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Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Leon E Hugo, Natalie A Prow, Bing Tang, Greg Devine, Andreas Suhrbier
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. METHODS: Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody...
October 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Yu-Ming Wang, Jeng-Wei Lu, Chang-Chi Lin, Yuan-Fan Chin, Tzong-Yuan Wu, Liang-In Lin, Zheng-Zong Lai, Szu-Cheng Kuo, Yi-Jung Ho
Chikungunya disease results from an infection with the arbovirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms of CHIKV include fever and persistent, severe arthritis. In recent years, several antiviral drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials; however, no registered antivirals have been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS) system based on CHIKV 26S mediated insect cell fusion inhibition assay. Our screening system was able to search potential anti-CHIKV drugs in vitro...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Research
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jennifer L Uhrlaub, Vesna Pulko, Victor R DeFilippis, Rebecca Broeckel, Daniel N Streblow, Gary D Coleman, Byung S Park, John F Lindo, Ivan Vickers, Joshua J Anzinger, Janko Nikolich-Žugich
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging global pathogen with pandemic potential, which causes fever, rash and debilitating arthralgia. Older adults over 65 years are particularly susceptible to severe and chronic CHIKV disease (CHIKVD), accounting for >90% of all CHIKV-related deaths. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments available to limit chronic CHIKVD. Here we show that in old mice excessive, dysregulated TGFβ production during acute infection leads to a reduced immune response and subsequent chronic disease...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Pratyush Kumar Das, Laura Puusepp, Finny S Varghese, Age Utt, Tero Ahola, Dzmitry G Kananovich, Margus Lopp, Andres Merits, Mati Karelson
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, genus Alphavirus) is the causative agent of chikungunya fever. CHIKV replication can be inhibited by some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds; in contrast there is very little information about compounds specifically inhibiting the enzymatic activities of CHIKV replication proteins. These proteins are translated in the form of a nonstructural (ns) P1234 polyprotein precursor from the CHIKV positive-strand RNA genome. Active forms of replicase enzymes are generated using the autoproteolytic activity of nsP2...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Vikram Londhey, Sachee Agrawal, Nilima Vaidya, Seema Kini, J S Shastri, Sujatha Sunil
INTRODUCTION: There have been various studies from India describing the acute presentation and the long-term sequalae of Chikungunya (CHIKV) infection. However, there are very few studies discussing the Chikungunya-Dengue (DENV) co-infection from Western India. The present project was undertaken to study the clinical features of Dengue and Chikungunya co-infection and compare with Chikungunya mono-infection; correlate the clinical findings with seroprevalence and molecular identification of Dengue and Chikungunya using IgM ELISA and RTPCR...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
L A Gauri, Ashok Thaned, Q Fatima, H Yadav, A Singh, H P Jaipal, A Chaudhary
OBJECTIVE: To find out clinical and laboratory profile of patients of chikungunya outbreak in 2006 in Bikaner (North-West Rajasthan) and follow up of chikungunya patients for 5 years. METHODS: Study was conducted among 50 chikungunya patients. For this study the inclusion criteria was clinical presentation consistent with chikungunya virus infection (e.g. abrupt onset of fever and/or polyarthralgia) and laboratory confirmation of chikungunya virus infection by IgM-capture ELISA...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Julia von Oettingen, Philippe Larco, Frédérica Raphaël, Nancy Charles Larco, Marie Marcelle Cauvin, René Charles
The impact of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on diabetic patients (DPs) has not been described. We aimed to compare clinical features of CHIKV infection in DPs and nondiabetic patients (NDPs), and to evaluate its effects on glycemic control among DP. We recorded clinical information and, in DP, glycemic control. Forty-six DPs and 53 NDPs aged ≥ 20 years living in Haiti, with acute CHIKV infection, were studied. Diabetes duration was 7.1 ± 6.1 years. The most common acute CHIKV clinical manifestations were arthralgia (100...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dharmendra Tyagi, L A Gauri, Q Fatima, Rohitash Khularia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Vinod Ravindran, George Alias
In a proportion of patients, chikungunya arthritis (CA) might run into a chronic persistent phase. The treatment for this phase is not very clear. In this randomized parallel group open label study of 24 weeks duration, we evaluated the efficacy of DMARD combination in persistent CA. Consecutive 139 patients with persistent CA (persistent arthritis for >1 year after the chikungunya fever either in 2008 or 2009 fulfilling epidemiological criteria for CA) were screened. Of these patients who were already taking hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and had active arthritis were randomized to receive either fixed-dose combination therapy (methotrexate 15 mg/day, sulfasalazine 1 g/day, and HCQ 400 mg/day) or continue with HCQ 400 mg/day (dose optimized) monotherapy...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
D Resiere
Martinique was accepted as an associate member by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean State since February 2015. This membership constitutes a major asset in bringing Martiniquais closer to the other Caribbean populations and should play a key role as it relates to regional cooperation especially in the domain of healthcare. Martinique and several Caribbean countries share common health issues such as; dengue, chikungunya virus, Zika Virus leptospirosis, snakebite, severe cardiovascular diseases (CVD), HTLV-1, sickle cell diseases and so on...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human beings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Pranav Patel, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Oumar Faye, Pauline Prüger, Marco Kaiser, Sasikanya Thaloengsok, Sukathida Ubol, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Frank T Hufert, Amadou A Sall, Manfred Weidmann, Matthias Niedrig
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus currently transmitted in about 60 countries. CHIKV causes acute flu-like symptoms and in many cases prolonged musculoskeletal and joint pain. Detection of the infection is mostly done using RT-RCR or ELISA, which are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of the CHIKV was developed...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Caterina Rizzo, Christian Napoli, Giulietta Venturi, Simonetta Pupella, Letizia Lombardini, Paolo Calistri, Federica Monaco, Roberto Cagarelli, Paola Angelini, Romeo Bellini, Marco Tamba, Alessandra Piatti, Francesca Russo, Giorgio Palù, Mario Chiari, Antonio Lavazza, Antonino Bella
In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i...
September 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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