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Ocular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632880/the-urokinase-receptor-derived-peptide-uparant-recovers-dysfunctional-electroretinogram-and-blood-retinal-barrier-leakage-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetes
#1
Maurizio Cammalleri, Filippo Locri, Stefania Marsili, Massimo Dal Monte, Claudio Pisano, Angelo Mancinelli, Liliana Lista, Dario Rusciano, Mario De Rosa, Vincenzo Pavone, Paola Bagnoli
Purpose: The activation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor system is associated with retinal diseases. Among peptide inhibitors of this system, UPARANT acts by preventing the onset of pathologic signs of neovascular ocular diseases. We investigated whether systemic UPARANT may act in a therapeutic regimen by suppressing the retinal damage that characterizes diabetic retinopathy using a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods: In healthy rats, plasma, eye, and retina concentrations of UPARANT were evaluated by mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632410/correlation-between-interleukin-6-and-thrombin-antithrombin-iii-complex-levels-in-retinal-diseases
#2
Rita Ehrlich, Alon Zahavi, Ruth Axer-Siegel, Ivan Budnik, Ayelet Dreznik, Mor Dahbash, Yael Nisgav, Elinor Megiddo, Gili Kenet, Dov Weinberger, Tami Livnat
PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate and correlate the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) in the vitreous of patients with different vitreoretinal pathologies. METHODS: Vitreous samples were collected from 78 patients scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy at a tertiary medical center. Patients were divided by the underlying vitreoretinal pathophysiology, as follows: macular hole (MH)/epiretinal membrane (ERM) (n = 26); rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) (n = 32); and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 20)...
June 20, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630765/enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography-a-new-way-measuring-choroidal-thickness-in-pregnant-women
#3
REVIEW
Jun Zhang, Huiyun Wang, Qiubo Yu, Qihu Tong, Qinkang Lu
The body changes markedly during pregnancy; each system behaves differently from a nonpregnant state. As the eyes are the only windows to see directly what is going on in the internal environment, more and more researches have been done to explain the association between ocular changes and the physiological and pathological changes during pregnancy. The choroid is one of the critical parts of the eye, providing nutrition. And abnormal choroid may result in ocular dysfunction and visual problems. As the optical coherence tomography develops, a rapid, direct, noninvasive, and nontoxic way is available to obtain the choroid situation of pregnant women, which may explain the mechanism of pregnancy-related eye diseases...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629927/quick-freeze-deep-etch-electron-microscopy-visualization-of-the-mouse-posterior-pole
#4
Ebraheim N Ismail, Jeffrey W Ruberti, Goldis Malek
The mouse is one of the most commonly used mammalian systems to study human diseases. In particular it has been an invaluable tool to model a multitude of ocular pathologies affecting the posterior pole. The aim of this study was to create a comprehensive map of the ultrastructure of the mouse posterior pole using the quick-freeze/deep-etch method (QFDE). QFDE can produce detailed three-dimensional images of tissue structure and macromolecular moieties, without many of the artifacts introduced by structure-altering post-processing methods necessary to perform conventional transmission electron microscopy (cTEM)...
June 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629694/interleukin-6-participation-in-pathology-of-ocular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Forouhe Zahir-Jouzdani, Fatemeh Atyabi, Nazanin Mojtabavi
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that affects a variety of cells in the body such as osteoclasts, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, white and red blood cells and etc. Elevated levels of IL-6 have been detected in many ocular diseases. Studies show that IL-6 has a major role in the pathology of glaucoma, CRVO, macular edema, ocular neovascularization, posterior capsule opacity formation, keratitis, dry eye disease, allergic eye disease, ocular autoimmune disease, corneal chemical burn, ocular inflammation and so on...
June 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625338/acute-diplopia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-cohort-multicenter-italian-study
#6
Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Francesco La Penna, Valentina Ferro, Lucia Calistri, Claudia Bondone, Fabio Midulla, Agnese Suppiej, Raffaele Falsaperla, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Antonella Palmieri, Alberto Verrotti, Sabrina Becciani, Sonia Aguzzi, Mario Mastrangelo, Federica Pelizza, Filippo Greco, Giulia Carbonari, Ramona Tallone, Gabriella Bottone, Italo Trenta, Stefano Masi, Maria Pia Villa, Antonino Reale
BACKGROUND: Acute diplopia (AD) is an uncommon and distressing symptom of numerous ocular and neurological conditions, with potentially serious sequelaes. No data are present in pediatrics on the presentation and management of AD. AIM: This study investigated characteristics, etiology and health care utilization of the pediatric population with AD accessed to pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), trying to identify "red flags" associated with potentially life-threatening (LT) conditions...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624909/emergency-orbital-pathology-what-the-radiologist-should-know
#7
Jarett Thelen, Asha A Bhatt, Alok A Bhatt
Acute ocular trauma accounts for a substantial number of emergency department visits in the USA, and represents a significant source of disability to patients; however, the orbits remain a potential blind spot for radiologists. The goal of this article is to review the relevant anatomy of the orbit and imaging findings associated with commonly encountered acute ocular traumatic pathology, while highlighting the salient information which should be reported to the ordering clinician. Topics discussed include trauma to the anterior and posterior chamber, lens dislocations, intraocular foreign bodies, and open and contained globe injuries...
June 17, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622910/the-link-between-morphology-and-complement-in-ocular-disease
#8
Camilla Mohlin, Kerstin Sandholm, Kristina N Ekdahl, Bo Nilsson
The complement system is a vital component of the immune-priveliged human eye that is always active at a low-grade level, preventing harmful intraocular injuries caused by accumulation of turnover products and controlling pathogens to preserve eye homeostasis and vision. The complement system is a double-edged sword that is essential for protection but may also become harmful and contribute to eye pathology. Here, we review the evidence for the involvement of complement system dysregulation in age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, uveitis, and neuromyelitis optica, highlighting the relationship between morphogical changes and complement system protein expression and regulation in these diseases...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622488/dizziness-unsteadiness-visual-disturbances-and-sensorimotor-control-in-traumatic-neck-pain
#9
Julia Treleaven
Synopsis There is considerable evidence to support the importance of cervical afferent dysfunction in the development of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances and altered balance, eye, and head movement control following neck trauma, especially in those with persistent symptoms. However, there are other possible causes for these symptoms and secondary adaptive changes should also be considered in the process of differential diagnosis. Understanding the nature of these symptoms and the differential diagnosis of their potential origin is important for rehabilitation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620965/determination-of-retinal-surface-area
#10
Manbir Nagra, Bernard Gilmartin, Ngoc Jade Thai, Nicola S Logan
Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620707/treatment-of-patients-with-neurotrophic-keratitis-stages-2-and-3-with-plasma-rich-in-growth-factors-prgf-endoret-eye-drops
#11
Ronald Mauricio Sanchez-Avila, Jesus Merayo-Lloves, Ana Cristina Riestra, Luis Fernandez-Vega Cueto, Eduardo Anitua, Leire Begoña, Francisco Muruzabal, Gorka Orive
PURPOSE: To provide preliminary data about efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye-drops in neurotrophic keratitis (NK) and to analyze the possible influence of certain variables on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with stages 2-3 of NK treated with PRGF eye-drops. Primary endpoint was the resolution time of corneal ulcer defect. Outcome measures including percentage of ulcer closure at 4 weeks, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Best-Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were also evaluated before and after treatment with PRGF...
June 15, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606756/lasting-retinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-blast-induced-trauma
#12
Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S Sakaguchi, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Justin J Greenlee, M Heather West Greenlee
Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599912/efficacy-of-vision-therapy-in-children-with-learning-disability-and-associated-binocular-vision-anomalies
#13
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Prerana Shah, Krishna Kumar Ramani, Lalitha Ramanujan
PURPOSE: To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). METHODS: The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599417/overexpression-of-the-anti-apoptotic-protein-bag3-in-human-choroidal-melanoma-a-case-report
#14
Tatsuya Yunoki, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Takashi Kondo, Yoko Ishii, Atsushi Hayashi
Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), exerts anti-apoptotic effects in various malignant tumors. However, relationships between choroidal melanoma and BAG3 are poorly studied. This study investigated the expression of BAG3 in a case of human choroidal melanoma. Funduscopy, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography with the intravenous injection of N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine strongly indicated choroidal melanoma in a 68-year-old woman...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596923/unilateral-dilated-pupil-and-spontaneous-cardiac-arrest-with-successful-bystander-resuscitation
#15
James M Hancox, Julian Spiers, Nicholas Crombie, David N Naumann
A 75-year-old man collapsed on a golf course and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a bystander, including the use of a public automated external defibrillator (AED). The AED was discharged once, with return of spontaneous circulation. An air ambulance crew found the patient haemodynamically stable, with no acute abnormalities on a 12-lead ECG. He had reduced consciousness and a dilated left pupil. On contacting the patient's wife by telephone, she said that he had fallen and hit his head earlier that day...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592747/roles-of-hypoxia-response-in-retinal-development-and-pathophysiology
#16
Toshihide Kurihara
The hypoxia response is a fundamental phenomenon mainly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). For more than a decade, we have investigated and revealed the roles of the hypoxia response in the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of the retina by generating and utilizing cell-type-specific conditional knockout mice. To investigate the functions of genes related to the hypoxia response in cells composing the retina, we generated various mouse lines that lack HIFs and/or related genes specifically in retinal neurons, astrocytes, myeloid cells, or retinal pigment epithelium cells...
June 6, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587293/pathological-analysis-of-ocular-lesions-in-a-murine-model-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#17
Aya Ushio, Rieko Arakaki, Hiroshi Eguchi, Fumika Hotta, Akiko Yamada, Yasusei Kudo, Naozumi Ishimaru
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by severe inflammation of exocrine glands such as the salivary and lacrimal glands. When it affects the lacrimal glands, many patients experience keratoconjunctivitis due to severely dry eyes. This study investigated the pathological and immunological characteristics of ocular lesions in a mouse model of SS. Corneal epithelial injury and hyperplasia were confirmed pathologically. The number of conjunctival mucin-producing goblet cells was significantly decreased in the SS model mice compared with control mice...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584193/let-7-contributes-to-diabetic-retinopathy-but-represses-pathological-ocular-angiogenesis
#18
Qinbo Zhou, Robert J A Frost, Chastain Anderson, Fangkun Zhao, Jing Ma, Bo Yu, Shusheng Wang
The in vivo function of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains unclear. Here we report that let-7 family members are expressed in retinal and choroidal endothelial cells (EC). In ECs, overexpression of let-7 by adenovirus represses EC proliferation, migration, and networking in vitro, while inhibition of the let-7 family with a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-anti-miR has the opposite effect. Mechanistically, silencing of the let-7 target gene HMGA2 mimics the phenotype of let-7 overexpression in ECs...
June 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582373/ocular-surface-changes-after-sulfur-mustard-exposure-in-rabbits-monitored-by-impression-cytology
#19
Shlomit Dachir, Hila Gutman, Ariel Gore, Liat Cohen, Maayan Cohen, Adina Amir, Vered Horwitz, Tamar Kadar
PURPOSE: Ocular injuries after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) are characterized by acute corneal erosion and inflammation of the anterior segment that may be followed by delayed corneal neovascularization and epithelial defects, associated with limbal stem cell deficiency in part of the exposed eyes. This study aimed to further clarify the mechanism of the late injury by monitoring SM-induced cytological alterations in the ocular surface, in relation to the clinical symptoms, using impression cytology (IC)...
June 2, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578364/xeroderma-pigmentosum-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Lenah Alwatban, Yousef Binamer
BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective DNA repair that results in extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Depending on the type of XP, the disease may affect the skin, eyes and nervous system. OBJECTIVES: Describe the dermatologic manifestations in patients suffering from XP. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive review of medical records. SETTING: Dermatology clinic at tertiary care center in Riyadh...
May 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
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