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Xiangyun Gao, Shupei Huang, Xiaoqi Sun, Xiaoqing Hao, Feng An
Microscopic factors are the basis of macroscopic phenomena. We proposed a network analysis paradigm to study the macroscopic financial system from a microstructure perspective. We built the cointegration network model and the Granger causality network model based on econometrics and complex network theory and chose stock price time series of the real estate industry and its upstream and downstream industries as empirical sample data. Then, we analysed the cointegration network for understanding the steady long-term equilibrium relationships and analysed the Granger causality network for identifying the diffusion paths of the potential risks in the system...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Anita Alves Pena, Edward R Teather-Posadas
OBJECTIVES: We studied relationships between demographic and work-related characteristics and exposure to health-related risk associated with field sanitation within the population of U.S. farmworkers while critically examining adequacy of existing data toward understanding patterns. METHODS: We used statistical and econometric large-sample data methods to analyze correlations between observable variables and access to field sanitation as measured by responses to the nationally and regionally representative National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS)...
2018: Journal of Agromedicine
Richard Bernknopf, David Brookshire, Yusuke Kuwayama, Molly Macauley, Matthew Rodell, Alexandra Thompson, Peter Vail, Benjamin Zaitchik
A decision framework is developed for quantifying the economic value of information (VOI) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission for drought monitoring, with a focus on the potential contributions of groundwater storage and soil moisture measurements from the GRACE Data Assimilation (GRACE-DA) System. The study consists of: (a) the development of a conceptual framework to evaluate the socioeconomic value of GRACE-DA as a contributing source of information to drought monitoring; (b) structured listening sessions to understand the needs of stakeholders who are affected by drought monitoring; (c) econometric analysis based on the conceptual framework that characterizes the contribution of GRACE-DA to the US Drought Monitor (USDM) in capturing the effects of drought on the agricultural sector; and (d) a demonstration of how the improved characterization of drought conditions may influence decisions made in a real-world drought disaster assistance program...
January 2018: Weather, Climate, and Society (Print)
Ghaffar Ali
Climate change is a multidimensional phenomenon, which has various implications for the environment and socio-economic conditions of the people. Its effects are deeper in an agrarian economy which is susceptible to the vagaries of nature. Therefore, climate change directly impacts the society in different ways, and society must pay the cost. Focusing on this truth, the main objective of this research was to investigate the empirical changes and spatial heterogeneity in the climate of Pakistan in real terms using time series data...
April 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Felix Pretis, Moritz Schwarz, Kevin Tang, Karsten Haustein, Myles R Allen
Empirical evidence suggests that variations in climate affect economic growth across countries over time. However, little is known about the relative impacts of climate change on economic outcomes when global mean surface temperature (GMST) is stabilized at 1.5°C or 2°C warming relative to pre-industrial levels. Here we use a new set of climate simulations under 1.5°C and 2°C warming from the 'Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) project to assess changes in economic growth using empirical estimates of climate impacts in a global panel dataset...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Brent A Evans, Justin Roush, Joshua D Pitts, Adam Hornby
Using hand-collected data from, a major daily fantasy sports website, we analyze draft selections of thousands of participants in daily fantasy basketball (DFB). In our study, the first thorough examination of DFB, we show that DFB is a game in which skill is necessary for success. Using econometric analysis, we find that winning participants utilize different strategies than losing participants; for example, winning participants more frequently select NBA rookies and international players. We also find that participants paying to enter more lineups in a given contest earn profits far more often than those entering few lineups, indicating that the number of lineups entered can serve as a proxy for skill...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Massimiliano Agovino, Maria Carmela Aprile, Antonio Garofalo, Angela Mariani
The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed...
March 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Xue Jin, Xiaoxia Shi, Jintian Gao, Tongbin Xu, Kedong Yin
Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China's coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc.), storm surge disaster is divided based on eight kinds of storm surge disaster grade division methods combined with storm surge water, hypervigilance tide level, and disaster loss...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee, Scott Schieman
The association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems is important to examine in older adults because sleep is highly reactive to stress and impaired sleep has diverse adverse health effects. The association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems may, however, be confounded by a number of time-stable influences, and this association may also vary by religious involvement. In three waves (2006, 2010, and 2014) of the Health and Retirement Study ( N = 7,130), the overall association between chronic discrimination and sleep problems is negated in econometric models that control for all time-stable sources of confounding...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
James Lomas, Karl Claxton, Stephen Martin, Marta Soares
Considering whether or not a proposed investment (an intervention, technology, or program of care) is affordable is really asking whether the benefits it offers are greater than its opportunity cost. To say that an investment is cost-effective but not affordable must mean that the (implicit or explicit) "threshold" used to judge cost-effectiveness does not reflect the scale and value of the opportunity costs. Existing empirical estimates of health opportunity costs are based on cross-sectional variation in expenditure and mortality outcomes by program budget categories (PBCs) and do not reflect the likely effect of nonmarginal budget impacts on health opportunity costs...
March 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Karin Stenberg, Jeremy A Lauer, Georgios Gkountouras, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Anderson Stanciole
Background: Policy makers require information on costs related to inpatient and outpatient health services to inform resource allocation decisions. Methods: Country data sets were gathered in 2008-2010 through literature reviews, website searches and a public call for cost data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the determinants of variability in unit costs using data from 30 countries. Two models were designed, with the inpatient and outpatient models drawing upon 3407 and 9028 observations respectively...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Sean M Murphy, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Jake R Morgan, Kathryn McCollister, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluation findings assist stakeholders in improving the quality, availability, scalability, and sustainability of evidence-based services, and in maximizing the efficiency of service delivery. The Center for Health Economics of Treatment Interventions for Substance Use Disorders, HCV, and HIV (CHERISH) is a NIDA-funded multi-institutional center of excellence whose mission is to develop and disseminate health-economic research on healthcare utilization, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors that informs substance use disorder treatment policy, and HCV and HIV care of people who use substances...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Juliana Serje, Melanie Y Bertram, Callum Brindley, Jeremy A Lauer
Background: Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Malin Song, Yu Chen, Qingxian An
Increased environmental pollution and energy consumption caused by the country's rapid development has raised considerable public concern, and has become the focus of the government and public. This study employs the super-efficiency slack-based model-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) to measure the total factor energy efficiency of 30 provinces in China. The estimation model for the spatial interaction intensity of regional total factor energy efficiency is based on Wilson's maximum entropy model. The model is used to analyze the factors that affect the potential value of total factor energy efficiency using spatial dynamic panel data for 30 provinces during 2000-2014...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Haixia Zhao, Jianxin Cui, Shufen Wang, Sarah Lindley
Discharge of urban domestic pollution has risen sharply during China's extensive urbanization. Together with understanding the complexity of influencing factors underpinning this rise, it has become a pressing issue to estimate total discharge and illustrate its driving mechanism scientifically. This paper reports on the monitoring of discharge from 36 sampling sites in selected residential districts in the heavily polluted Taihu Basin, China. The data were used to estimate the total amount of discharge, to develop corresponding urban domestic pollutant discharge coefficients and to analyse associated spatial patterns...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shamsul Arifeen Khan Mamun, Rasheda Khanam, Mohammad Mafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: The Government of Bangladesh has a National Healthcare Strategy 2012-2032 that reiterates a goal to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by the year 2032. To achieve the goal, the government has set up a strategy to reduce the share of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure from the current 64% of the total household healthcare costs to 32% at the national level. As the majority of the people live in the rural areas, and the rural people are generally poor, the success of the strategy relies predominantly on any type of pro-poor healthcare policy and strategy...
March 1, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Brian E Pike, Gavin J Kilduff, Adam D Galinsky
Research has established that competing head to head against a rival boosts motivation and performance. The present research investigated whether rivalry can affect performance over time and in contests without rivals. We examined the long-term effects of rivalry through archival analyses of postseason performance in multiple high-stakes sports contexts: National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Men's Basketball and the major U.S. professional sports leagues: National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL)...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Olivan Da Silva Rabêlo, Andrea Sales Soares De Azevedo Melo
The study analyses the relationships between the main drivers of eco-innovation introduced by innovative industries, focused on cooperation strategy. Eco-innovation is analysed by means of a multidimensional identification strategy, showing the relationships between the independent variables and the variable of interest. The literature discussing environmental innovation is different from the one discussing other types of innovation inasmuch as it seeks to grasp its determinants and to mostly highlight the relevance of environmental regulation...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Technology
Eric Njuki, Boris E Bravo-Ureta, Christopher J O'Donnell
Random fluctuations in temperature and precipitation have substantial impacts on agricultural output. However, the contribution of these changing configurations in weather to total factor productivity (TFP) growth has not been addressed explicitly in econometric analyses. Thus, the key objective of this study is to quantify and to investigate the role of changing weather patterns in explaining yearly fluctuations in TFP. For this purpose, we define TFP to be a measure of total output divided by a measure of total input...
2018: PloS One
Kristina Ludwig, J-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg, Wolfgang Greiner
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a value set for EQ-5D-5L based on the societal preferences of the German population. As the first country to do so, the study design used the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 2.0 developed by the EuroQol Group, including a feedback module as internal validation and a quality control process that was missing in the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. METHODS: A representative sample of the general German population (n = 1158) was interviewed using a composite time trade-off and a discrete choice experiment under close quality control...
February 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
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