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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161084/mitochondrial-dysfunction-linking-obesity-and-asthma
#1
Naveen K Bhatraju, Anurag Agrawal
The bidirectional epidemiological association between asthma and obesity is well known. Recent evidence suggests that there is an intersection of the pathophysiological molecular pathways leading to either obesity or asthma, at the level of mitochondria. This is not surprising, because mitochondria, beyond their roles as the metabolic powerhouses of the cell, serve as sensors of threats, regulators of stress signaling, and effectors of cytotoxicity. Reduced mitochondrial function and low metabolic activity are well-recognized features of obesity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161075/metabolic-dysregulation-systemic-inflammation-and-pediatric-obesity-related-asthma
#2
Deepa Rastogi, Fernando Holguin
Obesity-related asthma is a distinct pediatric asthma phenotype. It is associated with higher disease burden, lower pulmonary function, and suboptimal response to current asthma medications. Recent studies have made inroads into elucidating its pathophysiology. Systemic immune responses in obese children with asthma are skewed to a nonatopic T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) pattern that correlates with pulmonary function deficits. The prevalence of metabolic dysregulation is also higher among obese children with asthma than among normal-weight children with asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160833/taxon-and-site-specific-melatonin-catabolism
#3
REVIEW
Rüdiger Hardeland
Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160327/imbalance-in-amino-acid-and-purine-metabolisms-at-the-hypothalamus-in-inflammation-associated-depression-by-gc-ms
#4
Yu Wu, Yonghong Li, Yanjuan Jia, Chaojun Wei, Hui Xu, Rui Guo, Yuanting Li, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Xiaoling Gao
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a key factor in depression; increasing evidence highlights neuroinflammation abnormalities as well as imbalances in neurotransmitters and the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in the hypothalamus of depressed patients with neuroinflammation. Herein, taking advantage of the well-established lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression mouse model, we measured metabolic changes in the hypothalamus using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159529/plasma-p-cresol-lowering-effect-of-sevelamer-in-non-dialysis-ckd-patients-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Dario Bruzzese, Lucia Grumetto, Cristina Marchetiello, Maria Amicone, Michele Andreucci, Bruna Guida, Davide Passaretti, Giacomo Russo, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of p-cresol, a metabolic product of aromatic amino acids generated by intestinal microbiome, increases the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded. It has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer (SEV) sequesters p-cresol in vitro, while in vivo studies on dialysis patients showed controversial results. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels in non-dialysis CKD patients...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159325/role-of-aramchol-in-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#6
Marta Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta Varela-Rey, David Fernández-Ramos, Ibon Martínez-Arranz, Teresa C Delgado, Jorge Simon, Virginia Gutiérrez-de Juan, Laura delaCruz-Villar, Mikel Azkargorta, José L Lavin, Rebeca Mayo, Sebastiaan M Van Liempd, Igor Aurrekoetxea, Xabier Buqué, Donatella Delle Cave, Arantza Peña, Juan Rodríguez-Cuesta, Ana M Aransay, Felix Elortza, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Patricia Aspichueta, Liat Hayardeny, Mazen Noureddin, Arun J Sanyal, Cristina Alonso, Juan Anguita, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH...
November 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158586/insights-into-gene-expression-profiles-induced-by-socs3-depletion-in-keratinocytes
#7
Archana Bajpai, Takashi Ishii, Kosuke Miyauchi, Vipul Gupta, Yuka Nishio-Masaike, Yuki Shimizu-Yoshida, Masato Kubo, Hiroaki Kitano
Specific deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) in keratinocytes can cause severe skin inflammation with infiltration of immune cells. The molecular mechanisms and key regulatory pathways involved in these processes remain elusive. To investigate the role of Socs3 in keratinocytes, we generated and analyzed global RNA-Seq profiles from Socs3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice of two different ages (2 and 10 weeks). Over 400 genes were significantly regulated at both time points. Samples from 2-week-old mice exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in keratin-related functions and up-regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158052/baicalin-attenuates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-suppressing-key-regulators-of-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#8
Junli Zhang, Haiming Zhang, Xiaoling Deng, Ning Zhang, Beibei Liu, Shengliang Xin, Guixin Li, Keshu Xu
AIMS: Baicalin (BA), an active flavonoid compound originating from the herb of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to exert anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant effects in liver diseases. However, the potential role of BA in the regulation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains elusive. In this study, we newly explored the hepatoprotective effects of BA in MCD diet-induced NASH by ameliorating hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: NASH was induced in mice fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4weeks...
November 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157600/receptor-structure-based-discovery-of-non-metabolite-agonists-for-the-succinate-receptor-gpr91
#9
Mette Trauelsen, Elisabeth Rexen Ulven, Siv A Hjorth, Matjaz Brvar, Claudia Monaco, Thomas M Frimurer, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Besides functioning as an intracellular metabolite, succinate acts as a stress-induced extracellular signal through activation of GPR91 (SUCNR1) for which we lack suitable pharmacological tools. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we first determined that the cis conformation of the succinate backbone is preferred and that certain backbone modifications are allowed for GPR91 activation. Through receptor modeling over the X-ray structure of the closely related P2Y1 receptor, we discovered that the binding pocket is partly occupied by a segment of an extracellular loop and that succinate therefore binds in a very different mode than generally believed...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156929/-role-of-the-egg-in-the-diet-of-athletes-and-physically-active-people
#10
Ana M López Sobaler, Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete, Rosa M Ortega
The practice of sport and medium-high intensity exercise increases the needs of energy and nutrients. Proper nutrition is very important for reaching the maximum performance, reducing the risk of injury, and ensuring the best recovery. It must also ensure the achievement of optimum nutritional status and prevent health problems at the present and in the future time. Eggs are a very nutritious food that can help athletes to achieve a correct diet. It contains proteins of high quality and bioavailability, a profile of fatty acids very favorable from the cardiovascular point of view, and vitamins and minerals involved in energy and protein metabolism, in defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, in cell growth and tissue repair...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156912/genetic-biomarkers-associated-with-pain-flare-and-dexamethasone-response-following-palliative-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-painful-bone-metastases
#11
Anthony Furfari, Bo Angela Wan, Keyue Ding, Andrew Wong, Liting Zhu, Andrea Bezjak, Rebecca Wong, Carolyn F Wilson, Carlo DeAngelis, Azar Azad, Edward Chow, George S Charames
BACKGROUND: In patients who receive palliative radiation therapy (RT) for painful bone metastases, 40% experience a transient increase in pain known as a pain flare. Prophylactic dexamethasone has been shown to reduce pain flare incidence to 25%. We aimed to identify DNA biomarkers associated with pain flare and dexamethasone response. METHODS: Daily pain levels were recorded by 81 patients who received a single 8 Gy RT for painful bone metastases, of which 50 also received prophylactic dexamethasone...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156910/genetic-biomarkers-associated-with-changes-in-quality-of-life-and-pain-following-palliative-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-bone-metastases
#12
Anthony Furfari, Bo Angela Wan, Keyue Ding, Andrew Wong, Liting Zhu, Andrea Bezjak, Rebecca Wong, Carolyn F Wilson, Carlo DeAngelis, Azar Azad, Edward Chow, George S Charames
BACKGROUND: Patients with bone metastases undergoing palliative radiation therapy (RT) may experience changes in both the functional and symptomatic aspects of quality of life (QOL). The European Organization of Cancer Research and Treatment (EORTC) QOL Questionnaire Core-15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) is a validated questionnaire employed to assess QOL specifically in palliative patients. Our study aimed to identify single-nucleotide variant (SNV) genetic biomarkers associated with changes in QOL and pain...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156622/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#13
REVIEW
Anastasia Papagrigoraki, Martina Maurelli, Micol Del Giglio, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely oxidant and biologically reactive compounds, which form through oxidation of sugars, lipids and amino acids to create aldehydes that bind covalently to proteins. AGEs formation and accumulation in human tissues is a physiological process during ageing but it is enhanced in case of persistent hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative or carbonyl stress, which are common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Exogenous AGEs may derive from foods, UV irradiation and cigarette smoking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#14
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156528/actein-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-by-regulation-of-insulin-and-leptin-resistant
#15
Hong-Jun Chen, Jin Liu
Insulin and leptin resistance are highly involved in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Presently, no approved treatment is available. Actein is isolated from the rthizomes of Cimicifuga foetida, a triterpene glycoside, exhibiting important biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant activity. However, its effects on metabolic syndrome are poorly understood. The aims of the study were mainly to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin and leptin resistance, and lipogenic action of actein in high fat diet-fed mice...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156519/in-vivo-assessment-of-the-osteo-protective-effects-of-eugenol-in-alveolar-bone-tissues
#16
Hatem M Abuohashish, Dina A Khairy, Maha M Abdelsalam, Ahmed Alsayyah, Mohammed M Ahmed, Salim S Al-Rejaie
Estrogen deficiency following menopausal provokes alveolar bone loss, remodeling and inflammation. Eugenol is a phenolic compound with wide dental applications and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the potential protective role of eugenol against alveolar bone deformities was investigated in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. Two doses of eugenol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/d) were administered to OVX animals for 12 weeks. In Serum, markers of bone metabolism and pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated using ELISA...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156363/quality-of-life-is-associated-with-chronic-inflammation-in-depression-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
M Faugere, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Faget-Agius, C Lançon, M Cermolacce, R Richieri
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in depression remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) (physical and mental health, assessed by the SF-36) and chronic inflammation assessed using C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with current major depressive disorder...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155868/tocilizumab-potentially-prevents-bone-loss-in-patients-with-anticitrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wen-Nan Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Jun-Peng Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Ching-Tsai Lin, Wei-Ting Hung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Tsu-Yi Hsieh, Yi-Hsing Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains unclear. This prospective study recruited patients with active RA with inadequate response to methotrexate or biologics. BMD was measured before and after 2-year tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155496/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155324/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-irbesartan-reduces-stress-induced-intestinal-inflammation-via-at1a-signaling-and-ace2-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#20
Maimaiti Yisireyili, Yasuhiro Uchida, Koji Yamamoto, Takayuki Nakayama, Xian Wu Cheng, Tadashi Matsushita, Shigeo Nakamura, Toyoaki Murohara, Kyosuke Takeshita
Stress is associated with pathophysiology of both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II)/Ang II type I receptor axis (AT1). Inhibition of the classical RAS pathway is also involved in upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which activates the Ang-(1-7) /Mas pathway to counteract inflammatory signaling and acts as a partner of the amino acid transporter, B(0)AT-1, to absorb tryptophan for regulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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