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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197754/differences-in-ocular-findings-in-two-siblings-one-with-complete-and-other-with-incomplete-achromatopsia
#1
Shinji Ueno, Ayami Nakanishi, Akira Sayo, Taro Kominami, Yasuki Ito, Takaaki Hayashi, Kazushige Tsunoda, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: Patients with complete achromatopsia (ACHM) lack cone function, and patients with incomplete ACHM have relatively good visual acuity with residual color vision. The pathological mechanism(s) underlying incomplete ACHM has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathophysiology of ACHM in two siblings: one with complete ACHM and the other with incomplete ACHM. METHODS: The medical charts of the two siblings were reviewed. RESULTS: The sibling with incomplete ACHM had decimal visual acuities that ranged from 0...
February 14, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195621/histopathologic-analysis-of-the-posterior-segment-for-terson-s-syndrome-the-giobiopsy-technique
#2
Jerome V Giovinazzo, Vincent J Giovinazzo, Codrin Iacob, Richard B Rosen, Paul T Finger
The purpose of this study was to report on a case of Terson's syndrome (TS) using a novel instrument and technique to harvest posterior pole pathology from a postmortem eye. A modified ocular clamp was used to remove the posterior pole from the postmortem enucleated eye. Gross photographs were taken and an ocular sample of the posterior pole was sent to The New York Eye and Ear Pathology Laboratory. TS was identified from gross pathology and histologic examinations. The case history was consistent with that diagnosis...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192591/lasik-enhancement-clinical-and-surgical-management
#3
Majid Moshirfar, Naz Jehangir, Carlton R Fenzl, Michael McCaughey
PURPOSE: To review refractive regression and current therapeutic options for patients who have residual refractive error after LASIK. METHODS: An extensive literature search using PubMed was performed for terms such as "LASIK," "PRK," "enhancement," "overcorrection," "undercorrection," "re-lift," "mini-flap," and related terms. RESULTS: The presence of residual refractive error following LASIK is a challenging situation. After excluding anatomical causes (eg, ocular surface disease, cataract, and macular pathology) and intraoperative flap complications, evaluation of the residual stromal bed must be performed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188728/trabeculectomy-bleb-associated-infections
#4
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, Shane J Havens, L Jay Katz
Trabeculectomy with antimetabolites is the most commonly performed surgery worldwide for glaucoma patients with progressive optic nerve head injury and visual field loss despite maximum pharmacologic intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapy. Trabeculectomy bleb-associated infections (BAI) remain one of the most feared early and long-term complications of trabeculectomy surgery because of their poor prognosis and variable response to antimicrobial therapy. Several studies have evaluated how surgical technique, conjunctival incision location, comorbid ocular pathology, concurrent medication use, and bleb morphology affect the risk of BAI...
February 7, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187469/-intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-an-overview-of-current-clinical-data-for-the-application-in-the-anterior-and-posterior-segments
#5
A J Augustin
Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) represents another milestone in ocular imaging technologies. Now, for the first time, high resolution OCT images are available not only pre- or postoperatively, but also intraoperatively. In recent years, there have been significant advances in iOCT technology - from hand-held probes and mounted systems towards iOCT systems which are fully integrated into the surgical microscope and which provide seamless integration into the workflow. These systems offer high-resolution, intraoperative OCT scans in real-time and provide additional information on microstructures of the retina or the cornea...
February 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176024/hyperosmotic-stress-induces-atp-release-and-changes-in-p2x7-receptor-levels-in-human-corneal-and-conjunctival-epithelial-cells
#6
Ana Guzman-Aranguez, María J Pérez de Lara, Jesús Pintor
Tear hyperosmolarity is a key event in dry eye. In this work, we analyzed whether hyperosmolar challenge induces ATP release on the ocular surface. Moreover, as extracellular ATP can activate P2X7 receptor, the changes in P2X7 protein levels and its involvement in pathological process triggered by hypertonic treatment were also examined. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that ATP levels significantly increased in human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells exposed to hyperosmotic challenge as well as in dry eye patients as compared to control subjects...
February 7, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165827/clinical-characteristics-treatment-and-outcome-of-trochleitis
#7
Elena Jarrín, Ángel García-García, Francisco J Hurtado-Ceña, José M Rodríguez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome of patients with trochleitis in our population. METHODS: Retrospective review of 59 patients diagnosed with trochleitis in the Ramon y Cajal Hospital Emergency Service between 2003 and 2010. Demographic data and trochleitis features were described. The relationship between outcome and treatment options was analyzed by SPSS. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence rate of trochleitis in our area was 12 per 100,000...
February 6, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164597/visual-system-homeobox-1-vsx1-gene-analysis-in-keratoconus-design-of-specific-primers-and-dna-amplification-protocols-for-accurate-molecular-characterization
#8
Jun B Ng, Rozaida Y Y Poh, Kenneth R Lee, Visvaraja Subrayan, Jenny P Deva, Amy Y L Lau, Jin A M A Tan
BACKGROUND: Keratoconus is an ocular degeneration characterized by the thinning of corneal stroma that may lead to varying degrees of myopia and visual impairment. Genetic factors have been reported in the pathology of keratoconus where Asians have a higher incidence, earlier onset, and undergo earlier corneal grafts compared to Caucasians. The visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene forms part of a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor which is responsible for ocular development...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163929/25-gauge-vitrectomy-in-open-eye-injury-with-retained-foreign-body
#9
G Sborgia, N Recchimurzo, A Niro, L Sborgia, A Sborgia, G Alessio
Purpose. Ocular trauma with retained foreign body is an important cause of visual impairment in working-age population. Clinical status impacts on the timing and planning of surgery. In the last year small gauge vitrectomy has become safer and more efficient, extending the range of pathologies successfully treated. Aims. To evaluate the safety and outcomes in patients with open eye injury with retained foreign body that underwent early 25-gauge vitrectomy. Methods. In this retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, we performed 25-gauge vitrectomy on 10 patients affected by open globe injuries with retained foreign body, over 3 years...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162199/-relation-between-ultrasonographic-characteristics-of-pathologic-myopia-posterior-staphyloma-and-retinoschisis
#10
Q Liu, S Y Li, X Chen
Objective: To study the ultrasonographic characteristics of pathologic myopia posterior staphyloma and the relation with retinoschisis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Eighty-seven eyes of 66 pathologic myopia patients with posterior staphyloma were included. Staphyloma morphology and anteroposterior axis of the eyeball were observed by B-scan ultrasonography. Optical coherence tomography was used to explore the retinoschisis. Results: Arc-shaped (10.35%), cone-shaped (22.99%), wedge-shaped (33.33%) and rectangle-shaped (33...
January 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149657/evaluation-of-olfactory-function-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#11
Lütfi Akyol, Emre Günbey, Rıfat Karlı, Soner Önem, Metin Özgen, Mehmet Sayarlıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing type of vasculitis of unknown etiology and is characterized by oral and urogenital ulcers and ocular inflammation with cutaneous, musculoskeletal, vascular, and nervous system manifestations. Few cases involving the nasal mucosa have been reported in the literature, and the true prevalence of BD remains unknown. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement, but sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of BD on olfaction in adults...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145942/clinical-pathologic-correlation-of-sarcoidosis-associated-multifocal-chorioretinitis-in-an-elderly-patient
#12
Mohamed G A Saleh, John L OʼDonnell, Ronald P Davis, David Wilson, Phoebe Lin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To describe a case of histopathologic clinical correlation of sarcoidosis-related multifocal chorioretinitis in an elderly individual. METHODS: This is a single case report and review of the pertinent literature. A 72-year-old white woman with a history of asthma was referred with bilateral asymmetric low-grade chronic panuveitis with advancing peripheral punched-out chorioretinal lesions despite systemic corticosteroid treatment. RESULTS: Coalescent chorioretinal punched-out lesions on fundus examination in the more severely affected right eye did not respond to corticosteroid treatment, and the refractory nature resulted in a suspicion of intraocular lymphoma despite a previous inconclusive diagnostic vitrectomy result...
January 31, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138165/aetiology-of-headache-in-clinical-ophthalmic-practice-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-karachi
#13
Uzma Fasih, Arshad Shaikh, Nisar Shaikh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiology of headache in patients seen for an ocular examination. METHODS: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2014, and comprised patients with headache. Patients were registered through non-probability consecutive sampling technique. A predesigned proforma was used to collect data. Complete ocular examination and investigations were conducted along with neuro-ophthalmological examination...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135745/-diagnostic-management-of-exophthalmos
#14
A Klingenstein, C Hintschich
Exophthalmos is a common and important symptom in orbital consultation. It can be either uni- or bilateral. A wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases has to be considered and evaluated for differential diagnosis, in order to maintain complete ocular function and to lead the patient to adequate therapy. Exophthalmos can be accompanied by variable symptoms, ranging from neurogenic or myogenic to corneal alterations. Symptoms at presentation depend on the underlying disease and may manifest systemically...
January 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132878/emerging-strategies-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-proceedings-of-the-ocean-group-meeting
#15
Gerd Geerling, Christophe Baudouin, Pasquale Aragona, Maurizio Rolando, Kostas G Boboridis, José M Benítez-Del-Castillo, Yonca A Akova, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Marc Labetoulle, Martin Steinhoff, Elisabeth M Messmer
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common and chronic disorder that has a significant adverse impact on patients' quality of life. It is a leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease (DED), as meibomian glands play an important role in providing lipids to the tear film, which helps to retard the evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. MGD is also often present in conjunction with primary aqueous-deficient DED. Obstructive MGD, the most commonly observed type of MGD, is the main ocus of this article...
January 26, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125844/proteomic-analysis-of-the-bovine-and-human-ciliary-zonule
#16
Alicia De Maria, Phillip A Wilmarth, Larry L David, Steven Bassnett
Purpose: The zonule of Zinn (ciliary zonule) is a system of fibers that centers the crystalline lens on the optical axis of the eye. Mutations in zonule components underlie syndromic conditions associated with a broad range of ocular pathologies, including microspherophakia and ectopia lentis. Here, we used HPLC-mass spectrometry to determine the molecular composition of the zonule. Methods: Tryptic digests of human and bovine zonular samples were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122462/current-treatment-strategies-and-nanocarrier-based-approaches-for-the-treatment-and-management-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Kousalya Selvaraj, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Uday K Barauah, Vanka Ravisankar, Gifty M Jojo
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in all working age groups which contribute to patient's quality of life. Considering the anatomy and physiology of barriers in the eye, the treatment and management of pathologic ocular neovascularization in the posterior segment of the eye in DR is a challenging task. The current and emerging treatment strategies are discussed in this review for better understanding and treatment of the DR. Challenges in conventional therapy and recent developments in nanocarrier based approaches (polymeric, lipid nanoparticles, liposomes and dendrimers) and their advantages in targeting ocular tissues were also discussed in this review...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115829/ocular-melanoma-when-you-have-seen-one-you-have-not-seen-them-all-a-clinical-outcome-study-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-database-1973-2012
#18
Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Sneha Shrestha, Christine Sm Lau, Ronald S Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Ocular melanoma (OM) comprises <5% of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common subtype of OM, while conjunctival melanoma (CM) is rare and differs significantly from UM. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a large cohort of OM patients to differentiate demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors between these two neoplasms, which may affect treatment and outcomes. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2012) was used to extract demographic and clinical data on 8,165 OM patients (92...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114593/murine-autoimmune-optic-neuritis-is-not-phenotypically-altered-by-the-retinal-degeneration-8-mutation
#19
Aleksandar Stojic, Richard Fairless, Susanne C Beck, Vithiyanjali Sothilingam, Petra Weissgerber, Ulrich Wissenbach, Valerie Gimmy, Mathias W Seeliger, Veit Flockerzi, Ricarda Diem, Sarah K Williams
Purpose: To investigate whether the presence of the retinal degeneration 8 (rd8) mutation in C57BL/6 mice alters the phenotype of autoimmune optic neuritis (AON). Methods: C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice were genotyped for the rd8 mutation and fundus analyses and examination of retinal layer morphology were performed in vivo by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. Visual function was assessed by recording electroretinographs, and visual evoked potentials and retinae and optic nerves were assessed histopathologically...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106626/unusual-serous-retinal-detachment-in-a-patient-with-waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia-a-case-report
#20
Albert B Lin, Alan T Sheyman, Lee M Jampol
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report an unusual appearance of severe bilateral serous detachments in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. METHODS: A case report of a Fifty-six-year-old female patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. RESULTS: A patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with serous retinal detachments at the time of diagnosis with Waldenstrom. The patient's IgM levels remained abnormally elevated in the initial stages of her disease course, leading to dramatic ocular findings and images on optical coherence tomography...
January 18, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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