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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#1
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#3
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633076/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Amit Lazarov, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Bret R Rutherford, Yuval Neria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain regions within the salience (SN) and default-mode (DMN) networks, including the hippocampus. However, most rs-FC studies have not focused primarily on the hippocampus, nor have they appreciated its structural heterogeneity, despite clear evidence for a dissociation between posterior and anterior hippocampal connectivity. Here, we examine rs-FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus with key regions in the SN (amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and DMN (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) previously implicated in PTSD, using a seed-based approach...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628797/attenuated-error-related-potentials-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-executive-dysfunctions
#5
Caroline Seer, Max Joop, Florian Lange, Christian Lange, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Bruno Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunctions affect up to 50% of the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Executive dysfunctions have been identified as negative prognostic factor and can affect quality of life in patients and their caregivers. Assessment of executive dysfunction may be impeded by the patients' motor impairments. Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed as a tool to overcome these assessment difficulties. The error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an ERP which can be recorded with minimal motor requirements for the patient...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628767/multi-modal-neuroimaging-of-adolescents-with-non-suicidal-self-injury-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#6
Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Bryon A Mueller, Lynn E Eberly, Kristina M Reigstad, Patricia A Carstedt, Kathleen M Thomas, Ruskin H Hunt, Kelvin O Lim, Kathryn R Cullen
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant mental health problem among adolescents. Research is needed to clarify the neurobiology of NSSI and identify candidate neurobiological targets for interventions. Based on prior research implicating heightened negative affect and amygdala hyperactivity in NSSI, we pursued a systems approach to characterize amygdala functional connectivity networks during rest (resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC)]) and a task (task functional connectivity [TFC]) in adolescents with NSSI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616718/effect-of-intrastriatal-6-ohda-lesions-on-extrastriatal-brain-structures-in-the-mouse
#7
Birte Becker, Melek Demirbas, Sonja Johann, Adib Zendedel, Cordian Beyer, Hans Clusmann, Stefan Jean-Pierre Haas, Andreas Wree, Sonny Kian Hwie Tan, Markus Kipp
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying pathology of non-motor symptoms is poorly understood. Discussed are pathological changes of extrastriatal brain structures. In this study, we characterized histopathological alterations of extrastriatal brain structures in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD animal model. Lesions were induced by unilateral stereotactic injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum or medial forebrain bundle of adult male mice...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604410/feasibility-and-neurobehavioral-changes-of-10-day-simulated-microgravity-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#8
Kyo-In Koo, Dae Kwon Park, Chang Ho Hwang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate feasibility and functional changes of simulated microgravity with 6-degree head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest in acute ischemic stroke. DESIGN: Patients without lesions in the cingulate cortex and/or cerebellum were enrolled. They underwent HDT for 30 minutes twice per day for 10 weekdays. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before the HDT, immediately after, and also 30 minutes after the stop...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591814/abnormal-gray-matter-shape-thickness-and-volume-in-the-motor-cortico-subcortical-loop-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-association-with-clinical-and-motor-features
#9
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Christophe Bedetti, Simona Brambati, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Malo Gaubert, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580693/changes-in-brain-activity-following-intensive-voice-treatment-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#10
Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Jacqueline Cummine, Alesha Reed, Cynthia M Fox, Brea Chouinard, Ivor Cribben, Carol A Boliek
Eight children (3 females; 8-16 years) with motor speech disorders secondary to cerebral palsy underwent 4 weeks of an intensive neuroplasticity-principled voice treatment protocol, LSVT LOUD(®) , followed by a structured 12-week maintenance program. Children were asked to overtly produce phonation (ah) at conversational loudness, cued-phonation at perceived twice-conversational loudness, a series of single words, and a prosodic imitation task while being scanned using fMRI, immediately pre- and post-treatment and 12 weeks following a maintenance program...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579485/cerebral-metabolic-change-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-anxiety-a-fdg-pet-study
#11
Xixi Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Yongsheng Yuan, Tiannv Li, Li Zhang, Jian Ding, Siming Jiang, Junyi Li, Lin Zhu, Kezhong Zhang
OBJECT: To detect the cerebral metabolic bases of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with anxiety. METHODS: Totally 28 idiopathic PD patients without depression (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAMD score <14) were enrolled in our study. All subjects were classified into PD with anxiety (PD-A) (n=13) and PD without anxiety (PD-NA) (n=15) by cutoff score of 11 according to Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA). Besides, age- and gender- matched healthy controls (HCs) (n=15) were selected...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579482/precuneus-degeneration-and-isolated-apathy-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jung Hwan Shin, Seong A Shin, Jee-Young Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Jae-Sung Lim, Yu Kyeong Kim
INTRODUCTION: To investigate isolated apathy in a set of consecutively enrolled Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia, depression, and significant motor response fluctuations, by conducting neuropsychological and neuroimaging analyses. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Clinical information and data were collected from a predefined neuropsychological test battery, including the mini-mental status examination, apathy scale, geriatric depression scale, digit span test, Boston naming test, Seoul verbal learning test, controlled oral word association test, go-no-go test, and the Rey figure copy test...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560818/emotion-regulation-deficits-in-regular-marijuana-users
#13
Kaeli Zimmermann, Christina Walz, Raissa T Derckx, Keith M Kendrick, Bernd Weber, Bruce Dore, Kevin N Ochsner, René Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560154/children-with-cerebral-palsy-have-altered-oscillatory-activity-in-the-motor-and-visual-cortices-during-a-knee-motor-task
#14
Max J Kurz, Amy L Proskovec, James E Gehringer, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
The neuroimaging literature on cerebral palsy (CP) has predominantly focused on identifying structural aberrations within the white matter (e.g., fiber track integrity), with very few studies examining neural activity within the key networks that serve the production of motor actions. The current investigation used high-density magnetoencephalography to begin to fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the temporal dynamics of the alpha and beta cortical oscillations in children with CP (age = 15.5 ± 3 years; GMFCS levels II-III) and typically developing (TD) children (age = 14...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553214/from-thirst-to-satiety-the-anterior-mid-cingulate-cortex-and-right-posterior-insula-indicate-dynamic-changes-in-incentive-value
#15
Christoph A Becker, Tobias Flaisch, Britta Renner, Harald T Schupp
The cingulate cortex and insula are among the neural structures whose activations have been modulated in functional imaging studies examining discrete states of thirst and drinking to satiation. Building upon these findings, the present study aimed to identify neural structures that change their pattern of activation elicited by water held in the mouth in relation to the internal body state, i.e., proportional to continuous water consumption. Accordingly, participants in a thirsty state were scanned while receiving increments of water until satiety was reached...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553199/aberrant-functional-connectivity-architecture-in-participants-with-chronic-insomnia-disorder-accompanying-cognitive-dysfunction-a-whole-brain-data-driven-analysis
#16
Ran Pang, Yafeng Zhan, Yunling Zhang, Rongjuan Guo, Jialin Wang, Xiao Guo, Yong Liu, Zhiqun Wang, Kuncheng Li
Objectives: Although it is widely observed that chronic insomnia disorder (CID) is associated with cognitive impairment, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Prior neuroimaging studies have confirmed that a close correlation exists between functional connectivity and cognitive impairment. Based on this observation, in this study we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to study the relationship between whole brain functional connectivity and cognitive function in CID...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544456/the-experience-of-beauty-derived-from-sorrow
#17
Tomohiro Ishizu, Semir Zeki
We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#18
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525569/comparative-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#19
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of MPH, modafinil and MDMA on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Methods: Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, MPH, modafinil and MDMA were administrated to 21 healthy subjects, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#20
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting-state functional connectivity in 38 patients with CTN and 38 matched healthy controls. For voxel-based morphometry analyses, patients with CTN displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior-cingulate cortex (ACC) and mid-cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area, and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
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