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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464531/the-relationship-between-voxel-based-metrics-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance-in-cognitively-healthy-elderly-adults
#1
Haobo Zhang, Perminder S Sachdev, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Yong He, Mingrui Xia, Nicole A Kochan, John D Crawford, Julian N Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Wei Wen
In previous studies, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics of specific brain regions or networks based on prior hypotheses have been correlated with cognitive performance. Without constraining our analyses to specific regions or networks, we employed whole-brain voxel-based weighted degree (WD), a measure of local FC strength, to be correlated with three commonly used neuropsychological assessments of language, executive function and memory retrieval in both positive and negative directions in 67 cognitively healthy elderly adults...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462464/determining-brain-mechanisms-that-underpin-analgesia-induced-by-the-use-of-pain-coping-skills
#2
Leonie J Cole, Kim L Bennell, Yasmin Ahamed, Christina Bryant, Francis Keefe, G Lorimer Moseley, Paul Hodges, Michael J Farrell
Objective: Cognitive behavioral therapies decrease pain and improve mood and function in people with osteoarthritis. This study assessed the effects of coping strategies on the central processing of knee pain in people with osteoarthritis of the knees. Methods: Mechanical pressure was applied to exacerbate knee pain in 28 people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Reports of pain intensity and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of pain-related brain activity were recorded with and without the concurrent use of pain coping skills...
February 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461337/habitual-action-video-game-players-display-increased-cortical-thickness-in-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#3
Jessica Benady-Chorney, Yvonne Yau, Yashar Zeighami, Veronique D Bohbot, Greg L West
Action video game players (aVGPs) display increased performance in attention-based tasks and enhanced procedural motor learning. In parallel, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is centrally implicated in specific types of reward-based learning and attentional control, the execution or inhibition of motor commands, and error detection. These processes are hypothesized to support aVGP in-game performance and enhanced learning though in-game feedback. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that habitual aVGPs would display increased cortical thickness compared with nonvideo game players (nonVGPs)...
February 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456134/parietal-control-network-activation-during-memory-tasks-may-be-associated-with-the-co-occurrence-of-externally-and-internally-directed-cognition-a-cross-function-meta-analysis
#4
Hongkeun Kim
Functional neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval consistently indicated the activation of the precuneus (PCU), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), and lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) regions. Although studies typically interpreted these activations in terms of memory retrieval processes, resting-state functional connectivity data indicate that these regions are part of the frontoparietal control network, suggesting a more general, cross-functional role. In this regard, this study proposes a novel hypothesis which suggests that the parietal control network plays a strong role in accommodating the co-occurrence of externally directed cognition (EDC) and internally directed cognition (IDC), which are typically antagonistic to each other...
March 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451300/decreased-anterior-cingulate-activation-in-a-motor-task-in-youths-with-bipolar-disorder
#5
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Punitha Subramaniam, Marie R Ehrler, Melissa P Lopez-Larson
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task. METHODS: Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self-paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450943/cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-gray-squirrels-sciurus-carolinensis
#6
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements toward environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of gray squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioral characteristics of gray squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449186/the-reorganization-of-functional-architecture-in-the-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Noora Tuovinen, Klaus Seppi, Francesco de Pasquale, Christoph Müller, Michael Nocker, Michael Schocke, Elke R Gizewski, Christian Kremser, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian, Christoph Scherfler, Morinobu Seki
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to identify longitudinal abnormalities of functional connectivity and its relation with motor disability in early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: 3.0T structural and resting-state functional MRI was performed in healthy subjects (n = 16) and Parkinson's disease patients (n = 16) with mean disease duration of 2.2 ± 1.2 years at baseline with a clinical follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.3 years. Resting-state fMRI analysis included region-to-region connectivity in correlation with UPDRS-III scores and computation of Global Efficiency and Degree Centrality...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449183/altered-resting-state-voxel-level-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Hansheng Wang, Huiyue Chen, Jiahui Wu, Li Tao, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Ke Sheng, Jin Luo, Yida Hu, Weidong Fang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Recently, degree centrality, a voxel-level whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided the most promising way to explore the neural network mechanisms underlying depressed PD. METHODS: Degree centrality, voxel-wise image and clinical symptoms correlation and secondary seed-based FC analyses were performed in twenty-seven drug-naïve, early stage depressed PD patients, 27 non-depressed PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs) to reveal voxel-level whole-brain FC changes in depressed PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#9
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444726/resting-state-thalamic-dysconnectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-relationships-with-symptoms
#10
J Ferri, J M Ford, B J Roach, J A Turner, T G van Erp, J Voyvodic, A Preda, A Belger, J Bustillo, D O'Leary, B A Mueller, K O Lim, S C McEwen, V D Calhoun, M Diaz, G Glover, D Greve, C G Wible, J G Vaidya, S G Potkin, D H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434543/altered-functional-connectivity-of-fronto-cingulo-striatal-circuits-during-error-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#11
Heledd Hart, Lena Lim, Mitul A Mehta, Charles Curtis, Xiaohui Xu, Gerome Breen, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene ( 5-HTTLPR, MAOA ) interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427654/motor-sequence-learning-in-the-brain-the-long-and-short-of-it
#12
C C Gonzalez, M R Burke
Motor sequence learning involves predictive processing that results in the anticipation of each component of a sequence of actions. In smooth pursuit, this predictive processing is required to decrease tracking errors between the eye and the stimulus. Current models for motor sequence learning suggest parallel mechanisms in the brain for acquiring sequences of differing complexity. We examined this model by comparing shorter versus longer sequences of pursuit eye movements during fMRI. In this way we were able to identify overlapping and distinct brain areas involved in simple versus more complex oculomotor learning...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426874/oxytocin-curbs-calorie-intake-via-food-specific-increases-in-the-activity-of-brain-areas-that-process-reward-and-establish-cognitive-control
#13
Maartje S Spetter, Gordon B Feld, Matthias Thienel, Hubert Preissl, Maike A Hege, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neurohormone oxytocin decreases food intake via largely unexplored mechanisms. We investigated the central nervous mediation of oxytocin's hypophagic effect in comparison to its impact on the processing of generalized rewards. Fifteen fasted normal-weight, young men received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain activity during exposure to food stimuli and a monetary incentive delay task (MID). Subsequently, ad-libitum breakfast intake was assessed...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421336/do-scores-on-the-food-craving-inventory-and-three-factor-eating-questionnaire-correlate-with-expected-brain-regions-of-interest-in-people-with-obesity
#14
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether subscales of Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) correlate with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) in the brain. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female adults with obesity (19-60years; 30-39.9kg/m2) participated in a 3-week dietary intervention (1120kcal/day from either 1) total meal replacement shakes, 2) portion-controlled typical food. FCI, TFEQ and fMRI-FCR were measured pre- and post-intervention...
January 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417490/motor-and-extra-motor-gray-matter-integrity-may-underlie-neurophysiologic-parameters-of-motor-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-transcranial-stimulation-study
#15
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408525/intentionally-not-imitating-insula-cortex-engaged-for-top-down-control-of-action-mirroring
#16
Megan E J Campbell, Steve Mehrkanoon, Ross Cunnington
Perception and action are inextricably linked, down to the level of single cells which have both visual and motor response properties - dubbed 'mirror neurons'. The mirror neuron system is generally associated with direct-matching or resonance between observed and executed actions (and goals). Yet in everyday interactions responding to another's movements with matching actions (or goals) is not always appropriate. Here we examine processes associated with intentionally not imitating, as separable from merely detecting an observed action as mismatching one's own...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406908/extrastriatal-degeneration-correlates-with-deficits-in-the-motor-domain-subscales-of-the-uhdrs
#17
Victor Galvez, Gabriel Ramírez-García, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Leo Bayliss, Rosalinda Díaz, María Margarita Lopez-Titla, Aurelio Campos-Romo, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Striatal degeneration has significant behavioral effects in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). However, there is scant evidence of the possible contribution of extrastriatal regions to the motor alterations assessed within the different domains of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). OBJECTIVE: Analyze if extrastriatal grey matter decrease in patients with HD correlates with motor performance assessed with the UHDRS and its different domains...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403364/multisynaptic-projections-from-the-amygdala-to-the-ventral-premotor-cortex-in-macaque-monkeys-anatomical-substrate-for-feeding-behavior
#18
Hiroaki Ishida, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Masahiko Takada
The amygdala codes the visual-gustatory/somatosensory valence for feeding behavior. On the other hand, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) plays a central role in reaching and grasping movements prerequisite for feeding behavior. This implies that object valence signals derived from the amygdala may be crucial for feeding-related motor actions exerted by PMv. However, since no direct connectivity between the amygdala and PMv has been reported, the structural basis of their functional interactions still remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392838/cortical-differences-in-diverticular-disease-and-correlation-with-symptom-reports
#19
A Pitiot, J K Smith, D J Humes, J Garratt, S T Francis, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, L Marciani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. METHODS: Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392232/gray-matter-alteration-associated-with-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-6-months-after-lumbar-disk-surgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
Omar Chehadi, Boris Suchan, Kerstin Konietzny, Odo Köster, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Monika I Hasenbring
Introduction: Pain catastrophizing (PC), the increased attention to harmful aspects of pain (magnification), and the belief of low controllability (helplessness) has been shown to be important in the maintenance of pain. A growing research on structural alterations in chronic pain revealed an association between PC and brain areas that are involved in affective and cognitive pain processing. However, little is known about a differential effect of the components magnification and helplessness...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
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