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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#2
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213049/impaired-nk-cell-functionality-and-increased-tnf-%C3%AE-production-as-biomarkers-of-chronic-chikungunya-arthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Subrat Thanapati, Mohini Ganu, Prashant Giri, Shruti Kulkarni, Meenal Sharma, Prasad Babar, Ashok Ganu, Anuradha S Tripathy
The chronic chikungunya arthritis symptoms closely mimic the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms, thus making it difficult to distinguish between these two clinical entities. The current comparative study characterizes NK (CD3(-)CD56(+)) and NK-like T (CD3(+)CD56(+)) cell responses in patients with chronic chikungunya arthritis and RA. Phenotype and functions of NK and NK-like T cells repertoire were assessed in 56 chronic chikungunya arthritis, 26 RA patients and 82 controls using flow cytometry. TNF-α and IFN-γ-secreting NK-like T cells were high in both chronic arthritis patients than in controls...
February 14, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212349/household-dengue-prevention-interventions-expenditures-and-barriers-to-aedes-aegypti-control-in-machala-ecuador
#4
Naveed Heydari, David A Larsen, Marco Neira, Efraín Beltrán Ayala, Prissila Fernandez, Jefferson Adrian, Rosemary Rochford, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208912/chikungunya-and-myositis-a-case-report-in-brazil
#5
Hugo Andre Martins, Silvya Nery Bernardino, Camila Cordeiro Santos, Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas
Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is a well-described alpha virus that causes infection in humans. The main symptoms are fever, rash and arthralgia and recently neurological disorders have been reported, in particular encephalitis. It is uncertain whether neurological symptoms are due to persistence of the virus or an ineffective immune response. One rarely described neurologic syndrome is myositis. In this paper, we report the case of a 19-year-old woman with mental confusion and aggressiveness two days after complaints of fever and arthralgia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208856/seroprevalence-of-common-viral-diseases-a-hospital-based-study-from-amritsar-india
#6
Kanwardeep Singh, Shailpreet K Sidhu, Pushpa Devi, Manpreet Kaur, Maninder Kaur, Nachhatarjit Singh
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of published data on epidemiology of the viral infections in Punjab, India. The Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) located at Government Medical College (GMC), Amritsar conducts the initial diagnosis of common viruses circulating in the region. AIM: To report the seroprevalence of various viral diseases in Amritsar and neighboring districts of Punjab along with the demographic and geographical data of the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood sera samples from a total of 5781 patients suspected of various viral diseases (chikungunya, dengue, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, herpes simplex-1 or herpes simplex-2) were received at VRDL, GMC, Amritsar from January 2015 to April 2016 and a cross sectional study was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207896/rna-seq-analysis-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-and-identification-of-granzyme-a-as-a-major-promoter-of-arthritic-inflammation
#7
Jane A C Wilson, Natalie A Prow, Wayne A Schroder, Jonathan J Ellis, Helen E Cumming, Linden J Gearing, Yee Suan Poo, Adam Taylor, Paul J Hertzog, Francesca Di Giallonardo, Linda Hueston, Roger Le Grand, Bing Tang, Thuy T Le, Joy Gardner, Suresh Mahalingam, Pierre Roques, Phillip I Bird, Andreas Suhrbier
: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus causing epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease. Herein we describe a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of feet and lymph nodes at peak viraemia (day 2 post infection), acute arthritis (day 7) and chronic disease (day 30) in the CHIKV adult wild-type mouse model. Genes previously shown to be up-regulated in CHIKV patients were also up-regulated in the mouse model. CHIKV sequence information was also obtained with up to ≈8% of the reads mapping to the viral genome; however, no adaptive viral genome changes were apparent...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207838/viperin-interaction-with-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-limits-viperin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-interferon-response-in-macrophages
#8
Jia Shee Hee, Peter Cresswell
Viperin is an antiviral protein that is upregulated by interferons and by ligands for a variety of innate immune receptors. It possesses diverse capabilities and functions in an array of viral infections. Studies have shown that it appears to be particularly important in defence against RNA viruses, such as West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses, although the specific mechanisms involved are not well understood at the molecular level. Here we identify the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein MAVS as a novel viperin interaction partner, most likely in mitochondria associated membranes, and characterize a more central, overarching role of viperin as a negative regulator of the interferon response, an ability that can be regulated by the viperin-MAVS interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207332/leaking-containers-success-and-failure-in-controlling-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-in-brazil
#9
Ilana Löwy
In 1958, the Pan American Health Organization declared that Brazil had successfully eradicated the mosquito Aedes aegypti, responsible for the transmission of yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. Yet in 2016 the Brazilian minister of health described the situation of dengue fever as "catastrophic." Discussing the recent epidemic of Zika virus, which amplified the crisis produced by the persistence of dengue fever, Brazil's president declared in January 2016 that "we are in the process of losing the war against the mosquito Aedes aegypti...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206868/mosquito-vector-biology-and-control-in-latin-america-a-26th-symposium
#10
Lee W Cohnstaedt, Catalina Alfonso-Para, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas
The 26th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMCA in Savannah, GA, in February 2016. The principal objective, as for the previous 25 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 19 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and the USA...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206867/mosquito-biology-and-mosquito-borne-disease-awareness-among-island-communities-in-malaysia
#11
Aziz Shafie, Muhammad Aidil Roslan, Romano Ngui, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman
Mosquito-borne diseases have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past decades. In Malaysia, one finds several important mosquito-borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Mosquito surveillance and control programs are the most effective way of detecting and controlling mosquito-borne diseases, but these programs are less effective without an aware and well-informed general public. In 2014 we used a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of awareness of basic mosquito biology and mosquito-borne diseases in 6 villages, Kampung Masjid, Kampung Teluk Gedung, Kampung Teluk Dalam, Kampung Ujung Kelawai, Kampung Sungai Pinang Besar, and Kampung Sungai Pinang Kechil on Pangkor Island, Malaysia...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202915/acute-inflammatory-arthritis-potential-therapies-for-chikungunya-arthritis
#12
Jessica McHugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199323/a-large-scale-biorational-approach-using-bacillus-thuringiensis-israeliensis-strain-am65-52-for-managing-aedes-aegypti-populations-to-prevent-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-transmission
#13
Catherine A Pruszynski, Lawrence J Hribar, Robert Mickle, Andrea L Leal
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194661/guillain-barre-syndrome-complicating-chikungunya-virus-infection
#14
Ayush Agarwal, Deepti Vibha, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla, Kameshwar Prasad
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193291/meteorological-variables-and-mosquito-monitoring-are-good-predictors-for-infestation-trends-of-aedes-aegypti-the-vector-of-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika
#15
Danielle Andreza da Cruz Ferreira, Carolin Marlen Degener, Cecilia de Almeida Marques-Toledo, Maria Mercedes Bendati, Liane Oliveira Fetzer, Camila P Teixeira, Álvaro Eduardo Eiras
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for arboviroses and widely distributed throughout the world. Climatic factors can influence vector population dynamics and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of an Ae. aegypti population and dengue cases and to investigate the relationship between meteorological variables and mosquito infestation. METHODS: We monitored and analyzed the adult female Ae...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193163/prevalence-and-clinical-presentation-of-rickettsia-coxiella-leptospira-bartonella-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-among-hospital-based-febrile-patients-from-december-2008-to-november-2009-in-bangladesh
#16
Labib Imran Faruque, Rashid Uz Zaman, Emily S Gurley, Robert F Massung, A S M Alamgir, Renee L Galloway, Ann M Powers, Ying Bai, Michael Kosoy, William L Nicholson, Mahmudur Rahman, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS: Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192520/holding-back-the-tiger-successful-control-program-protects-australia-from-aedes-albopictus-expansion
#17
Mutizwa Odwell Muzari, Gregor Devine, Joseph Davis, Bruce Crunkhorn, Andrew van den Hurk, Peter Whelan, Richard Russell, James Walker, Peter Horne, Gerhard Ehlers, Scott Ritchie
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. Established populations of this species were first recognised in Australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the Torres Strait, between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea. A control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait. We describe the evolution of management strategies that provide a template for Ae...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192064/aedes-borne-virus-mosquito-interactions-mass-spectrometry-strategies-and-findings
#18
Victoria Pando-Robles, Cesar V Batista
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
February 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191786/quantifying-the-potential-pathways-and-locations-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-entry-into-the-united-states
#19
A J Golnar, R C Kading, G L Hamer
The global invasion of West Nile virus, chikungunya virus and Zika virus in the past two decades suggests an increasing rate of mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) dispersal. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus identified as a high-consequence threat to the United States (USA) because of the severe economic and health consequences associated with disease. Numerous studies demonstrate that the USA is receptive to RVFV transmission based on the widespread presence of competent mosquito species and vertebrate species...
February 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188933/zika-virus-shedding-in-human-milk-during-lactation-an-unlikely-source-of-infecton
#20
Marta G Cavalcanti, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa S Santana, Eduardo Scarlatelli Pimenta, José M Peralta
Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through non-mosquito-dependent route has become increasingly important after reports of sexual transmission of ZIKV. Breastfeeding is a potential means of ZIKV transmission, but the data is still limited. Four mothers with laboratory-proven infection were reported. No disease evolved in three of the breastfed babies despite detectable maternal viremia and viruria, the presence of viral RNA shedding, and the isolation of infective particles in one milk sample. However, in one infant of a ZIKV-infected mother, fever and rash proved to be related to Chikungunya virus infection...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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