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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#2
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020291/reward-sensitivity-and-waiting-impulsivity-shift-towards-reward-valuation-away-from-action-control
#3
Daisy J Mechelmans, Daniela Strelchuk, Nuria Donamayor-Alonso, Paula Banca, Trevor W Robbins, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
Background: Impulsivity and reward expectancy are commonly inter-related. Waiting impulsivity, measured using the rodent 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5-CSRT) task, predicts compulsive cocaine seeking and sign (or cue) tracking. Here we assess human waiting impulsivity using a novel translational task, the 4-CSRT, and the relationship with reward cues. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n=29) performed the monetary incentive delay task as a functional MRI study where subjects observe a cue predicting reward (cue) and wait to respond for high (£5), low (£1) or no reward...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018655/the-involvement-of-sensory-motor-networks-in-reflex-seizure
#4
Hime Suzuki, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Takashi Murahara, Shogo Yazawa, Hideaki Shiraishi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific external stimuli, or less commonly, internal mental stimuli. Understanding the characteristics of reflex seizures is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying network abnormalities in epileptic conditions. This report details a patient with medically intractable reflex seizures provoked by sensory stimuli to the patient's right foot. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the seizure induced by sensory stimulation showed hyperperfusion in broad sensory-motor networks (dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, left thalamus, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior parietal cortices, left supplementary motor area (SMA), and left paracentral lobule) and left caudateputamen...
October 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017909/objectively-measuring-effects-of-electro-acupuncture-in-parkinsonian-rhesus-monkeys
#5
Rui Zhang, Anders H Andersen, Peter A Hardy, Eric Forman, April Evans, Yi Ai, Jin Yue, Guihua Yue, Don M Gash, Richard Grondin, Zhiming Zhang
Acupuncture has increasingly been used as an alternative therapy for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the efficacy of acupunture for PD still remains unclear. The present study was designed to objectively and safely monitor anti-parkinsonian effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and brain activity in nonhuman primates modeling human PD. Six middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively studied by a computerized behavioral testing battery and by pharmacological MRI (phMRI) scans with specific dopaminergic drug stimulations...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994360/effects-of-childhood-trauma-on-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-function-during-response-inhibition-across-psychotic-disorders
#6
Y Quidé, N O'Reilly, O J Watkeys, V J Carr, M J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#7
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986718/frontal-lobe-connectivity-and-network-community-characteristics-are%C3%A2-associated-with-the-outcome-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Nabin Koirala, Vinzenz Fleischer, Martin Glaser, Kirsten E Zeuner, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is nowadays an evidence-based state of the art therapy option for motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact anatomical regions of the cerebral network that are targeted by STN-DBS have not been precisely described and no definitive pre-intervention predictors of the clinical response exist. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the clinical effectiveness of STN-DBS depends on the connectivity profile of the targeted brain networks...
October 6, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986148/brain-activity-unique-to-orgasm-in-women-an-fmri-analysis
#9
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: Although the literature on imaging of regional brain activity during sexual arousal in women and men is extensive and largely consistent, that on orgasm is relatively limited and variable, owing in part to the methodologic challenges posed by variability in latency to orgasm in participants and head movement. AIM: To compare brain activity at orgasm (self- and partner-induced) with that at the onset of genital stimulation, immediately before the onset of orgasm, and immediately after the cessation of orgasm and to upgrade the methodology for obtaining and analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972892/brain-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-children-and-adolescents-with-gender-dysphoria-sex-atypical-or-not
#10
Nienke M Nota, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Martin den Heijer, Dick J Veltman, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Sarah M Burke, Julie Bakker
Various previous studies have reported that brains of people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD) show sex-atypical features. In addition, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found that several brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in adults with GD show functional connectivity (FC) patterns that are not sex-atypical, but specific for GD. In the current study we examined whether FC patterns are also altered in prepubertal children and adolescents with GD in comparison with non-gender dysphoric peers...
September 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971011/structurofunctional-resting-state-networks-correlate-with-motor-function-in-chronic-stroke
#11
Benjamin T Kalinosky, Reivian Berrios Barillas, Brian D Schmit
PURPOSE: Motor function and recovery after stroke likely rely directly on the residual anatomical connections in the brain and its resting-state functional connectivity. Both structural and functional properties of cortical networks after stroke are revealed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Specifically, functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) can extract functional networks of the brain at rest, while structural connectivity can be estimated from white matter fiber orientations measured with high angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971008/distinct-alterations-in-parkinson-s-medication-state-and-disease-state-connectivity
#12
Bernard Ng, Gael Varoquaux, Jean Baptiste Poline, Bertrand Thirion, Michael D Greicius, Kathleen L Poston
Altered brain connectivity has been described in people with Parkinson's disease and in response to dopaminergic medications. However, it is unclear whether dopaminergic medications primarily 'normalize' disease related connectivity changes or if they induce unique alterations in brain connectivity. Further, it is unclear how these disease- and medication-associated changes in brain connectivity relate differently to specific motor manifestations of disease, such as bradykinesia/rigidity and tremor. In this study, we applied a novel covariance projection approach in combination with a bootstrapped permutation test to resting state functional MRI data from 57 Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy control participants to determine the Parkinson's medication-state and disease-state connectivity changes associated with different motor manifestations of disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966090/area-prostriata-in-the-human-brain
#13
Kyriaki Mikellidou, Jan W Kurzawski, Francesca Frijia, Domenico Montanaro, Vincenzo Greco, David C Burr, Maria Concetta Morrone
Area prostriata is a cortical area at the fundus of the calcarine sulcus, described anatomically in humans [1-5] and other primates [6-9]. It is lightly myelinated and lacks the clearly defined six-layer structure evident throughout the cerebral cortex, with a thinner layer 4 and thicker layer 2 [10], characteristic of limbic cortex [11]. In the marmoset and rhesus monkey, area prostriata has cortical connections with MT+ [12], the cingulate motor cortex [8], the auditory cortex [13], the orbitofrontal cortex, and the frontal polar cortices [14]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965838/assessment-of-intra-and-inter-regional-interrelations-between-gaba-glx-and-bold-during-pain-perception-in-the-human-brain-a-combined-1-h-fmrs-and-fmri-study
#14
Marianne Cleve, Alexander Gussew, Gerd Wagner, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Jürgen R Reichenbach
To explore brain activity and the related neurochemical processes, current research focuses increasingly on the combined acquisition of (1)H MR spectra and fMRI data to investigate potential associations between local metabolite resting-state levels and stimulus-induced BOLD signal changes. In this study, whole-brain fMRI measurements and localized functional (1)H MEGA-PRESS MRS scans were conducted at 3T in healthy subjects prior to and during acute pain stimulation to quantify resting-state GABA+/tCr and Glx/tCr levels in the insular cortex together with their stimulus-induced changes and to explore associations between these neurochemical parameters with intra-regional but also inter-regional BOLD responses...
September 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958900/effects-of-3-week-total-meal-replacement-vs-typical-food-based-diet-on-human-brain-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-food-cue-reactivity-and-functional-connectivity-in-people-with-obesity
#15
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Lori Ann Boyd, Shao-Hua Chin, Dmitrii Paniukov, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVES: Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19-60 years; 30-39...
September 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947393/alterations-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-healthy-subjects-with-theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-cortex-of-the-suprahyoid-muscles
#16
Xiuhang Ruan, Guangqing Xu, Cuihua Gao, Lingling Liu, Yanli Liu, Lisheng Jiang, Xin Chen, Shaode Yu, Xinqing Jiang, Yue Lan, Xinhua Wei
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) has emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of swallowing disorders; however, the short-term after-effects of brain activation induced by TBS remain unknown. Here, we measured the changes in spontaneous brain activation using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach in subjects who underwent different TBS protocols. Sixty right-handed healthy participants (male, n=30; female, n=30; mean age=23.5y) were recruited in this study and randomly assigned to three groups that underwent three different TBS protocols...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939804/separate-neural-representations-of-depression-anxiety-and-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Rotem Dan, Filip Růžička, Ondrej Bezdicek, Evžen Růžička, Jan Roth, Josef Vymazal, Gadi Goelman, Robert Jech
Depression, anxiety and apathy are distinct neuropsychiatric symptoms that highly overlap in Parkinson's disease (PD). It remains unknown whether each symptom is uniquely associated with a functional network dysfunction. Here, we examined whether individual differences in each neuropsychiatric symptom predict functional connectivity patterns in PD patients while controlling for all other symptoms and motor function. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI were acquired from 27 PD patients and 29 healthy controls...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937319/brain-activation-patterns-during-unilateral-premolar-occlusion
#19
Chun-Zhen Feng, Jin-Feng Li, Nan Hu, Hua Jiang, Yan-Yi Wang, Hong-Chen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of brain activation during unilateral premolar occlusion. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected from 10 healthy volunteers during occlusion of the left first premolar (L1), left second premolar (L2), and right first premolar (R1). The brain activation patterns were analyzed, and the primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and prefrontal cortex were chosen as regions of interest...
September 22, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#20
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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