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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905343/unilateral-hemorrhagic-maculopathy-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
Manish Tandon, Abhishek Gupta, Priyanka Singh, Gnanavelu N Subathra
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. We report a case of HFD in an immunocompetent adult male with unilateral ocular involvement presenting as hemorrhagic maculopathy and its management with complete anatomical and functional recovery...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#2
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898724/risk-factors-for-motor-vehicle-collisions-in-patients-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Kenya Yuki, Sachiko Awano-Tanabe, Takeshi Ono, Daisuke Shiba, Hiroshi Murata, Ryo Asaoka, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence rate of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in patients with no ocular pathology other than primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and determine the putative risk factors for MVCs in this group of patients. METHODS: We designed a prospective cohort study across three centers utilizing a consecutive sampling method to identify all patients with POAG between the ages of 40 and 80 years old. Patients with glaucoma were consecutively screened for eligibility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896533/characteristics-of-higher-order-aberrations-and-anterior-segment-tomography-in-patients-with-pathologic-myopia
#4
Kaori Kasahara, Naoyuki Maeda, Takashi Fujikado, Makoto Tomita, Muka Moriyama, Mutsumi Fuchihata, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the characteristics in the higher-order aberrations and anterior segment tomography in patients with pathologic myopia. METHODS: One hundred and twelve consecutive highly myopic patients (mean age 43.4 ± 9.3 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≥8 D and an axial length ≥26.5 mm) were studied. Thirty-seven emmetropic individuals (mean age 37.0 ± 14.5 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≤ ±1 D) were analyzed as controls...
November 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896297/a-mouse-model-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-ocular-disease
#5
Nicole M Broekema, Inna V Larsen, Erika S Naruzawa, Marcin Filutowicz, Aaron W Kolb, Leandro B C Teixeira, Curtis R Brandt
Staphylococcus aureus infection of the cornea is a significant threat to vision. The percentage of bacterial isolates resistant to antibiotics is increasing as is the percentage of infections caused by methicillin resistant isolates. There is a critical need for additional therapeutic approaches and their development will require the use of animal models to test efficacy. Two mouse models of S. aureus keratitis have been described but only quantified stromal keratitis (corneal clouding and perforation). We have extended these models using the methicillin resistant S...
November 2016: Journal of Ocular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893098/vitreal-cytokine-profile-differences-between-eyes-with-epiretinal-membranes-or-macular-holes
#6
Souska Zandi, Christoph Tappeiner, Isabel B Pfister, Alain Despont, Robert Rieben, Justus G Garweg
Purpose: Cytokines play an important role in cell signaling in inflammatory and repair processes, also within the posterior segment of the eye. These molecules are thus implicated in the pathophysiology of several vitreoretinal diseases. In the present study, we compared vitreal cytokine profiles in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs) and idiopathic full-thickness macular holes (MHs) without epiretinal membranes. Methods: Native vitreal humor was collected during elective pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of macular pathologies (group 1: ERM; group 2: MH) from patients without any other ocular or systemic disease...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893004/genetic-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-the-ganglion-cell-complex-in-a-healthy-aging-british-cohort
#7
Edward Bloch, Ekaterina Yonova-Doing, Eneh Jones-Odeh, Katie M Williams, Diana Kozareva, Christopher J Hammond
Importance: Measurement of ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness may be more sensitive than current methods for glaucoma diagnosis and research. However, little is known about the factors influencing GCC thickness in the general population. Objectives: To investigate the heritability of and factors associated with GCC thickness in a healthy aging population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional twin study was conducted from August 27, 2014, to March 31, 2016, among 1657 participants of white British ancestry from the TwinsUK study cohort without ocular pathologic conditions...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890826/relevant-variations-and-neuroprotecive-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-a-rat-glaucoma-model
#8
Shouyue Huang, Ping Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Zhongjing Lin, Jing Wang, Shuo Xu, Lei Guo, Christopher Kai-Shun Leung, Yisheng Zhong
Glaucoma is an irreversible and blinding neurodegenerative disease of the eye, and is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Since endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to be involved in neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, the authors aimed to develop a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model simulating glaucoma and therein test the H2S level together with the retinal protein expressions of related synthases, and further investigated the effect of exogenous H2S supplement on RGC survival...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888572/adverse-effect-profile-of-topical-ocular-administration-of-fingolimod-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease
#9
Weibao Xiao, Li Sun, Nan Zhang, Wen Ye
Fingolimod is a promising prodrug in attenuating multiple sclerosis and prolonging survival of organ allograft, with many other protective effects. Its mechanism of action is related to the internalization of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). Our previous study indicated that fingolimod eyedrop was efficacious in inhibiting ocular inflammation in a dry eye disease (DED) model of Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. In the current study, we evaluated potential adverse effects of fingolimod eyedrop. Inbred 10-week-old BALB/C mice were randomly divided into four groups, fingolimod-treated groups at three different concentrations (0...
November 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874278/placental-growth-factor-and-its-potential-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-other-ocular-neovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Quan Dong Nguyen, Sandro De Falco, Francine Behar-Cohen, Wai-Ching Lam, Xuri Li, Nadine Reichhart, Federico Ricci, Jennifer Pluim, William W Li
The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), including in retinal vascular diseases, has been well studied, and pharmacological blockade of VEGF is the gold standard of treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular oedema. Placental growth factor (PGF, previously known as PlGF), a homologue of VEGF, is a multifunctional peptide associated with angiogenesis-dependent pathologies in the eye and non-ocular conditions. Animal studies using genetic modification and pharmacological treatment have demonstrated a mechanistic role for PGF in pathological angiogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871941/mimicking-the-ocular-environment-for-the-study-of-inflammatory-posterior-eye-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Nabeela K Dulull, Thilini R Thrimawithana, Faith A A Kwa
The common inflammatory posterior eye disorders, age-related degeneration and glaucoma often lead to irreversible vision loss. Current treatments do not target early stages or prevent disease progression. Consequently, the identification of biomarkers or early disease models that can accurately mimic the pathological processes involved is essential. Although none of the existing models can recapitulate all pathological aspects of these disorders, these models have revealed new therapeutic targets. Efforts to accurately phenotype eye disorders at various disease stages are warranted to generate a 'super' model that can replicate the microenvironment of the eye and associated pathological hallmarks effectively...
November 18, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865948/neuronal-fc-epsilon-receptor-i-contributes-to-antigen-evoked-pruritus-in-a-murine-model-of-ocular-allergy
#12
Fan Liu, Lubin Xu, Naze Chen, Mo Zhou, Chunyan Li, Qian Yang, Yikuan Xie, Yuguang Huang, Chao Ma
Pruritus is the major symptom of ocular allergy but currently available treatments are often ineffective. Previous studies demonstrated that subpopulations of primary sensory neurons express Fc receptors and may contribute to antigen-specific pain. We investigated the role of neuronal Fc-epsilon Receptor I (FcεRI) in allergic ocular pruritus. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as allergen together with alum adjuvant (OVA+alum) to produce a mouse model of ocular allergy with a significant elevation in the serum levels of both antigen-specific IgE and IgG...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854266/using-technology-bioinformatics-and-health-informatics-approaches-to-improve-learning-experiences-in-optometry-education-research-and-practice
#13
REVIEW
Vivek K Gupta, Veer B Gupta
Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning...
November 15, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852402/-changes-of-ocular-biological-parameters-and-lumican-expression-in-the-monocularly-deprivation-myopic-model-of-mutant-lumican-transgenic-mice
#14
M S Sun, Y Z Song, F J Zhang, J Tao, Y B Liu
Objective: To investigate ocular changes in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice. Comparing influences on biological parameters and sclera development between Lumican transgenic and form deprivation mice, and to prepare for further study of pathogenesis of pathological myopia (PM). Methods: Experimental research. Lumican transgenic mice and wild mice were monocularly lid-sutured at ten days after birth. All eyes were divided into 6 groups, group A(32 eyes): control eyes in transgenic mice; group B(34 eyes): sutured eyes in transgenic mice; group C(34 eyes): fellow eyes in transgenic mice; group D(28 eyes): control eyes in wild mice; group E(32 eyes): sutured eyes in wild mice; group F(32 eyes): fellow eyes in wild mice...
November 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847629/human-retinal-microvascular-imaging-using-adaptive-optics-scanning-light-ophthalmoscopy
#15
REVIEW
Toco Y P Chui, Shelley Mo, Brian Krawitz, Nikhil R Menon, Nadim Choudhury, Alexander Gan, Moataz Razeen, Nishit Shah, Alexander Pinhas, Richard B Rosen
BACKGROUND: Retinal microvascular imaging is an especially promising application of high resolution imaging since there are increasing options for therapeutic intervention and need for better structural and functional biomarkers to characterize ocular and systemic vascular diseases. MAIN BODY: Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) is an emerging technology for improving in vivo imaging of the human retinal microvasculature, allowing unprecedented visualization of retinal microvascular structure, measurements of blood flow velocity, and microvascular network mapping...
2016: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844049/sebaceous-carcinoma-of-the-vulva-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Stephanie A Sullivan, Arthur-Quan Tran, Siobhan O'Connor, Paola A Gehrig
•Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is rare with only nine cases reported in the literature.•Extraocular SC likely has similar prognosis to ocular SC.•Reporting of vulvar SC should include detailed pathologic information so that risk factor associations can be made.
November 2016: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843908/anterior-chamber-pathology-in-alagille-syndrome
#17
Derek K Ho, Alex V Levin, William V Anninger, David A Piccoli, Ralph C Eagle
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neonatal cholestasis, characteristic facies, and cardiac abnormalities. Ocular abnormalities include posterior embryotoxon, mosaic pattern of iris stromal hypoplasia, microcornea, optic disc drusen, and pigmentary retinopathy. We present the second report of ocular pathology in two cases of Alagille syndrome. METHODS: Gross and histologic preparations of four eyes of two patients. RESULTS: Posterior embryotoxon is seen in both cases, with iris processes extending to the embryotoxon in case 1...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843906/t2-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-imaging-of-uveal-melanomas-and-other-ocular-pathology
#18
Gena M Damento, Kelly K Koeller, Diva R Salomão, Jose S Pulido
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study describes patterns of intraocular lesions on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, exploring a prospective role of FLAIR imaging sequence in diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective study of orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies from the years 2000 to 2015 was performed. MRI sequences included: pre-contrast T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2 FLAIR, and postcontrast T1 and T2 imaging gadolinium, which were evaluated by a neuroradiologist...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843903/free-floating-pigmented-cysts-in-the-anterior-chamber-causing-ocular-hypertension
#19
Jessica S Maslin, Christopher C Teng, Miguel Materin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and histopathological features of a 36-year-old male with hundreds of recurrent, unilateral, free-floating, pigmented cysts in the anterior chamber causing ocular hypertension. PROCEDURES: The patient was referred to ocular oncology for blurry vision of the right eye and was found to have myriad pigmented, free-floating cysts in the anterior chamber and heavy pigmentation of the angle on gonioscopy. Anterior chamber washout was performed, and the fluid recovered was sent for pathological analysis...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843897/neurothekeoma-of-the-cornea
#20
Mina M Naguib, Caroline Craven, Alan Kozarsky, Hans E Grossniklaus
Neurothekeomas (NTKs) are benign cutaneous neoplasms of fibrohistiocytic origin and most commonly occur in the head, neck, and upper extremities. Traditionally, NTK and nerve sheath myxoma (NSM) were classified as subtypes of a single neoplasm with a common histogenesis, but recently immunostaining has demonstrated that the lesions are most likely of distinct cellular origin. Rarely, NTKs have been reported to occur in the ocular adnexa, and the present case of a 39-year-old female is the first to describe a cellular NTK originating in the cornea and mimicking a Salzmann's nodular degeneration...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
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