Read by QxMD icon Read

Cingulate motor

Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Dusan Hirjak, Anne K Thomann, Katharina M Kubera, Robert C Wolf, Haang Jeung, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann
Impulsivity is associated with distinct mental disorders but is also considered as a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals. Current studies suggest that early stressful life events might cause higher impulsivity in the adulthood. Morphological features, which reflect early brain development, could provide valuable information regarding the origin of impulsive behavior. However, none of the previous MRI studies employed a methodology specifically designed to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and markers of brain development...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sebastian Walther, Lea Schäppi, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that not only frequently occurs in the context of schizophrenia but also in other conditions. The neural correlates of catatonia remain unclear due to small-sized studies. We therefore compared resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and gray matter (GM) density between schizophrenia patients with current catatonia and without catatonia and healthy controls. We included 42 schizophrenia patients and 41 controls. Catatonia was currently present in 15 patients (scoring >2 items on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale screening)...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fiona C A Geraerts, Russell G Snell, Richard L M Faull, Liam Williams, Jessie C Jacobsen, Suzanne J Reid
Huntington's disease is caused by expansion of the CAG repeat in Huntingtin. This repeat has shown tissue-specific instability in mouse models and in a small number of post-mortem human samples. We used small-pool PCR to generate a modified instability index to quantify CAG instability within two brain regions from six human samples where cell loss has been associated with motor and mood symptoms: the motor cortex and cingulate gyrus. The expanded allele demonstrated instability in both regions, with minimal instability in the unexpanded allele...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
L I Kozlova, M B Shtark, M E Mel'nikov, E G Verevkin, A A Savelov, E D Petrovskii
fMRI-EEG dynamics of brain activity in volunteers was studied during the course of EEG alpha-stimulation training (20 sessions). Twenty-three healthy men (20-35 years) were subjected to 3-fold mapping in a feedback loop (EEG alpha-rhythm biofeedback with acoustic reinforcement). This procedure was performed at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. During the first neurofeedback training session, deactivation (p<0.001) was found in the right angular gyrus, supramarginal, and superior temporal gyri, Brodmann area 39, and cerebellum...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Cyril Atkinson-Clement, Audrey Maillet, Didier LeBars, Franck Lavenne, Jérôme Redouté, Alexandre Krainik, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Serge Pinto
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) represents one of the most efficacious treatments for Parkinson's disease, along with L-dopa therapy. The objective of the present work was to identify the cerebral networks associated with hand movement and speech production tasks performed alone and simultaneously, as well as the effects of STN-DBS on these profiles. Clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging (oxygen 15-labeled water and Positron Emission Tomography) investigations were used to study single and combined performances of unilateral hand movements and speech production in 11 unmedicated individuals with PD, both off and on STN-DBS...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xun Yang, Liyuan Hu, Jianguang Zeng, Ying Tan, Bochao Cheng
Specific frontolimbic abnormalities are hypothesized to underlie the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, findings from neuroimaging studies were inconsistent. In the current study, we aimed to provide a complete overview of cerebral microstructural alterations in gray matter (GM) of BPD patients. A total of 11 studies were enrolled, comprising 275 BPD patients and 290 healthy controls (HCs). A meta-analysis was conduct to quantitatively estimate regional GM abnormalities in BPD patients using the seed-based d mapping (SDM)...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jeonghun Ku, Yeong Seon Lee, HyukWon Chang, Christopher J Earley, Richard P Allen, Yong Won Cho
BACKGROUND: The unusual sensations of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) are induced by rest or a low arousal state with a circadian variation in the threshold for induction. It has been suggested that the emergence of RLS/WED symptoms relates to abnormal brain functions dealing with internally generated stimuli. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the default mode network (DMN) in RLS/WED subjects. METHODS: Sixteen drug-naïve, idiopathic, RLS/WED subjects, and 16 age-matched and gender-matched healthy subjects were scanned in an asymptomatic resting state...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Leila M Soravia, Ariane Orosz, Simon Schwab, Masahito Nakataki, Roland Wiest, Andrea Federspiel
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is able to change brain activation in phobic patients in response to threatening stimuli. The changes occurred in both emotion-generating and modulatory regions. In this study, we use a data-driven approach to explore resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL), before and after CBT. METHODS: Eight female patients with spider phobia were scanned before and 1 month after an exposure-based group therapy for spider phobia...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Miriam C Klein-Flügge, Steven W Kennerley, Karl Friston, Sven Bestmann
UNLABELLED: Integrating costs and benefits is crucial for optimal decision-making. Although much is known about decisions that involve outcome-related costs (e.g., delay, risk), many of our choices are attached to actions and require an evaluation of the associated motor costs. Yet how the brain incorporates motor costs into choices remains largely unclear. We used human fMRI during choices involving monetary reward and physical effort to identify brain regions that serve as a choice comparator for effort-reward trade-offs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
D L Dickstein, M Y Pullman, C Fernandez, J A Short, L Kostakoglu, K Knesaurek, L Soleimani, B D Jordan, W A Gordon, K Dams-O'Connor, B N Delman, E Wong, C Y Tang, S T DeKosky, J R Stone, R C Cantu, M Sano, P R Hof, S Gandy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [(18)F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [(18)F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Suena H Massey, Daniel Stern, Eva C Alden, Julie E Petersen, Derin J Cobia, Lei Wang, John G Csernansky, Matthew J Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive empathy is supported by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), insula (INS), supplementary motor area (SMA), right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and precuneus (PREC). In healthy controls, cortical thickness in these regions has been linked to cognitive empathy. As cognitive empathy is impaired in schizophrenia, we examined whether reduced cortical thickness in these regions was associated with poorer cognitive empathy in this population...
September 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Rose Khavari, Christof Karmonik, Michael Shy, Sophie Fletcher, Timothy Boone
PURPOSE: Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction (NLUTD) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a significant impact on their quality of life. In this study, we seek to discover brain activity processes during the micturition cycle in female patients with MS and NLUTD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report brain activity via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and simultaneous urodynamic testing (UDS) in twenty-three ambulatory female patients with MS...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Urology
Jarmo Heinonen, Jussi Numminen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Henrik Antell, Vesa Taatila, Jyrki Suomala
Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network...
2016: PloS One
Timothy B Meier, Melissa A Lancaster, Andrew R Mayer, T Kent Teague, Jonathan Savitz
There is a great need to identify potential long-term consequences of contact sport exposure and to identify molecular pathways that may be associated with these changes. We tested the hypothesis that football players with (Ath-mTBI) (n = 25) and without a concussion history (Ath) (n = 24) have altered resting state functional connectivity in regions with previously documented structural changes relative to healthy controls without football or concussion history (HC) (n = 27). As a secondary aim, we tested the hypothesis that group differences in functional connectivity are moderated by the relative ratio of neuroprotective to neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Lisa M Fucito, Xingguang Luo, Carolyn M Mazure, Laszlo Zaborszky, Chiang-Shan R Li
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have characterized impaired cerebral functioning in nicotine-addicted individuals. Whereas nicotine interacts with multiple neurotransmitters in cortical and subcortical circuits, it directly targets the cholinergic system, sourced primarily from the basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM). However, no studies have examined how this cholinergic system is influenced by cigarette smoking. Here, we addressed this gap of research. METHODS: Using a dataset from the Functional Connectome Projects, we investigated this issue by contrasting seed-based BNM connectivity of 40 current smokers and 170 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers...
August 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Wanqun Yang, Bin Liu, Biao Huang, Ruiwang Huang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Kai Wu
BACKGROUND: Despite improvement in motor symptoms, the effect of dopaminergic medications on cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is less clear. The purpose of this study was to reveal levodopa-induced acute changes in the functional connectivity of the striatum in patients with PD compared with matched untreated patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with PD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging both ON and OFF dopamine-replacement therapy on two consecutive days...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"