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Eric Njuki, Boris E Bravo-Ureta, Christopher J O'Donnell
Random fluctuations in temperature and precipitation have substantial impacts on agricultural output. However, the contribution of these changing configurations in weather to total factor productivity (TFP) growth has not been addressed explicitly in econometric analyses. Thus, the key objective of this study is to quantify and to investigate the role of changing weather patterns in explaining yearly fluctuations in TFP. For this purpose, we define TFP to be a measure of total output divided by a measure of total input...
2018: PloS One
Kristina Ludwig, J-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg, Wolfgang Greiner
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a value set for EQ-5D-5L based on the societal preferences of the German population. As the first country to do so, the study design used the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 2.0 developed by the EuroQol Group, including a feedback module as internal validation and a quality control process that was missing in the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. METHODS: A representative sample of the general German population (n = 1158) was interviewed using a composite time trade-off and a discrete choice experiment under close quality control...
February 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Charles Estay-Ossandon, Angel Mena-Nieto
The improvement of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in touristic islands has not been sufficiently studied, and by using the Spanish Balearics as a case study, a hybrid methodology has been developed which: (i) identifies the three most influential variables (driving forces) of the MSW generation system through an econometric model based on official historical data for a given period (2000-2014), (ii) develops a System Dynamics (SD) model of the evolution of MSW generation in this archipelago based on the same data and time period, and (iii) forecasts the performance of the MSW management system for a future period (2015-2030)...
February 14, 2018: Waste Management
Loukas Dimitriou, Paraskevas Nikolaou, Constantinos Antoniou
Given the importance of rigorous quantitative reasoning in supporting national, regional or global road safety policies, data quality, reliability, and stability are of the upmost importance. This study focuses on macroscopic properties of road safety statistics and the temporal stability of these statistics at a global level. A thorough investigation of two years of measurements was conducted to identify any unexpected gaps that could highlight the existence of inconsistent measurements. The database used in this research includes 121 member countries of the United Nation (UN-121) with a population of at least one million (smaller country data shows higher instability) and includes road safety and socioeconomic variables collected from a number of international databases (e...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
George E Halkos, Michael L Polemis
This paper estimates the efficiency of the power generation sector in the USA by using Window Data Envelopment Analysis (W-DEA). We integrate radial and non-radial efficiency measurements in DEA using the hybrid measure while we extend the proposed model by considering good and undesirable outputs as separable and non separable. Then in the second stage, we perform parametric and non-parametric econometric techniques in order to model the relationship between the calculated environmental efficiencies and economic growth in attaining sustainability...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mengni Chen, Chris J Lloyd, Paul S F Yip
A country's total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques...
2018: PloS One
Akinwande Atanda, Andrea Kutinova Menclova, W Robert Reed
Rising health care costs are a policy concern across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and relatively little consensus exists concerning their causes. One explanation that has received revived attention is Baumol's cost disease (BCD). However, developing a theoretically appropriate test of BCD has been a challenge. In this paper, we construct a 2-sector model firmly based on Baumol's axioms. We then derive several testable propositions. In particular, the model predicts that (a) the share of total labor employed in the health care sector and (b) the relative price index of the health and non-health care sectors should both be positively related to economy-wide productivity...
February 9, 2018: Health Economics
M Biggeri, M Nannini, G Putoto
Community health insurance (CHI) aims to provide financial protection and facilitate health care access among poor rural populations. Given common operational challenges that hamper the full development of the scheme, there is need to undertake systematic feasibility studies. These are scarce in the literature and usually they do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the local context. The present research intends to adopt a mixed-methods approach to assess ex-ante the feasibility of CHI. In particular, eight preconditions are proposed to inform the viability of introducing the micro insurance...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Armando Arredondo, Lina Díaz-Castro, Hector Cabello-Rangel, Pablo Arredondo, Ana Lucía Recaman
The study aimed to analyze the costs of medical care for mental disorders in the Mexican health system. This was a retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study. As markers for the problem, the study selected two of the principal psychological processes in mental disorders in recent years: depression and schizophrenia. Annual accumulated incidence was identified based on epidemiological reporting by type of institution in 2005-2013. The mean annual case management cost was determined with the instrumentation and consensus technique, identifying the production functions, types of inputs, costs, and amounts of inputs ordered, concentrated in the mean case matrix...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Luiz Flavio Andrade, Grèce Saba, Jean-Damien Ricard, Jonathan Messika, Jacques Gaillat, Pierre Bonnin, Christian Chidiac, Hajnal-Gabriela Illes, Henri Laurichesse, Bruno Detournay, Patrick Petitpretz, Gérard de Pouvourville
BACKGROUND: Community Acquired Pneumococcal Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes serious health problems and can lead to complications and death. The aim of this study was to observe and analyze health related quality of life after a hospital episode for patients with community acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in France. METHODS: A total of 524 individuals were enrolled prospectively in the study and were followed for 12 months after hospital discharge. Presence of streptococcus pneumoniae was confirmed by microbiological sampling...
February 2, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Johann Fuchs, Doris Söhnlein, Brigitte Weber, Enzo Weber
This paper presents a stochastic model to forecast the German population and labor supply until 2060. Within a cohort-component approach, our population forecast applies principal components analysis to birth, mortality, emigration, and immigration rates, which allows for the reduction of dimensionality and accounts for correlation of the rates. Labor force participation rates are estimated by means of an econometric time series approach. All time series are forecast by stochastic simulation using the bootstrap method...
2018: Population Research and Policy Review
Muhammad Hafeez, Yuan Chunhui, David Strohmaier, Manzoor Ahmed, Liu Jie
This paper explores the effects of finance on environmental degradation and investigates environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of each country among 52 that participate in the One Belt and One Road Initiative (OBORI) using the latest long panel data span (1980-2016). We utilized panel long run econometric models (fully modified ordinary least square and dynamic ordinary least square) to explore the long-run estimates in full panel and country level. Moreover, the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) causality test is applied to examine the short-run causalities among our considered variables...
January 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bidisha Mandal, Raymond G Batina, Wen Chen
We use system-generalized method-of-moments to estimate the effect of gender-specific human capital on economic growth in a cross-country panel of 127 countries between 1975 and 2010. There are several benefits of using this methodology. First, a dynamic lagged dependent econometric model is suitable to address persistence in per capita output. Second, the generalized method-of-moments estimator uses dynamic properties of the data to generate appropriate instrumental variables to address joint endogeneity of the explanatory variables...
January 8, 2018: Health Economics
Chuen Seng Tan, Nathalie C Støer, Ying Chen, Marielle Andersson, Yilin Ning, Hwee-Lin Wee, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, E-Shyong Tai, Shih Ling Kao, Marie Reilly
The control of confounding is an area of extensive epidemiological research, especially in the field of causal inference for observational studies. Matched cohort and case-control study designs are commonly implemented to control for confounding effects without specifying the functional form of the relationship between the outcome and confounders. This paper extends the commonly used regression models in matched designs for binary and survival outcomes (i.e. conditional logistic and stratified Cox proportional hazards) to studies of continuous outcomes through a novel interpretation and application of logit-based regression models from the econometrics and marketing research literature...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Samira Choudhury, Derek Headey
Little previous research has explored what drives the diversification of national food supplies (DFS) across countries and regions. We construct and analyse a cross-country dataset linking a simple DFS indicator - the share of calories supplied by nonstaple foods - with structural transformation and agroecological indicators. Panel econometric models show that several indicators of structural transformation (economic growth, urbanization and demographic change) are strong predictors of diversification within countries, yet time-invariant agroecological factors are also significantly associated with diversification, which appears to explain why some countries have exceptionally low or high DFS relative to their level of economic development...
December 2017: Global Food Security
Donald S Maier
Pursuit of economic gain has sponsored much of our planet's despoliation. Yet conservation increasingly operates as an economic sector that markets biodiversity, ecosystems, and nature as natural capital, service provider, or option value. This essay first elucidates what basic moral theory says about the principle that the goodness of biodiversity and nature is largely economic. It explains why economic valuations may be morally unimportant, inapt for environmental goods, and subversive of more important ideals...
December 14, 2017: Ambio
Russell Eric Dawe, Jessica Bishop, Amanda Pendergast, Susan Avery, Kelly Monaghan, Norah Duggan, Kris Aubrey-Bassler
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that family physicians have rates of cesarean delivery that are lower than or equivalent to those for obstetricians, but adjustments for risk differences in these analyses may have been inadequate. We used an econometric method to adjust for observed and unobserved factors affecting the risk of cesarean delivery among women attended by family physicians versus obstetricians. METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all Canadian (except Quebec) hospital deliveries by family physicians and obstetricians between Apr...
December 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
Everton Nunes da Silva, Timothy Powell-Jackson
Background: Hospitals account for the major share of health expenditure. Primary healthcare may improve efficiency at the hospital level by reducing avoidable admissions. We examined whether rapid expansion of primary healthcare in the context of Brazil's Family Health Strategy (FHS) was associated with a reduction in avoidable hospitalisations. Methods: We constructed panel data for 5506 municipalities over 2000-2014. Our primary outcome was the rate of avoidable hospitalisations, defined with reference to the official list of ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Kari A B Moore, Amy H Auchincloss, Mahasin S Mujahid, Carmella August, Brisa N Sanchez, Ana V Diez Roux
Longitudinal associations between neighborhood characteristics and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) were assessed from 2000 to 2011 among 5,919 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The perceived availability of healthy food and walking environment were assessed via surveys, and 1-mile (1.6-km) densities of supermarkets, fruit-and-vegetable stores, and recreational facilities were obtained through a commercial database. Econometric fixed-effects models were used to estimate the association between within-person changes in neighborhood characteristics and within-person change in BMI...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Afsaneh Bjorvatn
Incentives to improve hospital performance under prospective payments may come at a cost. First, there may be a strong incentive for hospitals to choose only low-severity patients. Second, hospitals may have an incentive to reduce the quality of care. I analyze the role of hospital ownership on patient selection and quality of care by comparing private nonprofit and public hospitals. The analysis is performed by using unique hospital admission data for cardiovascular procedures in Norway, covering the period from 1999 to 2006...
November 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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