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Bettina Siflinger
This study explores the effects of widowhood on mental health by taking into account the anticipation and adaptation to the partner's death. The empirical analysis uses representative panel data from the USA that are linked to administrative death records of the National Death Index. I estimate static and dynamic specifications of the panel probit model in which unobserved heterogeneity is modeled with correlated random effects. I find strong anticipation effects of the partner's death on the probability of depression, implying that the partner's death event cannot be assumed to be exogenous in econometric models...
October 16, 2016: Health Economics
Guangdong Li, Chuanglin Fang, Shaojian Wang, Siao Sun
Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China has led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Alicia Atwood, Anthony T Lo Sasso
Network design is an often overlooked aspect of health insurance contracts. Recent policy factors have resulted in narrower provider networks. We provide plausibly causal evidence on the effect of narrow network plans offered by a large national health insurance carrier in a major metropolitan market. Our econometric design exploits the fact that some firms offer a narrow network plan to their employees and some do not. Our results show that narrow network health plans lead to reductions in health care utilization and spending...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Michelle Remme, Mariana Siapka, Olivier Sterck, Mthuli Ncube, Charlotte Watts, Anna Vassall
Despite optimism about the end of AIDS, the HIV response requires sustained financing into the future. Given flat-lining international aid, countries' willingness and ability to shoulder this responsibility will be central to access to HIV care. This paper examines the potential to expand public HIV financing, and the extent to which governments have been utilising these options. We develop and compare a normative and empirical approach. First, with data from the 14 most HIV-affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimate the potential increase in public HIV financing from economic growth, increased general revenue generation, greater health and HIV prioritisation, as well as from more unconventional and innovative sources, including borrowing, health-earmarked resources, efficiency gains, and complementary non-HIV investments...
September 19, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Christine de la Maisonneuve, Rodrigo Moreno-Serra, Fabrice Murtin, Joaquim Oliveira Martins
This paper investigates the impact of policies and institutions on health expenditures for a large panel of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries for the period of 2000-2010. A set of 20 policy and institutional indicators developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development are integrated into a theoretically motivated econometric framework, alongside control variables related to demographic (dependency ratio) and non-demographic (income, prices and technology) drivers of health expenditures per capita...
September 29, 2016: Health Economics
Xiaohui You, Albert A Okunade
The roles of income and technology as the major determinants of aggregate healthcare expenditure (HEXP) continue to interest economists and health policy researchers. Concepts and measures of medical technologies remain complex; however, income (on the demand side) and technology (on the supply side) are important drivers of HEXP. This paper presents analysis of Australia's HEXP, using time-series econometrics modeling techniques applied to 1971-2011 annual aggregate data. Our work fills two important gaps in the literature...
September 29, 2016: Health Economics
Xiaopeng Guo, Dongfang Ren, Jiaxing Shi
This paper studies the relationship among carbon emissions, GDP, and logistics by using a panel data model and a combination of statistics and econometrics theory. The model is based on the historical data of 10 typical provinces and cities in China during 2005-2014. The model in this paper adds the variability of logistics on the basis of previous studies, and this variable is replaced by the freight turnover of the provinces. Carbon emissions are calculated by using the annual consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mauricio R Bellon, Gervais D Ntandou-Bouzitou, Francesco Caracciolo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test the extent to which, under different opportunities for market participation, the diversity of plant species rural households grow or collect (on-farm diversity), and the variety of foods mothers purchase (market diversity) are associated with their dietary diversity. METHODS: Rural households from three districts in southern Benin were interviewed during dry (n = 472) and wet (n = 482) seasons between 2011 and 2012...
2016: PloS One
Javier Valero-Elizondo, Joseph A Salami, Chukwuemeka U Osondu, Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Alejandro Arrieta, Erica S Spatz, Adnan Younus, Jamal S Rana, Salim S Virani, Ron Blankstein, Michael J Blaha, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) has an established favorable impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and quality of life. In this study, we aimed to estimate the economic effect of moderate-vigorous PA on medical expenditures and utilization from a nationally representative cohort with and without CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data were analyzed. Our study population was limited to noninstitutionalized US adults ≥18 years of age...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Gang Chen, Robert P Finger, Edith Eva Holloway, Angelo Iezzi, Jeff Richardson
PURPOSE: The VisQoL instrument was constructed as a vision-specific addition to the AQoL-6D multi-attribute utility instrument. The composite instrument, the AQoL-7D, was assigned utility scores that are the basis for now estimating VisQoL utilities when it is used as a stand-alone instrument. This study aimed to construct mapping functions that allow utility scores to be assigned to the Vision Related Quality of Life (VisQoL) instrument, a stand-alone vision-specific quality-of-life measure...
August 30, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Maria Caterina Bramati
Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered...
November 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Viktor Stojkoski, Zoran Utkovski, Ljupco Kocarev
Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure...
2016: PloS One
Angie Chiu, Ellen Goddard, Brenda Parlee
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Allison Milner, Zoe Aitken, Anne Kavanagh, Anthony D LaMontagne, Dennis Petrie
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the extent that psychosocial job stressors had lasting effects on a scaled measure of mental health. We applied econometric approaches to a longitudinal cohort to: (1) control for unmeasured individual effects; (2) assess the role of prior (lagged) exposures of job stressors on mental health and (3) the persistence of mental health. METHODS: We used a panel study with 13 annual waves and applied fixed-effects, first-difference and fixed-effects Arellano-Bond models...
November 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Emmanouil Tyllianakis, Dimitris Skuras
The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Isabel Yan, Eran Bendavid, Eline L Korenromp
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. METHODS: We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey J Wing, Ella August, Sara D Adar, Andrew L Dannenberg, Anjum Hajat, Brisa N Sánchez, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Ana V Diez Roux
BACKGROUND: Although some evidence shows that neighborhood deprivation is associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis, prior studies have not identified what aspects of deprived neighborhoods were driving the association. METHODS: We investigated whether social and physical neighborhood characteristics are related to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in 5950 adult participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) during a 12-year follow-up period...
August 16, 2016: Circulation
M Santric-Milicevic, V Vasic, Z Terzic-Supic
BACKGROUND: In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. METHODS: The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Elżbieta Biernat, Sonia Buchholtz
BACKGROUND: Insufficient physical activity (PA) has become an increasing risk factor of noncommunicable diseases and an important cause of deaths all over the world. The goal of this paper is to provide an in-depth description of insufficient PA in Poland as well as an examination of some of its correlates. METHODS: We take advantage of statistical and econometric (logistic regression) analysis on the basis of a representative survey. Out of 3056 respondents, we analyze the 1260 low-PA ones...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hannah Pieters, Daniele Curzi, Alessandro Olper, Johan Swinnen
BACKGROUND: The effects of political regimes on health are unclear because empirical evidence is neither strong nor robust. Traditional econometric tools do not allow the direction of causality to be established clearly. We used a new method to investigate whether political transition into democracy affected child mortality. METHODS: We used a synthetic control method to assess the effects of democratisation on child mortality as a proxy of health in countries that underwent transition from autocracy to democracy that lasted for at least 10 years between 1960 and 2010...
September 2016: Lancet Global Health
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