data
#13
Karina L Temporelli, Valentina N Viego
Objective To measure the effect of socioeconomic variables on the prevalence of obesity. Factors such as income level, urbanization, incorporation of women into the labor market and access to unhealthy foods are considered in this paper. Method Econometric estimates of the proportion of obese men and women by country were calculated using models based on panel data and quantile regressions, with data from 192 countries for the period 2002-2005.Levels of per capita income, urbanization, income/big mac ratio price and labor indicators for female population were considered as explanatory variables...
August 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446455/the-economic-burden-of-physical-inactivity-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal
#14
REVIEW
Ding Ding, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Binh Nguyen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Michael Pratt, Kenny D Lawson
OBJECTIVE: To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445264/incremental-cost-of-nosocomial-bacteremia-according-to-the-focus-of-infection-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-of-the-causative-microorganism-in-a-university-hospital
#15
Marta Riu, Pietro Chiarello, Roser Terradas, Maria Sala, Enric Garcia-Alzorriz, Xavier Castells, Santiago Grau, Francesc Cots
To estimate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia according to the causative focus and classified by the antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganism.Patients admitted to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona from 2005 to 2012 were included. We analyzed the total hospital costs of patients with nosocomial bacteremia caused by microorganisms with a high prevalence and, often, with multidrug-resistance. A control group was defined by selecting patients without bacteremia in the same diagnosis-related group.Our hospital has a cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to estimate per-patient costs...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433328/role-of-non-traditional-locations-for-seasonal-flu-vaccination-empirical-evidence-and-evaluation
#16
Namhoon Kim, Travis P Mountain
This study investigated the role of non-traditional locations in the decision to vaccinate for seasonal flu. We measured individuals' preferred location for seasonal flu vaccination by examining the National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) conducted from late 2009 to early 2010. Our econometric model estimated the probabilities of possible choices by varying individual characteristics, and predicted the way in which the probabilities are expected to change given the specific covariates of interest. From this estimation, we observed that non-traditional locations significantly influenced the vaccination of certain individuals, such as those who are high-income, educated, White, employed, and living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), by increasing the coverage...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429978/the-cost-quality-relationship-in-european-hospitals-a-systematic-review
#17
Rikke Søgaard, Ulrika Enemark
Objective To determine the relationship between cost and quality in European hospitals. Methods Juran's cost-quality curve served as a theoretical framework, linked to basic efficiency concepts. Based on systematic database searches, citation searches and cross-referencing, we identify 1093 empirical studies. After exclusion of studies from outside Europe (699), non-hospital settings (10 studies), lack of a cost parameter (194) or a quality parameter (27 studies), 22 studies (28 analyses) were assessed for direction of association and methodological heterogeneity...
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427353/assessing-the-impact-of-natural-policy-experiments-on-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-health-how-to-apply-commonly-used-quantitative-analytical-methods
#18
Yannan Hu, Frank J van Lenthe, Rasmus Hoffmann, Karen van Hedel, Johan P Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421518/empirical-research-on-coordination-evaluation-and-sustainable-development-mechanism-of-regional-logistics-and-new-type-urbanization-a-panel-data-analysis-from-2000-to-2015-for-liaoning-province-in-china
#19
Qiang Sun
As the largest developing country in the world, China has witnessed fast-paced urbanization over the past three decades with rapid economic growth. In fact, urbanization has been not only shown to promote economic growth and improve the livelihood of people but also can increase demands of regional logistics. Therefore, a better understanding of the relationship between urbanization and regional logistics is important for China's future sustainable development. The development of urban residential area and heterogeneous, modern society as well regional logistics are running two abreast...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414737/peer-norm-guesses-and-self-reported-attitudes-towards-performance-related-pay
#20
Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou, Iordanis Kotzaivazoglou
Due to a variety of reasons, people see themselves differently from how they see others. This basic asymmetry has broad consequences. It leads people to judge themselves and their own behavior differently from how they judge others and others' behavior. This research, first, studies the perceptions and attitudes of Greek Public Sector employees towards the introduction of Performance-Related Pay (PRP) systems trying to reveal whether there is a divergence between individual attitudes and guesses on peers' attitudes...
2017: PloS One
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