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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041796/prevalence-of-eye-pathology-in-a-group-of-diabetic-patients-at-national-district-hospital-outpatient-department-in-bloemfontein-south-africa
#1
Joleen P Cairncross, Wilhelm J Steinberg, Mathys J Labuschagne
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is the third most common cause of blindness after cataracts and glaucoma in South Africa. Primary healthcare interventions providing eye care services play an important role in preventing complications. AIM: To determine the prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital by screening for diabetes-associated ocular pathology. SETTING: Outpatients Department run by Department of Family Medicine at National District Hospital in Bloemfontein from June to July 2014...
September 27, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037595/cellular-characterization-of-optical-coherence-tomography-and-outer-retinal-bands-using-specific-immunohistochemistry-markers-and-clinical-implications
#2
Nicolás Cuenca, Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel Pinilla
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography has been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many ocular diseases, especially retinal and neuro-ophthalmologic pathologic conditions. Until now, several controversies have arisen over the specific cell types that the bands observed in the OCT represent, especially over the 4 outer retinal bands. DESIGN: To correlate the 4 outer hyperreflective bands observed in the OCT with the histologic structures using human retinal sections and immunocytochemistry at the fovea level...
October 13, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022761/noninvasive-ocular-drug-delivery-system-of-dexamethasone-sodium-phosphate-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-uveitis-rabbit
#3
Kongnara Papangkorn, Eri Prendergast, John W Higuchi, Balbir Brar, William I Higuchi
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone sodium phosphate administered through Visulex system (DSP-Visulex) in treating experimental uveitis. METHODS: Uveitis was induced in rabbits by subcutaneous injections of complete Freund's adjuvant and an intravitreal injection of H37RA antigen. After induction, the animals of the control group received no treatment and the others received various treatment regimens of DSP-Visulex. Each regimen was different in DSP strength (4%, 8%, and 15%), application time, or treatment frequency...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018402/preferential-impairment-of-the-contralesional-posterior-semicircular-canal-in-internuclear-ophthalmoplegia
#4
Seung-Han Lee, Sang-Hoon Kim, Sung-Sik Kim, Kyung Wook Kang, Alexander Andrea Tarnutzer
BACKGROUND: The vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) may be impaired in internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) as the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) conveys VOR-signals from the vertical semicircular canals. It has been proposed that signals from the contralesional posterior semicircular canal (PSC) are exclusively transmitted through the MLF, while for the contralesional anterior canal other pathways exist. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to characterize dysfunction in individual canals in INO-patients using the video-head-impulse test (vHIT) and to test the hypothesis of dissociated vertical canal impairment in INO...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016406/visualization-of-immune-responses-in-the-cornea
#5
Victor L Perez
The eye has become a useful site for the investigation and understanding of local and systemic immune responses. The ease of access and transparency of the cornea permits direct visualization of ocular structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, allowing for the tracking of normal and pathological biological processes in real time. As a window to the immune system, we have used the eye to dissect the mechanisms of corneal inflammatory reactions that include innate and adaptive immune responses. We have identified that the ocular microenvironment regulates these immune responses by recruiting different populations of inflammatory cells to the cornea through local production of selected chemokines...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993861/-intraocular-metastases
#6
REVIEW
D Westerwick, F Driever, C H D Le Guin, K W Schmid, K A Metz
Metastatic cancer represents the most common form of intraocular malignancy. Due to its abundant vascular supply the choroid is the most common ocular site for intraocular metastatic disease (approximately 90%). Less than 10% of intraocular metastases are located in the iris and/or ciliary body, whereas the retina and vitreous are rarely affected. Most intraocular metastases are carcinomas; the majority of metastases originate from breast cancer in females and lung cancer in males. However, virtually every primary malignancy has been described to metastasize to intraocular structures...
October 9, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991503/current-clinical-application-of-microperimetry-a-review
#7
Ainhoa Molina-Martín, Rafael J Pérez-Cambrodí, David P Piñero
Microperimetry (MP) is a technology that allows the study of retinal sensitivity at different foveal and parafoveal areas as well as eye fixation. It is a technique of functional evaluation, providing a direct correlation between anatomical and functional outcomes. There are a great variety of studies which evaluate the repeatability or reliability of measurements obtained with this technology and also describe and explore different clinical applications. MP has been shown to be useful in the characterization of sensory and motor conditions, such as amblyopia or nystagmus...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985809/a-decade-of-surgical-eye-removals-in-ontario-a-clinical-pathological-study
#8
Sze Wah Samuel Chan, Shireen Khattak, Narain Yücel, Neeru Gupta, Yeni H Yücel
OBJECTIVE: To assess patient demographics, clinical indications, and pathologic causes of surgically removed eyes over a decade in Ontario (Canada) and to identify areas of ocular disease management needing more attention. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The surgically removed eyes of 713 consecutive mainly adult patients from 2004 to 2013. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were collected on all eyes received by the University of Toronto Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory from 2004 to 2013...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982669/targeting-cx40-connexin-40-expression-or-function-reduces-angiogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-retina
#9
Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Florent Allagnat, Lauriane Hamard, Loïc Le Gal, Paolo Meda, Denise Nardelli Haefliger, Elisabeth Génot, Florian Alonso
OBJECTIVE: Cx40 (connexin 40) forms intercellular channels that coordinate the electric conduction in the heart and the vasomotor tone in large vessels. The protein was shown to regulate tumoral angiogenesis; however, whether Cx40 also contributes to physiological angiogenesis is still unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that Cx40 contributes to physiological angiogenesis. Genetic deletion of Cx40 leads to a reduction in vascular growth and capillary density in the neovascularization model of the mouse neonatal retina...
October 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981152/low-conversion-rate-of-ocular-to-generalized-myasthenia-gravis-in-singapore
#10
Kelvin Y Teo, Sharon L Tow, Benjamin Haaland, Tushar D Gosavi, Jing-Liang Loo, Yew Long Lo, Dan Milea
INTRODUCTION: Ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) is a common condition of the neuro-muscular junction, which may convert to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG). Our aim was to assess the conversion rate and predictive factors for generalization in OMG, in an Asian population. METHODS: Retrospective study of OMG patients with a minimum 2 years follow-up. RESULTS: Among 191 patients with OMG, 155 patients had a minimum 2years follow-up. The conversion rate at the median follow-up (40...
October 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980781/-inferior-vestibular-neuritis
#11
Stephen Jacques Alzuphar, Raphaël Maire
Inferior vestibular neuritis is a rare form of acute peripheral vestibular loss that only implies the lesion of the inferior vestibular nerve. The diagnosis is based on the observation of a spontaneous downbeating nystagmus, pathological head impulse test for the posterior semicircular canal and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Bithermal caloric testing and head impulse test for horizontal and anterior canals are normal, as well as the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The differential diagnosis of inferior vestibular neuritis includes the various central lesions that produce vertical down beating nystagmus (posterior fossa) and a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory...
October 4, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979360/implication-of-the-neurotrophin-receptor-p75-ntr-in-vascular-diseases-beyond-the-eye
#12
Sally L Elshaer, Azza B El-Remessy
INTRODUCTION: The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is a member of TNF-α receptor superfamily that bind all neurotrophins, mainly regulating their pro-apoptotic actions. Ischemia is a common pathology in different cardiovascular diseases affecting multiple organs, however the contribution of p75(NTR) remains not fully addressed. The aim of this work is to review the current evidence through published literature studying the impact of p75(NTR) receptor in ischemic vascular diseases...
2017: Expert Review of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979094/ocular-parameters-before-and-after-steep-trendelenburg-positioning-for-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy
#13
Kyoichi Mizumoto, Masahiko Gosho, Masayoshi Iwaki, Masahiro Zako
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) increases in patients in a steep Trendelenburg position during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). We hypothesized that a steep Trendelenburg position during RALP, an unusual systemic condition involving a transiently increased IOP, may induce ocular pathology that can be detected by detailed evaluations long after the surgery. This study aims to explore ocular structural and functional parameters in patients before and in the long term after the surgery...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975236/gene-expression-profiling-and-heterogeneity-of-nonspecific-orbital-inflammation-affecting-the-lacrimal-gland
#14
James T Rosenbaum, Dongseok Choi, Christina A Harrington, David J Wilson, Hans E Grossniklaus, Cailin H Sibley, Sherveen S Salek, John D Ng, Roger A Dailey, Eric A Steele, Brent Hayek, Caroline M Craven, Deepak P Edward, Azza M Y Maktabi, Hailah Al Hussain, Valerie A White, Peter J Dolman, Craig N Czyz, Jill A Foster, Gerald J Harris, Youn-Shen Bee, David T Tse, Chrisfouad R Alabiad, Sander R Dubovy, Michael Kazim, Dinesh Selva, R Patrick Yeatts, Bobby S Korn, Don O Kikkawa, Rona Z Silkiss, Jennifer A Sivak-Callcott, Patrick Stauffer, Stephen R Planck
Importance: Although a variety of well-characterized diseases, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, affect the lacrimal gland, many patients with dacryoadenitis are diagnosed as having nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) on the basis of histology and systemic disease evaluation. The ability to further classify the disease in these patients should facilitate selection of effective therapies. Objective: To test the a priori hypothesis that gene expression profiles would complement clinical and histopathologic evaluations in identifying well-characterized diseases and in subdividing NSOI into clinically relevant groups...
September 21, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975230/ocular-histopathologic-features-of-congenital-zika-syndrome
#15
Maria P Fernandez, Edgar Parra Saad, Martha Ospina Martinez, Sheryl Corchuelo, Marcela Mercado Reyes, Maria Jose Herrera, Miguel Parra Saavedra, Angelica Rico, Angela M Fernandez, Richard K Lee, Camila V Ventura, Audina M Berrocal, Sander R Dubovy
Importance: Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is known to be associated with severe malformations in newborns. Although microcephaly is the hallmark of this disease, the ocular findings are important given the severe visual impairment that has been observed in these patients. Regardless of the increased number of CZS cases reported, to date, no studies have described the ocular histopathologic findings of this entity. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) antigens and describe the associated ocular histopathologic features of 4 cases of CZS...
September 21, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973329/the-ability-of-nitric-oxide-to-lower-intraocular-pressure-is-dependent-on-guanylyl-cyclase
#16
Stefan Muenster, Wolfgang S Lieb, Gregor Fabry, Kaitlin N Allen, Shivani S Kamat, Ann H Guy, Ana C Dordea, Leandro Teixeira, Robert E Tainsh, Binglan Yu, Wei Zhu, Nicole E Ashpole, Rajeev Malhotra, Peter Brouckaert, Donald B Bloch, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, W Daniel Stamer, Markus H Kuehn, Louis R Pasquale, Emmanuel S Buys
Purpose: While nitric oxide (NO) donors are emerging as treatments for glaucoma, the mechanism by which NO lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) is unclear. NO activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase (GC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We studied the ocular effects of inhaled and topically applied NO gas in mice and lambs, respectively. Methods: IOP and aqueous humor (AqH) outflow were measured in WT and GC-1α subunit null (GC-1-/-) mice. Mice breathed 40 parts per million (ppm) NO in O2 or control gas (N2/O2)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972478/a-new-approach-to-keratoconus-diagnostics-using-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-marker
#17
A Zilfyan, A Abovyan
In spite of numerous studies, the exact mechanism of the keratoconus development remains unknown. Nowadays, it is considered to be a multifactorial disorder, caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Some recent studies have indicated that IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 take crucial part in disease development. The study aims to test the association of keratoconus with elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 levels in the lacrimal fluid of patients. In controlled, cross-sectional, double-masked study, the patients were examined as they attended the clinic; this method approximated random sampling...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971288/quantitative-changes-in-flow-density-in-patients-with-adult-onset-foveomacular-vitelliform-dystrophy-an-oct-angiography-study
#18
Maximilian Treder, Jost Lennart Lauermann, Maged Alnawaiseh, Peter Heiduschka, Nicole Eter
PURPOSE: To quantitatively compare the flow density, the retinal thickness, and the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) between patients with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) and a healthy controls. METHODS: Thirteen eyes (eight patients) with AOFVD and 13 matched eyes (13 patients) without any ocular pathology were included in this study. A 6 × 6 mm optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) scan was performed for every included eye...
October 3, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969610/associated-factors-diagnosis-and-management-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-a-referral-center-in-southern-china
#19
Jing Zhong, Xingyi Li, Yuqing Deng, Ling Chen, Shiyou Zhou, Weilan Huang, Shiqi Lin, Jin Yuan
BACKGROUND: To analyse the associated factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapeutic effects of Acanthamoeba keratitis at a tertiary ophthalmic centre in Southern China. METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was performed in fifteen patients who were admitted to Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre (ZOC) from January 2004 to December 2014. The patients' pathogenesis-associated factors were analysed, and preoperative diagnoses were determined using corneal scraping cultures and/or confocal microscopy followed...
October 2, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969214/isolated-sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-in-a-case-of-severe-pre-eclampsia-presenting-as-postpartum-diplopia
#20
Aarti Yevale, Akhila Vasudeva, Anjali Mundkur, Pratap Kumar, Arvind Prabhu
Visual symptoms in pregnancy are ominous. The spectrum of ocular symptoms seen in pre-eclampsia includes blurring of vision, scotoma, hemianopia and even total cortical blindness. Diplopia, though rare has also been reported in cases of pre-eclampsia and occurs due to pathological changes affecting the 6(th) cranial nerve. Ocular symptoms of pre-eclampsia usually regress after delivery but occasionally may present in the postpartum period. We present a case of a 34-year-old lady with severe pre-eclampsia at 31 weeks of gestation with diplopia presenting seven days post caesarean section...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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