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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777591/bioengineering-triacetic-acid-lactone-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-pogostone-synthesis
#1
James Yu, Jenny Landberg, Farbod Shavarebi, Virginia Bilanchone, Adam Okerlund, Umayangani Wanninayake, Le Zhao, George Kraus, Suzanne Sandmeyer
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that is recognized for its ability to accumulate high levels of lipids, which can serve as precursors to biobased fuels and chemicals. Polyketides such as triacetic acid lactone (TAL) can also serve as a precursor for diverse commodity chemicals. This study used Y. lipolytica as a host organism for the production of TAL via expression of the 2-pyrone synthase gene from Gerbera hybrida. Induction of lipid biosynthesis by nitrogen-limited growth conditions increased TAL titers...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776313/bioinspired-thermoresponsive-nanoscaled-coatings-tailor-made-polymer-brushes-with-bioconjugated-arginine-glycine-aspartic-acid-peptides
#2
Ulla König, Evmorfia Psarra, Olga Guskova, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Müller, Petra B Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann
The development of bioengineered surface coatings with stimuli-responsive properties is beneficial for a number of biomedical applications. Environmentally responsive and switchable polymer brush systems have a great potential to create such smart biointerfaces. This study focuses on the bioconjugation of cell-instructive peptides, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide sequence (RGD motif), onto well-defined polymer brush films. Herein, the highly tailored end-grafted homo polymer brushes are either composed of the polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic) acid (PAA), providing the reactive carboxyl functionalities, or of the temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)...
May 18, 2018: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776063/electrostatic-stiffening-and-induced-persistence-length-for-coassembled-molecular-bottlebrushes
#3
Ingeborg M Storm, Martien A Cohen Stuart, Renko de Vries, Frans A M Leermakers
A self-consistent field analysis for tunable contributions to the persistence length of isolated semiflexible polymer chains including electrostatically driven coassembled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bottlebrushes is presented. When a chain is charged, i.e., for polyelectrolytes, there is, in addition to an intrinsic rigidity, an electrostatic stiffening effect, because the electric double layer resists bending. For molecular bottlebrushes, there is an induced contribution due to the grafts. We explore cases beyond the classical phantom main-chain approximation and elaborate molecularly more realistic models where the backbone has a finite volume, which is necessary for treating coassembled bottlebrushes...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773767/the-role-of-brincidofovir-in-preparation-for-a-potential-smallpox-outbreak
#4
Scott A Foster, Scott Parker, Randall Lanier
Smallpox (variola) virus is considered a Category A bioterrorism agent due to its ability to spread rapidly and the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection. Current recommendations recognize the importance of oral antivirals and call for having at least two smallpox antivirals with different mechanisms of action available in the event of a smallpox outbreak. Multiple antivirals are recommended due in large part to the propensity of viruses to become resistant to antiviral therapy, especially monotherapy...
October 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772691/periodontal-tissues-maxillary-jaw-bone-and-tooth-regeneration-approaches-from-animal-models-analyses-to-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Fareeha Batool, Marion Strub, Catherine Petit, Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno, Fabien Bornert, François Clauss, Olivier Huck, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel
This review encompasses different pre-clinical bioengineering approaches for periodontal tissues, maxillary jaw bone, and the entire tooth. Moreover, it sheds light on their potential clinical therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Herein, the electrospinning method for the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes, that are capable of mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been described. Furthermore, their functionalization with cyclosporine A (CsA), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or anti-inflammatory drugs' nanoreservoirs has been demonstrated to induce a localized and targeted action of these molecules after implantation in the maxillary jaw bone...
May 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771531/exosomes-as-a-drug-delivery-system-in-cancer-therapy-potential-and-challenges
#6
Golam Kibria, Erika Kathryn Ramos, David R Gius, Yong Wan, Huiping Liu
Exosomes play a pivotal role in mediating intercellular communications and package delivery. They have recently been discovered to serve as diagnostic biomarkers as well as a possible drug delivery vehicle based on their nanometer size range and capability to transfer biological materials to recipient cells. Their unique biocompatibility, high stability, preferred tumor homing, and adjustable targeting efficiency can make exosomes an attractive and potentially effective tool of drug delivery in cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771496/what-can-pleiotropic-proteins-in-innate-immunity-teach-us-about-bioconjugation-and-molecular-design
#7
Michelle W Lee, Ernest Y Lee, Gerard C L Wong
A common bioengineering strategy to add function to a given molecule is by conjugation of a new moiety onto that molecule. Adding multiple functions in this way becomes increasingly challenging and leads to composite molecules with larger molecular weights. In this review, we attempt to gain a new perspective by looking at this problem in reverse, by examining nature's strategies of multiplexing different functions into the same pleiotropic molecule using emerging analysis techniques such as machine learning...
May 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770427/near-infrared-laser-mediated-modulation-of-ice-crystallization-by-two-dimensional-nanosheets-enables-high-survival-recovery-of-biological-cells-from-cryogenic-temperatures
#8
Fazil Panhwar, Zhongrong Chen, S M Chapal Hossain, Meng Wang, Zeeshan Haider, Kashan Memon, Pengpeng Chen, Gang Zhao
Two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (NSs) have been widely used as photothermal agents and as potential carriers of antitumor drugs. Their spatial thermal effects have been extensively explored for use at physiological and hyperthermic temperatures (37 to 46 °C). Furthermore, the modulation of the spatial thermal distributions with these NSs may have even more profound applications in the microstructural control of biomaterials at cryogenic temperatures (-196 to 37 °C)...
May 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769835/correlations-between-angular-velocities-in-selected-joints-and-velocity-of-table-tennis-racket-during-topspin-forehand-and-backhand
#9
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between angular velocities in individual joints and racket velocity for different topspin forehand and backhand strokes in table tennis. Ten elite female table tennis players participated, presenting different kinds of topspin forehands and backhands - after a no-spin ball (FH1, BH1), after a backspin ball (FH2, BH2) and "heavy" topspin (FH3, BH3). Range of motion was measured with the BTS Smart-E (BTS Bioengineering, Milan, Italy) motion analysis system with a specially developed marker placement protocol for the upper body parts and an acoustic sensor attached to the racket to identify ball-racket contact...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769665/bioengineering-strategies-to-accelerate-stem-cell-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Christopher M Madl, Sarah C Heilshorn, Helen M Blau
Although only a few stem cell-based therapies are currently available to patients, stem cells hold tremendous regenerative potential, and several exciting clinical applications are on the horizon. Biomaterials with tuneable mechanical and biochemical properties can preserve stem cell function in culture, enhance survival of transplanted cells and guide tissue regeneration. Rapid progress with three-dimensional hydrogel culture platforms provides the opportunity to grow patient-specific organoids, and has led to the discovery of drugs that stimulate endogenous tissue-specific stem cells and enabled screens for drugs to treat disease...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767291/bioengineered-scaffolds-for-stem-cell-applications-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
Maryam Rahmati, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Ali Mobasheri, Masoud Mozafari
Stem cell-based therapies, harnessing the ability of stem cells to regenerate damaged or diseased tissues, are under wide-ranging consideration for regenerative medicine applications. However, limitations concerning poor cell persistence and engraftment upon cell transplantation still remain. During the recent years, several types of biomaterials have been investigated to control the fate of the transplanted stem cells, aiming to increase their therapeutic efficiency. In the present chapter we focus on the general properties of some of these biomaterials, which include polymers, ceramics, and nano-biomaterials...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763386/trends-in-polymeric-electrospun-fibers-and-their-use-as-oral-biomaterials
#12
Agnes B Meireles, Daniella K Corrêa, João Vw da Silveira, Ana Lg Millás, Edison Bittencourt, Gustavo Ea de Brito-Melo, Libardo A González-Torres
Electrospinning is one of the techniques to produce structured polymeric fibers in the micro or nano scale and to generate novel materials for biomedical proposes. Electrospinning versatility provides fibers that could support different surgical and rehabilitation treatments. However, its diversity in equipment assembly, polymeric materials, and functional molecules to be incorporated in fibers result in profusion of recent biomaterials that are not fully explored, even though the recognized relevance of the technique...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760474/structural-basis-for-the-recognition-of-complex-type-n-glycans-by-endoglycosidase-s
#13
Beatriz Trastoy, Erik Klontz, Jared Orwenyo, Alberto Marina, Lai-Xi Wang, Eric J Sundberg, Marcelo E Guerin
Endoglycosidase S (EndoS) is a bacterial endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4 linkage between the first two N-acetylglucosamine residues of the biantennary complex-type N-linked glycans of IgG Fc regions. It is used for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneously glycosylated antibodies with improved therapeutic properties, but the molecular basis for its substrate specificity is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the full-length EndoS in complex with its oligosaccharide G2 product...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755963/environmental-toxin-screening-using-human-derived-3d-bioengineered-liver-and-cardiac-organoids
#14
Steven D Forsythe, Mahesh Devarasetty, Thomas Shupe, Colin Bishop, Anthony Atala, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Introduction: Environmental toxins, such as lead and other heavy metals, pesticides, and other compounds, represent a significant health concern within the USA and around the world. Even in the twenty-first century, a plethora of cities and towns in the U.S. have suffered from exposures to lead in drinking water or other heavy metals in food or the earth, while there is a high possibility of further places to suffer such exposures in the near future. Methods: We employed bioengineered 3D human liver and cardiac organoids to screen a panel of environmental toxins (lead, mercury, thallium, and glyphosate), and charted the response of the organoids to these compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755603/bacterial-crispr-regions-general-features-and-their-potential-for-epidemiological-molecular-typing-studies
#15
REVIEW
Zahra Karimi, Ali Ahmadi, Ali Najafi, Reza Ranjbar
Introduction: CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci as novel and applicable regions in prokaryotic genomes have gained great attraction in the post genomics era. Methods: These unique regions are diverse in number and sequence composition in different pathogenic bacteria and thereby can be a suitable candidate for molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies. Results:Furthermore, the arrayed structure of CRISPR loci (several unique repeats spaced with the variable sequence) and associated cas genes act as an active prokaryotic immune system against viral replication and conjugative elements...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754247/standardized-cloning-and-curing-of-plasmids
#16
Ida Lauritsen, Se Hyeuk Kim, Andreas Porse, Morten H H Nørholm
Plasmids are highly useful tools for studying living cells and for heterologous expression of genes and pathways in cell factories. Standardized tools and operating procedures for handling such DNA vectors are core principles in synthetic biology. Here, we describe protocols for molecular cloning and exchange of genetic parts in the Standard European Vectors Architecture (SEVA) vector system. Additionally, to facilitate rapid testing and iterative bioengineering using different vector designs, we provide a one-step protocol for a universal CRISPR-Cas9-based plasmid curing system (pFREE) and demonstrate the application of this system to cure SEVA constructs (all vectors are available at SEVA/Addgene)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754201/skin-bioprinting-a-novel-approach-for-creating-artificial-skin-from-synthetic-and-natural-building-blocks
#17
Robin Augustine
Significant progress has been made over the past few decades in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either as grafts for the replacement of lost skin, or for the establishment of in vitro human skin models. Tissue engineering has been developing as a novel strategy by employing the recent advances in various fields such as polymer engineering, bioengineering, stem cell research and nanomedicine. Recently, an advancement of 3D printing technology referred as bioprinting was exploited to make cell loaded scaffolds to produce constructs which are more matching with the native tissue...
May 12, 2018: Progress in Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743347/computational-modeling-guides-tissue-engineered-heart-valve-design-for-long-term-in-vivo-performance-in-a-translational-sheep-model
#18
Maximilian Y Emmert, Boris A Schmitt, Sandra Loerakker, Bart Sanders, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Emanuela S Fioretta, Leon Bruder, Kerstin Brakmann, Sarah E Motta, Valentina Lintas, Petra E Dijkman, Laura Frese, Felix Berger, Frank P T Baaijens, Simon P Hoerstrup
Valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current heart valve prostheses have considerable clinical limitations due to their artificial, nonliving nature without regenerative capacity. To overcome these limitations, heart valve tissue engineering (TE) aiming to develop living, native-like heart valves with self-repair, remodeling, and regeneration capacity has been suggested as next-generation technology. A major roadblock to clinically relevant, safe, and robust TE solutions has been the high complexity and variability inherent to bioengineering approaches that rely on cell-driven tissue remodeling...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742511/decellularized-pancreas-matrix-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-using-ductal-or-arterial-catheterization
#19
Javad Hashemi, Parvin Pasalar, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Reza Khorramirouz, Aram Akbarzadeh, Fariba Ghorbani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Abdol Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is known as a worldwide disease with a great burden on society. Since therapeutic options cover a limited number of target points, new therapeutic strategies in the field of regenerative medicine are considered. Bioscaffolds along with islet cells would provide bioengineered tissue as a substitute for β-cells. The perfusion-decellularization technique is considered to create such scaffolds since they mimic the compositional, architectural, and biomechanical nature of a native organ...
May 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733319/fabricating-high-viscosity-droplets-using-microfluidic-capillary-device-with-phase-inversion-co-flow-structure
#20
Jiang Li, Jia Man, Zhongnan Li, Haosheng Chen
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a phase-inversion co-flow device to generate uniform high-viscosity droplets in a low-viscosity fluid. The microfluidic capillary device has a common co-flow structure with its exit connecting to a wider tube. Elongated droplets of the low-viscosity fluid are first encapsulated by the high-viscosity fluid in the co-flow structure. As the elongated low-viscosity droplets flow through the exit, which is treated to be wetted by the low-viscosity fluid, phase inversion is then induced by the adhesion of the low viscosity droplets to the tip of the exit, which results in the subsequent inverse encapsulation of the high-viscosity fluid...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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