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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#1
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#2
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#3
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423021/trait-impulsivity-components-correlate-differently-with-proactive-and-reactive-control
#4
Shihua Huang, Zude Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yu Chen, Shuangju Zhen
The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420981/age-related-difference-in-functional-brain-connectivity-of-mastication
#5
Chia-Shu Lin, Ching-Yi Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Hsiao-Han Lin, Dong-Hui Cheng, Wen-Liang Lo
The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#6
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419056/response-characteristics-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-to-ultrasonic-communicative-vocalizations
#7
Yumi Saito, Kazuo Okanoya
Emotional communication involves transmitting information on affective states. Rat 50- and 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emotional communication signals that reflect positive or negative states, respectively. In general, emotional communication signals that elicit changes in event-related potentials (ERPs), suggesting a specific mechanism for processing these signals. As this is observed in several communication systems including humans, we hypothesized that rat USVs can also trigger such changes...
April 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418404/a-pathway-linking-reward-circuitry-impulsive-sensation-seeking-and-risky-decision-making-in-young-adults-identifying-neural-markers-for-new-interventions
#8
H W Chase, J C Fournier, M A Bertocci, T Greenberg, H Aslam, R Stiffler, J Lockovich, S Graur, G Bebko, E E Forbes, M L Phillips
High trait impulsive sensation seeking (ISS) is common in 18-25-year olds, and is associated with risky decision-making and deleterious outcomes. We examined relationships among: activity in reward regions previously associated with ISS during an ISS-relevant context, uncertain reward expectancy (RE), using fMRI; ISS impulsivity and sensation-seeking subcomponents; and risky decision-making in 100, transdiagnostically recruited 18-25-year olds. ISS, anhedonia, anxiety, depression and mania were measured using self-report scales; clinician-administered scales also assessed the latter four...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415008/bipolar-mood-state-reflected-in-cortico-amygdala-resting-state-connectivity-a-cohort-and-longitudinal-study
#9
Roscoe O Brady, Allison Margolis, Grace A Masters, Matcheri Keshavan, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411148/behavioural-characterization-of-ankyring-deficient-mice-a-model-for-ank3-related-disorders
#10
I M van der Werf, D Van Dam, S Missault, B Yalcin, P P De Deyn, G Vandeweyer, R F Kooy
ANK3 encodes AnkyrinG (AnkG), a member of the Ankyrin family that is expressed in several different isoforms in many tissues. A unique serine-rich domain and tail domain in the two largest isoforms of AnkG (270 and 480kDa), restrict AnkG to the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of myelinated neurons. At these sites, AnkG is a master regulator, coordinating the strict clustering of components necessary for proper action potential initiation and propagation along the axon. These components include voltage-gated sodium channels, potassium channels and members of the L1 cell adhesion molecule family...
April 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410773/brain-activity-during-phonation-in-women-with-muscle-tension-dysphonia-an-fmri-study
#11
Maryna Kryshtopava, Kristiane Van Lierde, Iris Meerschman, Evelien D'Haeseleer, Pieter Vandemaele, Guy Vingerhoets, Sofie Claeys
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study are (1) to investigate brain activity during phonation in women with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in comparison with healthy controls; and (2) to explain the neurophysiological mechanism of laryngeal hyperfunction/tension during phonation in patients with MTD. METHODS: Ten women with MTD and fifteen healthy women participated in this study. The fMRI experiment was carried out using a block design paradigm...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408865/tau-pathology-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease-corresponds-differentially-to-cognition-relevant-functional-brain-networks
#12
Oskar Hansson, Michel J Grothe, Tor Olof Strandberg, Tomas Ohlsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll
Neuropathological studies have shown that the typical neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially affects specific brain regions whereas others remain relatively spared. It has been suggested that the distinct regional distribution profile of tau pathology in AD may be a consequence of the intrinsic network structure of the human brain. The spatially distributed brain regions that are most affected by the spread of tau pathology may hence reflect an interconnected neuronal system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405611/long-term-follow-up-of-a-randomized-aav2-gad-gene-therapy-trial-for-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Martin Niethammer, Chris C Tang, Peter A LeWitt, Ali R Rezai, Maureen A Leehey, Steven G Ojemann, Alice W Flaherty, Emad N Eskandar, Sandra K Kostyk, Atom Sarkar, Mustafa S Siddiqui, Stephen B Tatter, Jason M Schwalb, Kathleen L Poston, Jaimie M Henderson, Roger M Kurlan, Irene H Richard, Christine V Sapan, David Eidelberg, Matthew J During, Michael G Kaplitt, Andrew Feigin
BACKGROUND. We report the 12-month clinical and imaging data on the effects of bilateral delivery of the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene into the subthalamic nuclei (STN) of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS. 45 PD patients were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind randomized trial of bilateral AAV2-GAD delivery into the STN compared with sham surgery and were followed for 12 months in open-label fashion. Subjects were assessed with clinical outcome measures and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402573/humor-drawings-evoked-temporal-and-spectral-eeg-processes
#14
Regina W Y Wang, Hsien-Chu Kuo, Shang-Wen Chuang
The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393895/sex-differences-in-regional-brain-glucose-metabolism-following-opioid-withdrawal-and-replacement
#15
Giovanni C Santoro, Joseph Carrion, Krishna Patel, Crystal Vilchez, Jennifer Veith, Jonathan D Brodie, Stephen L Dewey
Methadone and buprenorphine are currently the most common pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence. Interestingly, the clinical response to these drugs appears to be sex-specific. That is, females exhibit superior therapeutic efficacy, defined as extended periods of abstinence and longer time to relapse, compared to males. However, the underlying metabolic effects of opioid withdrawal and replacement have not been examined. Therefore, using (18)FDG and microPET, we measured differences in regional brain glucose metabolism in males and females following morphine withdrawal and subsequent methadone or buprenorphine replacement...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391014/neonatal-alcohol-exposure-reduces-number-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-impairs-passive-avoidance-acquisition-in-mice-deficits-not-rescued-from-exercise
#16
G F Hamilton, I J Hernandez, C P Krebs, P J Bucko, J S Rhodes
Developmental alcohol exposure causes a host of cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities, one of which is impaired executive functioning resulting from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) damage. This study determined whether third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure reduced the number of mPFC GABAergic parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, hypothesized to play an important role in local inhibition of the mPFC. The impact on passive avoidance learning and the therapeutic role of aerobic exercise in adulthood was also explored...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385635/effect-of-diazepam-and-yohimbine-on-neuronal-activity-in-sham-and-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#17
Katherine A O'Connor, Emily Mahoney, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Eric S Molho, Julie G Pilitsis, Damian S Shin
The prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are critical for the emotional guidance of behavior and are believed to be a site of action for many anxiolytics and anxiogenics. Despite extensive studies examining how these drugs affect behavior, there is little information regarding their effects on neuronal activity. Additionally, with recent recognition of anxiety as a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, it is unknown if activity in the cortex and the amygdala is altered. Previously, we reported that hemiparkinsonian rats had higher baseline anxiety-like behavior and diminished responsiveness to the acute anxiolytic, diazepam...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361202/swallowing-preparation-and-execution-insights-from-a-delayed-response-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-study
#18
Jillian A Toogood, Rebecca C Smith, Todd K Stevens, Joe S Gati, Ravi S Menon, Julie Theurer, Sarah Weisz, Rebecca H Affoo, Ruth E Martin
The present study sought to elucidate the functional contributions of sub-regions of the swallowing neural network in swallowing preparation and swallowing motor execution. Seven healthy volunteers participated in a delayed-response, go, no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving four semi-randomly ordered activation tasks: (i) "prepare to swallow," (ii) "voluntary saliva swallow," (iii) "do not prepare to swallow," and (iv) "do not swallow." Results indicated that brain activation was significantly greater during swallowing preparation, than during swallowing execution, within the rostral and intermediate anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, premotor cortex (left > right hemisphere), pericentral cortex (left > right hemisphere), and within several subcortical nuclei including the bilateral thalamus, caudate, and putamen...
March 30, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352072/functional-insights-into-aberrant-brain-responses-and-integration-in-patients-with-lifelong-premature-ejaculation
#19
Bing Zhang, Jiaming Lu, Jiadong Xia, Fangfang Wang, Weiping Li, Fei Chen, Youfeng Han, Yun Chen, Bin Zhu, Zhao Qing, Xin Zhang, Yutian Dai
Even though lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is highly prevalent, few studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying PE. The extent and pattern of brain activation can be determined through a version of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with erotic picture stimuli (task fMRI) and a resting-state fMRI (rs fMRI). We showed that the brain activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left insula was decreased both during the task and in the resting state, while there was higher activation in the right middle temporal gyrus during the task...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338790/empathy-for-pain-motivates-actions-without-altruistic-effects-evidence-of-motor-dynamics-and-brain-activity
#20
Xiaochun Han, Kang He, Bing Wu, Zhenhao Shi, Yi Liu, Siyang Luo, Kunlin Wei, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han
Empathy has been supposed to be a proximate mechanism of altruistic behavior. We investigated whether empathy for pain drives actions without altruistic effects and how such actions modulate neural responses to others' pain. In two experiments, we asked healthy adults to press a button for no reason when viewing video clips showing faces with pain expressions receiving needle penetration or faces with neutral expressions receiving a cotton swab touch. Experiment 1 found that participants pressed a button with greater response force when watching painful than non-painful stimuli...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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