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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664772/adenovirus-ocular-infections-prevalence-pathology-pitfalls-and-practical-pointers
#1
Debora Garcia-Zalisnak, Christopher Rapuano, John D Sheppard, Andrew R Davis
Adenoviral conjunctivitis comprises a large number of physician office visits in the United States and places a great financial burden on health care. It is estimated that the incidence of adenovirus infection to be as high as 20 million cases per year in the United States. There are multiple adenovirus serotypes, each associated with different types and severity of infection. Ocular manifestations of adenovirus include epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, pharyngoconjunctival fever, and nonspecific conjunctivitis...
April 13, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663723/intraocular-metastasis-of-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-investigated-by-transscleral-fine-needle-aspiration-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Małgorzata Gajdzis, Nathalie Cassoux, Maria Lesnik, Caroline Hoffmann, Nathalie Badois, Paweł Gajdzis, Jerzy Klijanienko
Medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in a sporadic setting and may also be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, which is related with germline mutations of the RET gene. Metastases are often present at the time of a diagnosis-most frequently within the cervical lymph nodes, followed by the liver, lungs, and bones. Intraocular metastases are extremely rare. We present a case of choroidal metastasis as a first presentation of disease progression in a patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A syndrome (MEN2A) who had undergone thyroidectomy 33 years earlier for medullary thyroid carcinoma...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643381/pannexin-1-sustains-the-electrophysiological-responsiveness-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#3
Galina Dvoriantchikova, Alexey Pronin, Sarah Kurtenbach, Abduqodir Toychiev, Tsung-Han Chou, Christopher W Yee, Breanne Prindeville, Junior Tayou, Vittorio Porciatti, Botir T Sagdullaev, Vladlen Z Slepak, Valery I Shestopalov
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) forms ATP-permeable membrane channels that play a key role in purinergic signaling in the nervous system in both normal and pathological conditions. In the retina, particularly high levels of Panx1 are found in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but the normal physiological function in these cells remains unclear. In this study, we used patch clamp recordings in the intact inner retina to show that evoked currents characteristic of Panx1 channel activity were detected only in RGCs, particularly in the OFF-type cells...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643136/orbital-metastasis-from-an-occult-breast-carcinoma-t0-n1-m1
#4
Rita Pinto Proença, Júlia Fernandes, Miguel N Burnier, Rui Proença
The authors report a case of an orbital metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman presented with a growing left orbital tumour. Orbital CT scan was consistent with lymphoma. However, ocular pathology revealed small neoplastic cells showing an 'indian file pattern' suggestive of metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemistry was positive for CK7, CK CAM5.2 and oestrogen receptor. A systemic evaluation was then performed with mammogram, breast ultrasound and MRI considered normal. An exhaustive systemic evaluation revealed multiple bone lesions, a right axillary lymph node lesion, which presented the same pattern on pathology and immunohistochemistry, with no evidence of a primary tumour...
April 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627521/epidermolysis-bullosa-molecular-pathology-of-connective-tissue-components-in-the-cutaneous-basement-membrane-zone
#5
REVIEW
Cristina Has, Alexander Nyström, Amir Hossain Saeidian, Leena Bruckner-Tuderman, Jouni Uitto
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a group of heritable skin fragility disorders, is characterized by blistering, erosions and chronic ulcers in the skin and mucous membranes. In some forms, the blistering phenotype is associated with extensive mutilating scarring and development of aggressive squamous cell carcinomas. The skin findings can be associated with extracutaneous manifestations in the ocular as well as gastrointestinal and vesico-urinary tracts. The phenotypic heterogeneity reflects the presence of mutations in as many as 20 different genes expressed in the cutaneous basement membrane zone, and the types and combinations of the mutations and their consequences at the mRNA and protein levels contribute to the spectrum of severity encountered in different subtypes of EB...
April 5, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625491/wide-corneal-epithelial-mapping-using-an-optical-coherence-tomography
#6
Nauman Hashmani, Sharif Hashmani, Choudhry M Saad
Purpose: To map the corneal epithelium using a map measuring 9 mm in diameter and view the effects of age, sex, and axial length. Additionally, we wanted to demonstrate the reproducibility of this technique. Methods: We calculated the epithelial thickness in 220 individuals using an SD-OCT machine with the newly released commercially available algorithm. We included normal eyes with refractive errors between +5 and -6 diopters (D). We excluded patients with an intraocular pressure of >22 mm Hg, history of cataract, previous ocular surgery, or disease and those with corneal pathology...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625453/substance-p-modulation-of-human-and-murine-corneal-neovascularization
#7
Marco Barbariga, Phillippe Fonteyne, Manoosh Ostadreza, Fabio Bignami, Paolo Rama, Giulio Ferrari
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of substance P (SP) in patients affected with corneal neovascularization (CNV) and in three different Tac1-knockout (KO) murine models of CNV. Methods: SP levels in tears were measured with a multiplex bead assay. The extent of human CNV was quantified as number of affected corneal quadrants. Murine CNV was induced in both strains by means of total disepithelization, alkali burn, and intrastromal sutures...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625452/inner-retinal-microvasculature-damage-correlates-with-outer-retinal-disruption-during-remission-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-posterior-uveitis-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#8
Dan Cheng, Meixiao Shen, Xiran Zhuang, Dan Lin, Mali Dai, Sisi Chen, Fan Lu, Yuqin Wang
Purpose: To quantify the inner retinal vascular changes that occur in the superficial and deep layers in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) in remission using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to evaluate the associations with outer retinal structure. Methods: Nineteen eyes from 19 patients with BD in remission were enrolled, including 10 eyes with less than five ocular attacks (n < 5) and nine eyes with five or more attacks (n ≥ 5). The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and global and regional vessel density (VD) in both layers were compared between BD eyes and normal eyes...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621550/anti-angiogenic-effect-of-interleukin-26-in-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-mice-via-inhibiting-nfatc1-vegf-pathway
#9
Jing Bao, Zhigang Lv, Saibin Wang
Retinal neovascularization (RNV) is a devastating pathological feature of numerous ocular diseases and is a major cause of blindness. In this study, we examined the effect and potential mechanism of interleukin-26 (IL-26) in the pathogenesis of RNV in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. OIR model was induced by exposure of hypoxia (75% oxygen) to C57BL/6J mice from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and then returned to room air. A significant up-regulation of IL-26 was detected in the retina at P17 after OIR, and the expression of IL-26 was observed to be localized mainly in the retinal endothelial cells (RECs)...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619260/bilateral-conjunctival-infiltration-as-an-extramedullary-relapse-of-aml
#10
Zahra Mozaheb, Alireza Khooei
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) accounts for 1.2% of all cancer deaths. Relapse is the major cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. AML rarely presents as ocular manifestation in relapse or at presentation. The M4 subtype of AML is most commonly presented with extramedullary involvement. In this report, we presented a young female with AML who was diagnosed and treated for AML about 40 months ago. She did not transplant because she did not have a full-match donor. About 4 months ago, she visited with a red eye and conjunctival infiltration...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618836/outcomes-of-sphincterotomy-for-small-pupil-phacoemulsification
#11
Joanne W Y Goh, Rhys Harrison, Shokufeh Tavassoli, Derek M Tole
PURPOSE: Sphincterotomy, an alternative to iris hooks or pupil stretching, is a technique that can aid in small pupil phacoemulsification. The incidence of post-operative complications of this procedure, however, has not been studied. Our study evaluates the post-operative outcomes of phacoemulsification surgery with adjunctive pupillary sphincterotomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of case notes and Medisoft ® electronic record of patients that had undergone simultaneous sphincterotomy, phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by a single surgeon between March 2012 and February 2017...
April 5, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617977/aortic-sarcoidosis-complicated-by-a-pulmonary-artery-aneurysm
#12
Wataru Uchida, Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Masato Mutsuga, Akihiko Usui
A 76-year-old woman, who had a history of ocular sarcoidosis, was incidentally found to have a huge pulmonary artery aneurysm, along with aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency. She underwent pulmonary artery plication along with surgeries for 3 valves. A specimen of the slightly enlarged ascending aorta revealed the involvement of sarcoidosis in the aortic wall. The systemic granulomatous inflammation process of sarcoidosis possibly affected the valvular and vascular pathology. Herein, we report a rare case of aortic sarcoidosis complicated by a pulmonary artery aneurysm...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611471/peroxisome-proliferated-activated-receptors-ppars-opportunities-and-challenges-for-ocular-therapy
#13
Prachi Khatol, Shivani Saraf, Ankit Jain
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors. They exist in three isoforms (PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-Υ) in humans, but mainly PPAR-Υ, and they are expressed in retinal epithelial pigment. PPARs are involved in mediating numerous pathological implications in eye such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), glaucoma, diabetic macular edema, and other retinal diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are key players in various biological pathways like lipid degeneration, immune regulation, and reactive oxygen species regulation, regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrixmetalloproteinase-9, and docosahexaenoic acid pathway...
2018: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610079/macular-oct-classification-using-a-multi-scale-convolutional-neural-network-ensemble
#14
Reza Rasti, Hossein Rabbani, Alireza Mehridehnavi, Fedra Hajizadeh
Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of retinal pathologies is a current active area in medical image analysis. Due to the increasing use of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique, a CAD system in retinal OCT is essential to assist ophthalmologist in the early detection of ocular diseases and treatment monitoring. This paper presents a novel CAD system based on a multi-scale convolutional mixture of expert (MCME) ensemble model to identify normal retina, and two common types of macular pathologies, namely, dry age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic macular edema...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609818/reference-3-t-mri-parameters-of-the-normal-human-eye
#15
Laura Fanea
The purpose of this study is to establish magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) standard normative reference quantitative markers for future possible diagnosis in Ophthalmology based on relaxation times (T1 and T2) and retina/choroid complex (RCC) layer thickness values measured in vivo in normal human eyes. This research followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local Ethical Committee. 15 healthy subjects volunteered to undergo MRI of both eyes. 3 T MRI was performed using a circular surface detector coil with a 15 min acquisition protocol for each eye...
March 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608905/regional-differences-in-endothelial-cell-cytoskeleton-junctional-proteins-and-phosphorylated-tyrosine-labeling-in-the-porcine-vortex-vein-system
#16
Priscilla Ern Zhi Tan, Paula K Yu, Hongfang Yang, Stephen J Cringle, Dao-Yi Yu
We previously demonstrated endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the vortex vein system. This study is to further determine whether regional differences are present in the cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling within the system. The vortex vein system of twenty porcine eyes was perfused with labels for f-actin, claudin-5, VE-Cadherin, phosphorylated tyrosine and nucleic acid. The endothelial cells of eight different regions (choroidal veins, pre-ampulla, anterior ampulla, mid-ampulla, posterior ampulla, post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and the extra-ocular vortex vein) were studied using confocal microscopy...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607824/lymphoid-proliferation-in-eyelid-a-primary-follicular-lymphoma-case
#17
Deivy Cruzado-Sánchez, Walter Andree Tellez, Solon Serpa-Frias, Grisnery Maquera
Ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) constitutes 8% of all extranodal lymphomas, being rare in the eyelids (5-20%). The objective was to report a case of eyelid follicular lymphoma in a young adult woman. A 35-year-old female with swelling in left lower eyelid with development for 2 months. The visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, the tumor mass was 3 cm wide and 1.5 cm long. The contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a soft-tissue injury in the left lower eyelid but had no signs of local spread according to description...
January 2018: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606355/fetal-neuropathology-in-zika-virus-infected-pregnant-female-rhesus-monkeys
#18
Amanda J Martinot, Peter Abbink, Onur Afacan, Anna K Prohl, Roderick Bronson, Jonathan L Hecht, Erica N Borducchi, Rafael A Larocca, Rebecca L Peterson, William Rinaldi, Melissa Ferguson, Peter J Didier, Deborah Weiss, Mark G Lewis, Rafael A De La Barrera, Edward Yang, Simon K Warfield, Dan H Barouch
The development of interventions to prevent congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) has been limited by the lack of an established nonhuman primate model. Here we show that infection of female rhesus monkeys early in pregnancy with Zika virus (ZIKV) recapitulates many features of CZS in humans. We infected 9 pregnant monkeys with ZIKV, 6 early in pregnancy (weeks 6-7 of gestation) and 3 later in pregnancy (weeks 12-14 of gestation), and compared findings with uninfected controls. 100% (6 of 6) of monkeys infected early in pregnancy exhibited prolonged maternal viremia and fetal neuropathology, including fetal loss, smaller brain size, and histopathologic brain lesions, including microcalcifications, hemorrhage, necrosis, vasculitis, gliosis, and apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
March 28, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603665/uv-radiation-oxidative-stress-affects-eye-health
#19
REVIEW
Iliya V Ivanov, Timo Mappes, Patrick Schaupp, Christian Lappe, Siegfried Wahl
In the eye ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is not known to contribute to visual perception but to mainly damage multiple structures. UVR carries higher energy than visible light and high dose exposure to UVR causes direct cellular damage, which has an important role in the development of cancer. This review provides an overview on the most recent knowledge on the role of UVR in oxidative stress (OS) in relation to non-cancer ocular pathologies: various corneal pathologies, cataract, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602451/-autologous-serum-tears-long-term-treatment-in-dry-eye-syndrome
#20
M Beylerian, M Lazaro, J Magalon, J Veran, A Darque, F Grimaud, N Stolowy, H Beylerian, F Sabatier, L Hoffart
INTRODUCTION: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial pathology of the ocular surface. The high incidence of this pathology, as well as its significant impact on quality of life and vision and its financial cost, makes it a real public health problem. While the treatment of mild cases is generally simple and effective, treatment of severe forms is often disappointing. The use of autologous serum tears (AST) represents a therapeutic alternative for the most severe cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-term AST treatment in patients with severe dry eye disease refractory to conventional treatment or secondary to systemic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome or Graft versus Host disease (GVH), or ocular pathologies such as neurotrophic keratitis, chemical burns and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid...
March 27, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
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