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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466906/melanin-bleaching-with-warm-hydrogen-peroxide-and-integrated-immunohistochemical-analysis-an-automated-platform
#1
Chia-Hsing Liu, Chih-Hung Lin, Min-Jan Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Sheau-Fang Yang, Kun-Bow Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing melanocytic lesions is among the most challenging problems in the practice of pathology. The difficulty of physically masking melanin pigment and the similarity of its color to commonly used chromogens often complicate examination of the cytomorphology and immunohistochemical staining results for tumor cells. Melanin bleach can be very helpful for histopathological diagnosis of heavily pigmented melanocytic lesions. Although various depigmentation methods have been reported, no standardized methods have been developed...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464684/neuregulin-directed-molecular-mechanisms-of-visual-cortical-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Steven F Grieco, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Experience-dependent critical period plasticity has been extensively studied in the visual cortex. Monocular deprivation during the critical period affects ocular dominance, limits visual performance, and contributes to the pathological etiology of amblyopia. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signaling through its tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 is essential for the normal development of the nervous system, and has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. We discovered recently that NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in PV neurons is critical for the initiation of critical period visual cortical plasticity by controlling excitatory synaptic inputs onto PV neurons and thus PV-cell mediated cortical inhibition that occurs following visual deprivation...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464374/heterogeneous-pattern-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463226/acquired-distance-esotropia-associated-with-myopia-in-the-young-adult
#4
Ke Zheng, Tian Han, Yinan Han, Xiaomei Qu
BACKGROUND: To describe the clinical features of acquired progressive esotropia, with a larger angle at distance than near, associated with myopia in young adults. METHODS: Eleven adults (ages ranging from 18 to 37 years) with constant or intermittent horizontal diplopia at distance were recruited. Subjective refraction, ocular alignment, fusional amplitudes and horizontal eye movements were measured at distance and near. RESULTS: Distance esotropia varied from 20 to 60 prism diopters (PD)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461408/brimonidine-ophthalmic-solution-0-025-for-reduction-of-ocular-redness-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Eugene McLaurin, Megan E Cavet, Paul J Gomes, Joseph B Ciolino
SIGNIFICANCE: The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine has been reported to induce conjunctival blanching in cataract, strabismus, laser refractive, and filtration procedures. Clinicians are often faced with red eyes with no apparent underlying pathology. Low-dose brimonidine reduced ocular redness in such subjects with efficacy maintained over 1 month and negligible rebound redness. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0...
February 15, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461140/genetic-investigation-of-ocular-developmental-genes-in-52-patients-with-anophthalmia-microphthalmia
#6
Nair Gopinathan Vidya, Sankaranarayanan Rajkumar, Abhay R Vasavada
BACKGROUND: Mutation in eye developmental genes has been reported to cause anophthalmia and microphthalmia. However, in India, especially in the Western Indian population, such reports are scarce. Hence, the present study aims to investigate mutations in 15 ocular developmental genes in patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in the western region of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of 52 individuals affected with microphthalmia and anophthalmia, and 50 healthy normal controls...
February 20, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458795/mucins-structural-diversity-biosynthesis-its-role-in-pathogenesis-and-as-possible-therapeutic-targets
#7
REVIEW
Suresh Sulekha Dhanisha, Chandrasekharan Guruvayoorappan, Sudarsanan Drishya, Prathapan Abeesh
Mucins are the main structural components of mucus that create a selective protective barrier for epithelial surface and also execute wide range of other physiological functions. Mucins can be classified into two types, namely secreted mucins and membrane bounded mucins. Alterations in mucin expression or glycosylation and mislocalization have been seen in various types of pathological conditions such as cancers, inflammatory bowel disease and ocular disease, which highlight the importance of mucin in maintaining homeostasis...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456585/neuroinflammation-and-neurohormesis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-alzheimer-linked-pathologies-modulation-by-nutritional-mushrooms
#8
REVIEW
Angela Trovato Salinaro, Manuela Pennisi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Scuto, Rosalia Crupi, Maria Teresa Cambria, Maria Laura Ontario, Mario Tomasello, Maurizio Uva, Luigi Maiolino, Edward J Calabrese, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Human life develops and expands not only in time and space, but also in the retrograde permanent recollection and interweaving of memories. Therefore, individual human identity depends fully on a proper access to the autobiographical memory. Such access is hindered or lost under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, including recently associated oxidant pathologies, such as ocular neural degeneration occurring in glaucoma or neurosensorial degeneration occurring in Menière's disease. Oxidative stress and altered antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of major neurodegenerative disorders, and altered expression of genes sensing oxidative stress, as well as decreased cellular stress response mechanisms could synergistically contribute to the course of these oxidant disorders...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455330/ocular-manifestations-of-pediatric-systemic-diseases
#9
Gopal S Pillai, Natasha Radhakrishnan
Ocular manifestations that occur directly or indirectly as result of a pathologic process that involves other parts of the body, in a pediatric population, will be discussed here. While a myriad number of systemic conditions have ocular manifestations, its importance cannot be undermined because it has implications for both diagnosis and treatment. Often, the eye findings can give a clue to the systemic diagnosis and at other times, not managing the eye manifestations can lead to irreversible blindness although the systemic condition was treated well...
February 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453963/significance-of-spread-through-air-spaces-in-resected-pathological-stage-i-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Gouji Toyokawa, Yuichi Yamada, Tetsuzo Tagawa, Yuka Kozuma, Taichi Matsubara, Naoki Haratake, Shinkichi Takamori, Takaki Akamine, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Spread through air spaces (STAS) is a recently described invasive pattern of lung cancer, which spreads within air spaces beyond the edge of the main tumor. In the current study, we investigated the significance of STAS in patients with pathological stage I adenocarcinoma. METHODS: STAS was assessed in a total of 276 patients with resected pathological stage I adenocarcinoma. STAS was classified as either no STAS, low STAS (1-4 single cells or clusters of STAS), or high STAS (≥5 single cells or clusters of STAS) using a 20x objective and a 10x ocular lens...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450540/endocan-blockade-suppresses-experimental-ocular-neovascularization-in-mice
#11
Ting Su, Yisheng Zhong, Anna M Demetriades, Jikui Shen, Ailing Sui, Yiyun Yao, Yushuo Gao, Yanji Zhu, Xi Shen, Bing Xie
Purpose: Ocular neovascularization (NV) is a pathologic process characterized by the proliferation and infiltration of various types of cells such as RPE, glial, and endothelial cells, which interact with proangiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines. Endocan is known to be enriched in retinal endothelial tip cells under hypoxia, but the effect of endocan on ocular NV progression is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of endocan in the ocular NV pathologic process and the possible mechanisms involved...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450378/ocular-posterior-pole-pathological-modifications-related-to-complicated-pregnancy-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Vanessa Andrada Păun, Zamfir-Radu Ionescu, Liliana Voinea, Monica Cîrstoiu, Alexandru Baroș, Ștefan Pricopie, Radu Ciuluvică
Ocular posterior pole modification are a pathological manifestation in complicated pregnancies, especially when pregnancy induced hypertension is present (PIH), as well as in preeclampsia (PE) or eclampsia. Nonetheless, as the pregnancy evolves, the possibility for an aggravated evolution with HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura may have an ocular manifestation that, mainly, implies a loss of visual field or acuity, that, left unattended, may constitute a permanent impairment...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445760/corneal-functional-optical-zone-under-monocular-and-binocular-assessment
#13
Samuel Arba Mosquera, Diego de Ortueta, Shwetabh Verma
Background: In this retrospective randomized case series, we compared bilateral symmetry between OD and OS eyes, intercorneal differences and Functional Optical Zone (FOZ) of the corneal aberrations. Methods: Sixty-seven normal subjects (with no ocular pathology) who never had any ocular surgery were bilaterally evaluated at Augenzentrum Recklinghausen (Germany). In all cases, standard examinations and corneal wavefront topography (OPTIKON Scout) were performed...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443359/validity-of-the-red-reflex-exam-in-the-newborn-eye-screening-test-cohort
#14
Cassie A Ludwig, Natalia F Callaway, Mark S Blumenkranz, Douglas R Fredrick, Darius M Moshfeghi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The validity of the red reflex exam has yet to be tested against new methods of wide-angle imaging that may improve early detection of neonatal ocular pathology. The authors aimed to determine the validity of the pediatrician's red reflex exam using 130° wide-angle external and fundus digital imaging as a gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 194 healthy, term newborns enrolled in the Newborn Eye Screening Test study at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from July 25, 2013, to July 25, 2014...
February 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443358/microscope-integrated-intraoperative-ultrahigh-speed-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-for-widefield-retinal-and-anterior-segment-imaging
#15
Chen D Lu, Nadia K Waheed, Andre Witkin, Caroline R Baumal, Jonathan J Liu, Benjamin Potsaid, Anthony Joseph, Vijaysekhar Jayaraman, Alex Cable, Kinpui Chan, Jay S Duker, James G Fujimoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective...
February 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440740/boston-keratoprosthesis-type-1-outcomes-of-the-first-38-cases-performed-at-moorfields-eye-hospital
#16
Chameen Samarawickrama, Nicholas Strouthidis, Mark R Wilkins
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 (K-Pro) surgery in a cohort of high-risk patients at Moorfields Eye Hospital. Our patients were referred to us at the end-point of their ocular disease. METHODS: A retrospective review of all K-Pro surgery performed between March 2011 and July 2015 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. RESULTS: 39 eyes of 38 patients were included. Mean follow-up was 28.4 months (range: 12-56)...
February 14, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438263/validity-and-acceptance-of-color-vision-testing-on-smartphones
#17
Omar K Ozgur, Trisha S Emborgo, Mark B Vieyra, Rebecca F Huselid, Rudrani Banik
BACKGROUND: Ishihara color plates (ICP) are the most commonly used color vision test (CVT) worldwide. With the advent of new technologies, attempts have been made to streamline the process of CVT. As hardware and software evolve, smartphone-based testing modalities may aid ophthalmologists in performing more efficient ophthalmic examinations. We assess the validity of smartphone color vision testing (CVT) by comparing results using the Eye Handbook (EHB) CVT application with standard Ishihara color plates (ICP)...
March 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437569/myopia-its-historical-contexts
#18
REVIEW
Paulus T V M de Jong
Worldwide, and especially in Asia, myopia is a major vision-threatening disorder. From AD 1600 on, to prevent myopia, authors warned against near work without sufficient pauses. There was an abundance of theories about the causes of myopia, the most common one being the necessity of extra convergence on nearby work with thickened extraocular muscles and elevated intraocular pressure. Ocular tenotomies against myopia were in vogue for a while. Axial lengthening of the eye in myopia was mentioned around 1700, but it took 150 years to become accepted as the most prevalent sign of high myopia...
February 3, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437010/neuronal-expression-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-c-is-essential-for-retinal-thickness-and-photoreceptor-survival
#19
Y Li, F Zhang, W Lu, X Li
BACKGROUND: Photoreceptor cell death is a key pathology of retinal degeneration diseases. To date, the molecular mechanisms for this pathological process remain largely unclear. Junctional adhesion molecule-c (Jam-c) has been shown to play important roles in different biological events. However, its effect on retinal neuronal cells is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Jam-c on adult mouse eyes, particularly, on retinal structure, vasculature and photoreceptor cells, in order to explore potential important target molecules for ocular diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435677/ultrasound-assessment-of-visual-loss-during-severe-preeclampsia-a-case-report
#20
Fehmi Ferhi, Abdeljalil Khlifi, Feten Hachani, Khalil Tarmiz, Khaled Benjazia
Bilateral retinal detachments and cortical blindness are rare complications of preeclampsia and the association of the two pathologies is exceptional. We report the case of a preeclamptic patient who presented with an acute bilateral vision loss. Besides, her ocular ultrasound revealed bilateral retinal detachments and an elevated optic nerve sheath diameter. The patient underwent an urgent cesarean section. Subsequently, magnetic resonance imaging and ocular fundus examination confirmed the diagnosis.
February 12, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
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