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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295862/sample-size-of-the-reference-sample-in-a-case-augmented-study
#1
Palash Ghosh, Anup Dewanji
The case-augmented study, in which a case sample is augmented with a reference (random) sample from the source population with only covariates information known, is becoming popular in different areas of applied science such as pharmacovigilance, ecology, and econometrics. In general, the case sample is available from some source (for example, hospital database, case registry, etc.); however, the reference sample is required to be drawn from the corresponding source population. The required minimum size of the reference sample is an important issue in this regard...
March 13, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293824/the-influence-of-renewable-and-non-renewable-energy-consumption-and-real-income-on-co2-emissions-in-the-usa-evidence-from-structural-break-tests
#2
Eyup Dogan, Ilhan Ozturk
The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the real income (GDP), renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the United States of America (USA) in the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the period 1980-2014. The Zivot-Andrews unit root test with a structural break and the Clemente-Montanes-Reyes unit root test with a structural break report that the analyzed variables become stationary at first-differences. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test with a structural break and the bounds testing for cointegration in the presence of a structural break show CO2 emissions, the real income, the quadratic real income, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption are cointegrated...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245877/incentives-to-change-effects-of-performance-based-financing-on-health-workers-in-zambia
#3
Gordon C Shen, Ha Thi Hong Nguyen, Ashis Das, Nkenda Sachingongu, Collins Chansa, Jumana Qamruddin, Jed Friedman
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) has been implemented in a number of countries with the aim of transforming health systems and improving maternal and child health. This paper examines the effect of PBF on health workers' job satisfaction, motivation, and attrition in Zambia. It uses a randomized intervention/control design to evaluate before-after changes for three groups: intervention (PBF) group, control 1 (C1; enhanced financing) group, and control 2 (C2; pure control) group...
February 28, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242766/understanding-the-models-of-community-hospital-rehabilitation-activity-mocha-a-mixed-methods-study
#4
John Gladman, John Buckell, John Young, Andrew Smith, Clare Hulme, Satti Saggu, Mary Godfrey, Pam Enderby, Elizabeth Teale, Roberto Longo, Brenda Gannon, Claire Holditch, Heather Eardley, Helen Tucker
INTRODUCTION: To understand the variation in performance between community hospitals, our objectives are: to measure the relative performance (cost efficiency) of rehabilitation services in community hospitals; to identify the characteristics of community hospital rehabilitation that optimise performance; to investigate the current impact of community hospital inpatient rehabilitation for older people on secondary care and the potential impact if community hospital rehabilitation was optimised to best practice nationally; to examine the relationship between the configuration of intermediate care and secondary care bed use; and to develop toolkits for commissioners and community hospital providers to optimise performance...
February 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242278/the-revealed-preferences-of-baltic-sea-governments-goals-policy-instruments-and-implementation-of-nutrient-abatement-measures
#5
Katarina Elofsson, Claudia von Brömssen
Nitrogen and phosphorus loads are considered a major reason for the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Until now, most of the abatement has been made at point sources while the implementation of policies for nonpoint sources has not led to equally large reductions in emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of how nutrient abatement measures are implemented by countries in the agricultural sector of the Baltic Sea region. We investigate how goal setting, policy instrument choice, and the level of implementation is determined by characteristics of the abatement measure as well as socio-economic characteristics of the country where it is implemented...
February 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241404/hippocampal-neural-activity-reflects-the-economy-of-choices-during-goal-directed-navigation
#6
Valerie L Tryon, Marsha R Penner, Shawn W Heide, Hunter O King, Joshua Larkin, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Distinguishing spatial contexts is likely essential for the well-known role of the hippocampus in episodic memory. We studied whether types of hippocampal neural organization thought to underlie context discrimination is impacted by learned economic considerations of choice behavior. Hippocampal place cells and theta activity were recorded as rats performed a maze-based probability discounting task that involved choosing between a small certain reward or a large probabilistic reward. Different spatial distributions of place fields were observed in response to changes in probability, the outcome of the rats' choice, and whether or not rats were free to make that choice...
February 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239834/order-constrained-linear-optimization
#7
Joe W Tidwell, Michael R Dougherty, Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz, Rick P Thomas
Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224308/a-methodological-proposal-to-evaluate-the-cost-of-duration-moral-hazard-in-workplace-accident-insurance
#8
Ángel Martín-Román, Alfonso Moral
The cost of duration moral hazard in workplace accident insurance has been amply explored by North-American scholars. Given the current context of financial constraints in public accounts, and particularly in the Social Security system, we feel that the issue merits inquiry in the case of Spain. The present research posits a methodological proposal using the econometric technique of stochastic frontiers, which allows us to break down the duration of work-related leave into what we term "economic days" and "medical days"...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222117/two-dynamic-regimes-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#9
Sean M Gibbons, Sean M Kearney, Chris S Smillie, Eric J Alm
The gut microbiome is a dynamic system that changes with host development, health, behavior, diet, and microbe-microbe interactions. Prior work on gut microbial time series has largely focused on autoregressive models (e.g. Lotka-Volterra). However, we show that most of the variance in microbial time series is non-autoregressive. In addition, we show how community state-clustering is flawed when it comes to characterizing within-host dynamics and that more continuous methods are required. Most organisms exhibited stable, mean-reverting behavior suggestive of fixed carrying capacities and abundant taxa were largely shared across individuals...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220072/commentary-do-health-care-workforce-population-and-service-provision-significantly-contribute-to-the-total-health-expenditure-an-econometric-analysis-of-serbia
#10
COMMENT
Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Mirjana Varjacic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218793/effectiveness-of-conservation-easements-in-agricultural-regions
#11
Mark Braza
Conservation easements are a standard technique for preventing habitat loss, particularly in agricultural regions with extensive cropland cultivation, yet little is known about their effectiveness. I developed a spatial econometric approach to propensity-score matching (PSM) and used the approach to estimate the amount of habitat loss prevented by a grassland conservation easement program of the U.S. federal government. I used a spatial autoregressive probit model to predict tract enrollment in the easement program as of 2001 based on tract agricultural suitability, habitat quality, and spatial interactions among neighboring tracts...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214425/favorable-cardiovascular-risk-factor-profile-is-associated-with-lower-healthcare-expenditure-and-resource-utilization-among-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-free-of-established-cardiovascular-disease-2012-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-meps
#12
David I Feldman, Javier Valero-Elizondo, Joseph A Salami, Jamal S Rana, Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Chukwuemeka U Osondu, Erica S Spatz, Salim S Virani, Ron Blankstein, Michael J Blaha, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the prevalence and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM), we studied the impact of a favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditures and resource utilization among individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD), by DM status. METHODS: 25,317 participants were categorized into 3 mutually-exclusive strata: "Poor", "Average" and "Optimal" CRF profiles (≥4, 2-3, 0-1 CRF, respectively). Two-part econometric models were utilized to study cost data...
March 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183354/protocol-for-the-analysis-of-a-natural-experiment-on-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-diabetes-care-in-community-health-centers
#13
Nathalie Huguet, Heather Angier, Miguel Marino, K John McConnell, Megan J Hoopes, Jean P O'Malley, Lewis A Raynor, Sonja Likumahuwa-Ackman, Heather Holderness, Jennifer E DeVoe
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansions could substantially improve access to health insurance and healthcare services for patients at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), with pre-DM, or already diagnosed with DM. The ACA called for every state to expand Medicaid coverage by 2014. In a 2012 legal challenge, the US Supreme Court ruled that states were not required to implement Medicaid expansions. This 'natural experiment' presents a unique opportunity to learn whether and to what extent Medicaid expansion can affect healthcare access and services for patients with DM risk, pre-DM, or DM...
February 10, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166729/is-it-still-worthwhile-to-perform-quarterly-cd4-t-lymphocyte-cell-counts-on-hiv-1-infected-stable-patients
#14
Antonio Di Biagio, Marta Ameri, Davide Sirello, Giovanni Cenderello, Enrico Di Bella, Lucia Taramasso, Barbara Giannini, Mauro Giacomini, Claudio Viscoli, Giovanni Cassola, Marcello Montefiori
BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years routine T CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4+) cell count has proved to be a key factor to determine the stage of HIV infection and start or discontinue of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. However, several studies recently showed that in stable patients on cART a quarterly CD4+ cell count monitoring results in limited (or null) clinical relevance. The research is intended to investigate whether performing quarterly CD4+ cell counts in stable HIV-1 patients is still recommendable and to provide a forecast of the cost saving that could be achieved by reducing CD4+ monitoring in such a category of patients...
February 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163360/ethiopian-wheat-yield-and-yield-gap-estimation-a-spatially-explicit-small-area-integrated-data-approach
#15
Michael L Mann, James M Warner
Despite the routine collection of annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has integrated these data sources in estimating developing nations' agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 principal Meher crop seasons at the kebele administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country...
February 1, 2017: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162127/impact-of-two-policy-interventions-on-dietary-diversity-in-ecuador
#16
Juan Ponce, Jesus Ramos-Martin
OBJECTIVE: To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. DESIGN: Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161670/addressing-care-seeking-as-well-as-insurance-seeking-selection-biases-in-estimating-the-impact-of-health-insurance-on-out-of-pocket-expenditure
#17
Shehzad Ali, Richard Cookson, Mark Dusheiko
Health Insurance (HI) programmes in low-income countries aim to reduce the burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditure. However, if the decisions to purchase insurance and to seek care when ill are correlated with the expected health care expenditure, the use of naïve regression models may produce biased estimates of the impact of insurance membership on OOP expenditure. Whilst many studies in the literature have accounted for the endogeneity of the insurance decision, the potential selection bias due to the care-seeking decision has not been taken into account...
November 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148292/economies-of-scale-and-scope-in-publicly-funded-biomedical-and-health-research-evidence-from-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Karla Hernandez-Villafuerte, Jon Sussex, Enora Robin, Sue Guthrie, Steve Wooding
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. METHODS: We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014...
February 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139137/factors-influencing-nutritional-adequacy-among-rural-households-in-nigeria-how-does-dietary-diversity-stand-among-influencers
#19
D Akerele, R A Sanusi, O A Fadare, O F Ashaolu
This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128775/clinical-judgment-research-on-economic-topics-role-of-congruence-of-tasks-in-clinical-practice
#20
Christine C Huttin
This paper discusses what can ensure the performance of judgment studies with an information design that integrates economics of medical systems, in the context of digitalization of healthcare. It is part of a series of 5 methodological papers on statistical procedures and problems to implement judgment research designs and decision models, especially to address cost of care, and ways to measure conversation on cost of care between physicians and patients, with unstructured data such as economic narratives to complement billing and financial information (e...
January 20, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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