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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232754/-measurement-of-the-strength-of-human-musculus-orbicularis-oculi-using-video-analysis
#1
Anita Koschmieder, Phillip Pisowocki, Carmen Zietz, Rainer Bader, Oliver Stachs, Anselm Jünemann
Introduction Current methods to measure the of strength of the musculus orbicularis oculi are limited by high proneness to examiner error or by their complex and impracticable set-ups. Our aim was to develop a simple and practicable method to measure eye lid power via video analysis. Methods 50 healthy subjects were included. A deformable single use lid speculum was used. Forced maximum lid closure was recorded via a video slit lamp. Analysis of the video data was performed with open source tracking software...
December 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230265/-juvenile-myasthenia-gravis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-case-study-of-two-consanguine-sisters-born-from-consanguinity-in-togo
#2
Nidain Maneh, Kossivi Apetse, Bénédicte Marèbe Diatewa, Sidik Abou-Bakr Domingo, Aidé Isabelle Agba, Koffi Didier Ayena, Koffi Agnon Balogou, Komi Patrice Balo
Myasthenia gravis is a rare acquired autoimmune pathology causing neuromuscular transmission impairment. Juvenile onset of myasthenia gravis is often characterized by ocular involvement. We report two cases of ocular juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) in two siblings. They were two young girls, XA and XB, aged 11 and 9 years, of Malian origin, residing in Togo, born from first-degree of consanguinity presenting to Ophthalmology due to progressive decrease in visual acuity. XA showed visual acuity 8/10 on both eyes while XB showed improvement in visual acuity from 3/10 to 7/10 using a pinhole occluder, suggesting ametropia...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#3
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225458/antiangiogenic-effect-of-dasatinib-in-murine-models-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-and-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization
#4
Songyi Seo, Wonhee Suh
Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a principal mediator of pathological ocular neovascularization, which is the leading cause of blindness in various ocular diseases. As Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, has been implicated as one of the major signaling molecules in VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the present study aimed to investigate whether dasatinib, a potent Src kinase inhibitor, could suppress pathological ocular neovascularization in murine models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225157/the-effect-of-amniotic-membrane-grafting-on-healing-and-wound-strength-after-strabismus-surgery-in-a-rabbit-model
#5
Jeffrey B Kennedy, Marissa B Larochelle, Michelle G Pedler, J Mark Petrash, Robert W Enzenauer
BACKGROUND: Amniotic membrane grafts (AMGs) are used, with mixed results, as a platform for ocular healing and to reduce pathologic scarring. This study evaluated wound tensile strength and histopathologic changes after strabismus surgery with AMGs in 20 New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS: All subjects underwent 4 mm inferior rectus hang-back recessions to both eyes. The right eyes served as controls. Ten left eyes (group 1) received processed dehydrated amniotic membrane allografts (Ambiodry2, IOP Inc, Costa Mesa, CA) and ten left eyes (group 2) received cryopreserved human amniotic membrane allografts (AmnioGraft, Bio-Tissue, Miami, FL) between the sclera and muscle insertion and between the muscle and repositioned conjunctiva...
December 7, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#6
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215951/regulation-of-aqueous-humor-dynamics-by-hydrogen-sulfide-potential-role-in-glaucoma-pharmacotherapy
#7
Sunny E Ohia, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell, Kalu K Ngele, Segewkal Heruye, Catherine A Opere, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous transmitter with well-known biological actions in a wide variety of tissues and organs. The potential involvement of this gas in physiological and pathological processes in the eye has led to several in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies to understand its pharmacological role in some mammalian species. Evidence from literature demonstrates that 4 enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of this gas (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS; cystathionine γ-lyase, CSE; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, 3MST; and d-amino acid oxidase) are present in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and retina...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212484/clinical-features-of-visual-disturbances-secondary-to-isolated-sphenoid-sinus-inflammatory-diseases
#8
Lanlan Chen, Libin Jiang, Bentao Yang, Prem S Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Visual disturbances associated with isolated sphenoid sinus inflammatory diseases (ISSIDs) are easily misdiagnosed due to the nonspecific symptoms and undetectable anatomical location. The main objective of this retrospective case series is to investigate the clinical features of visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs. METHODS: Clinical data of 23 patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs from 2004 to 2014 with new symptoms were collected...
December 6, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208839/safety-efficacy-and-cost-effectiveness-of-consecutive-bilateral-cataract-surgery-on-two-successive-days-in-tribes-at-base-hospital-through-community-outreach-program-a-prospective-study-of-aravali-mountain-north-west-india
#9
Amit Mohan, Navjot Kaur, Vishal C Bhatanagar
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of consecutive bilateral cataract surgery (CBCS) on two successive days in a single hospital visit. METHODS: Prospective study was conducted on 565 patients of various tribes of hilly area of West Rajasthan who had come to our hospital through community outreach programmed (CORP) between January 2015 and March 2016. Patients with significant bilateral cataract without any other ocular morbidity were advised bilateral manual small incision cataract surgery on two consecutive days...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208813/decision-making-and-management-of-uveitic-cataract
#10
REVIEW
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Seng-Ei Ti, Soon-Phaik Chee
The visual outcome of uveitic cataract surgery depends on the underlying uveitic diagnosis, the presence of vision-limiting pathology and perioperative optimization of disease control. A comprehensive preoperative ophthalmic assessment for the presence of concomitant ocular pathology, with particular emphasis on macula and optic nerve involvement, is essential to determine which patients will benefit from improved vision after cataract surgery. Meticulous examination in conjunction with adjunct investigations can help in preoperative surgical planning and in determining the need for combined or staged procedures...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204579/ocular-cranial-nerve-palsies-secondary-to-sphenoid-sinusitis
#11
Aiman El Mograbi, Ethan Soudry
Objective: The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus. Method: A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed. Results: Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%)...
March 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199229/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-pathological-ocular-angiogenesis
#12
Tsutomu Nakahara, Akane Morita, Rina Yagasaki, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto
Pathological ocular angiogenesis is a causative factor of retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and wet age-related macular degeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis, and anti-VEGF agents have been used to treat the ocular diseases that are driven by pathological angiogenesis. However, adverse effects associated with the blockade of VEGF signaling, including impairments of normal retinal vascular growth and retinal function, were suggested...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198386/x-linked-glomerulopathy-due-to-col4a5-founder%C3%A2-variant
#13
Moumita Barua, Rohan John, Lorenzo Stella, Weili Li, Nicole M Roslin, Bedra Sharif, Saidah Hack, Ginette Lajoie-Starkell, Andrew L Schwaderer, Brian Becknell, Matthias Wuttke, Anna Köttgen, Daniel Cattran, Andrew D Paterson, York Pei
Alport syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder caused by rare variants in 1 of 3 genes encoding for type IV collagen. Rare variants in COL4A5 on chromosome Xq22 cause X-linked Alport syndrome, which accounts for ∼80% of the cases. Alport syndrome has a variable clinical presentation, including progressive kidney failure, hearing loss, and ocular defects. Exome sequencing performed in 2 affected related males with an undefined X-linked glomerulopathy characterized by global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and vague basement membrane immune complex deposition revealed a COL4A5 sequence variant, a substitution of a thymine by a guanine at nucleotide 665 (c...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196953/preservative-free-prostaglandin-analogs-and-prostaglandin-timolol-fixed-combinations-in-the-treatment-of-glaucoma-efficacy-safety-and-potential-advantages
#14
REVIEW
Gábor Holló, Andreas Katsanos, Kostas G Boboridis, Murat Irkec, Anastasios G P Konstas
Glaucoma therapy-related ocular surface disease (OSD) is a serious pathology with a broad spectrum of insidious clinical presentations and complex pathogenesis that undermines long-term glaucoma care. Preservatives, especially benzalkonium chloride (BAK), contained in topical intraocular pressure-lowering medications frequently cause or aggravate OSD in glaucoma. Management of these patients is challenging, and to date often empirical due to the scarcity of controlled long-term clinical trials. Most of the available data are extracted from case series and retrospective analysis...
December 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190246/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings-of-deep-capillary-plexus-microischemia-after-intravenous-chemotherapy-for-retinoblastoma
#15
Kareem Sioufi, Emil A T Say, Sandor C Ferenczy, Ann M Leahey, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To study changes in the foveal microvascular anatomy using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) after intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) for retinoblastoma (RB). METHODS: A retrospective comparative case-control series included 10 age-matched normal eyes with no documented ocular pathology (control), 10 fellow eyes of patients with unilateral RB treated with IVC (RB fellow), and 10 eyes with extramacular RB in patients with bilateral RB treated with IVC (RB tumor)...
November 22, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189946/treatment-results-in-aphakic-patients-with-glaucoma-following-congenital-cataract-surgery
#16
Mine Baris, Elif Demirkilinc Biler, Suzan Guven Yilmaz, Halil Ates, Onder Uretmen, Suheyla Kose
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical findings and possible risk factors of patients with aphakic glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery and identify the factors affecting response to glaucoma treatment. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 173 patients was performed who underwent congenital cataract surgery before the age of 12 months and 40 eyes of 25 patients with aphakic glaucoma were enrolled. Age of the patients at the time of the cataract surgery, postoperative complications, additional ocular pathologies and the type of glaucoma treatment needed were investigated...
November 30, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182401/the-association-of-cataract-and-lens-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#17
Pembe Oltulu, Refik Oltulu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure the density of apoptotic lens epithelial cells (LECs) and to determine its association with cataract formation in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients diagnosed with PEX without glaucoma (Group 1) and 22 eyes of 22 subjects without PEX (Group 2) were enrolled in this study. During cataract surgery, anterior capsule samples were obtained by the 5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis method...
November 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181230/fungal-keratitis-study-of-increasing-trend-and-common-determinants
#18
Yogesh Acharya, Bhawana Acharya, Priyanka Karki
Fungal keratitis is one of the leading cause of ocular morbidity. Fungal keratitis possesses a clinical challenge due to its slow pathologic process, overlapping features, diagnostic difficulty, and potential complications. Its increasing trend can be attributed to the use of contact lens, non-judiciary corticosteroid, and vegetative trauma. Early diagnosis and treatment is the cornerstone for its effective control. Knowledge of pathological course and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis will definitely add in early diagnosis and treatment, with reduction in ocular morbidity...
June 2017: Nepal Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177946/clinical-outcomes-after-ex-press-glaucoma-shunt-versus-non-penetrating-deep-sclerectomy-two-year-follow-up
#19
Beatriz Puerto, Cristina López-Caballero, Carmen Sánchez-Sánchez, Noelia Oblanca, Vanesa Blázquez, Inés Contreras
PURPOSE: To compare the two-year outcomes of non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) and Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone NPDS or Ex-PRESS since 2012 was conducted. Patients were excluded if they had undergone eye surgery other than cataract extraction, were diagnosed with ocular pathology other than glaucoma or had less than two-year follow-up. Pre- and postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of hypotensive drugs and visual fields were recorded, as well as intra- and postoperative complications...
November 24, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176449/can-appropriate-systemic-treatment-help-protect-the-cornea-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-autoimmune-ocular-involvement
#20
Manuel J Amador-Patarroyo, Emilio Jalil-Florencia, Oscar Otero-Marquez, Nicolás Molano-Gonzalez, Ruben D Mantilla, Adriana Rojas-Villarraga, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Carmen Barraquer-Coll
PURPOSE: To correlate rheumatologic with ophthalmic and laboratory findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to identify what effect these have on development of ocular disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 172 eyes of 86 patients with RA. Patients were examined by a group of rheumatologists. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including corneal topography and endothelial cell count...
November 22, 2017: Cornea
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