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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141043/lateral-migration-of-electrospun-hydrogel-nanofilaments-in-an-oscillatory-flow
#1
Sylwia Pawłowska, Paweł Nakielski, Filippo Pierini, Izabela K Piechocka, Krzysztof Zembrzycki, Tomasz A Kowalewski
The recent progress in bioengineering has created great interest in the dynamics and manipulation of long, deformable macromolecules interacting with fluid flow. We report experimental data on the cross-flow migration, bending, and buckling of extremely deformable hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by an oscillatory flow into a microchannel. The changes in migration velocity and filament orientation are related to the flow velocity and the filament's initial position, deformation, and length. The observed migration dynamics of hydrogel filaments qualitatively confirms the validity of the previously developed worm-like bead-chain hydrodynamic model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140977/low-cost-and-open-source-multi-fluorescence-imaging-system-for-teaching-and-research-in-biology-and-bioengineering
#2
Isaac Nuñez, Tamara Matute, Roberto Herrera, Juan Keymer, Timothy Marzullo, Timothy Rudge, Fernán Federici
The advent of easy-to-use open source microcontrollers, off-the-shelf electronics and customizable manufacturing technologies has facilitated the development of inexpensive scientific devices and laboratory equipment. In this study, we describe an imaging system that integrates low-cost and open-source hardware, software and genetic resources. The multi-fluorescence imaging system consists of readily available 470 nm LEDs, a Raspberry Pi camera and a set of filters made with low cost acrylics. This device allows imaging in scales ranging from single colonies to entire plates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138304/refactoring-the-genetic-code-for-increased-evolvability
#3
Gur Pines, James D Winkler, Assaf Pines, Ryan T Gill
The standard genetic code is robust to mutations during transcription and translation. Point mutations are likely to be synonymous or to preserve the chemical properties of the original amino acid. Saturation mutagenesis experiments suggest that in some cases the best-performing mutant requires replacement of more than a single nucleotide within a codon. These replacements are essentially inaccessible to common error-based laboratory engineering techniques that alter a single nucleotide per mutation event, due to the extreme rarity of adjacent mutations...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134123/green-synthesis-of-capped-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-effect-on-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#4
Yashvant Rao, Gajendra K Inwati, Man Singh
Aim: We report synthesis of capped gold nanoparticles (C-AuNPs) of ≈20-30 nm by reducing HAuCl4 with flower and leaf extracts of Ocimum tenuiflorum, leaves of Azadirachta indica and Mentha spicata and peel of Citrus sinensis plants. Methods: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) determined their size, shape and topographical structures. The C-AuNPs with UV-Vis spectrophotometer produced a maximum absorption within 530-535 nm wavelengths...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132420/substance-p-and-patterned-silk-biomaterial-stimulate-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-to-form-corneal-stroma-in-a-bioengineered-three-dimensional-model
#5
Jialin Chen, Wei Zhang, Peyman Kelk, Ludvig J Backman, Patrik Danielson
BACKGROUND: We aimed to generate a bioengineered multi-lamellar human corneal stroma tissue in vitro by differentiating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) towards keratocytes on an aligned silk membrane. METHODS: Human PDLSCs were isolated and identified. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) was added in keratocyte differentiation medium (KDM) to evaluate its effect on keratocyte differentiation of PDLSCs. PDLSCs were then seeded on patterned silk membrane and cultured with KDM and SP...
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130596/evaluation-of-a-bioengineered-construct-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#6
Perla Ayala, Erbin Dai, Michael Hawes, Liying Liu, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Carolyn A Haller, David J Mooney, Elliot L Chaikof
Effective biomaterial options for tissue repair and regeneration are limited. Current biologic meshes are derived from different tissue sources and are generally sold as decellularized tissues. This work evaluated two collagen based bioengineered constructs and a commercial product in a model of abdominal full thickness defect repair. To prepare the bioengineered construct, collagen type 1 from porcine skin was isolated using an acid solubilization method. After purification, the collagen was formed into collagen sheets that were physically bonded to form a mechanically robust construct that was subsequently laser micropatterned with pores as a means to promote tissue integration (collagen only construct)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127860/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-efficiently-colonize-in-bfgf-tethered-natural-matrix-to-construct-contracting-humanized-rat-hearts
#7
Sarah Rajabi, Sara Pahlavan, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Hassan Ansari, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Fahimeh Varzideh, Sawa Kostin, Nasser Aghdami, Thomas Braun, Hossein Baharvand
Bioengineering of whole hearts using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) and natural matrices is a promising approach to overcome organ donor shortage threatening millions of patients awaiting for heart transplantation. Here, we developed a novel strategy for generation of heart constructs by repopulating engineered decellularized rat hearts using hESCs-derived CPCs. Careful expansion of CPCs in a scalable stirred-suspension bioreactor combined with step-wise seeding (60 million cells in 3 steps of 20 million per 1...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107021/historical-perspectives-and-advances-in-the-mesenchymal-stem-cell-research-for-the-treatment-of-liver-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Lee, Yu-Fan Chen, Hao-Hsiang Wu, Oscar K Lee
Liver transplantation is the only effective therapy for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and fulminant liver failure. However, due to a shortage of donor livers and complications associated with immune suppression, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Given their unique function in self-renewal and differentiation potential, stem cells might be used to regenerate damaged liver tissue. Recent studies have shown that stem cell-based therapies can improve liver function in a mouse model of hepatic failure...
October 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105007/simulation-of-the-human-airways-using-virtual-topology-tools-and-meshing-optimization
#9
A Fernández-Tena, A C Marcos, R Agujetas, C Ferrera
A method is proposed to improve the quality of the three-dimensional airway geometric models using a commercial software, checking the number of elements, meshing time, and aspect ratio and skewness parameters. The use of real and virtual topologies combined with patch-conforming and patch-independent meshing algorithms results in four different models being the best solution the combination of virtual topology and patch-independent algorithm, due to an excellent aspect ratio and skewness of the elements, and minimum meshing time...
November 5, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102342/bioengineered-lungs-a-challenge-and-an-opportunity
#10
Ramon Farré, Jordi Otero, Isaac Almendros, Daniel Navajas
Lung biofabrication is a new tissue engineering and regenerative development aimed at providing organs for potential use in transplantation. Lung biofabrication is based on seeding cells into an acellular organ scaffold and on culturing them in an especial purpose bioreactor. The acellular lung scaffold is obtained by decellularizing a non-transplantable donor lung by means of conventional procedures based on application of physical, enzymatic and detergent agents. To avoid immune recipient's rejection of the transplanted bioengineered lung, autologous bone marrow/adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, lung progenitor cells or induced pluripotent stem cells are used for biofabricating the bioengineered lung...
November 1, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102268/red-blood-cell-motion-and-deformation-in-a-curved-microvessel
#11
Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Yu Li
The flow of cells through curved vessels is often encountered in various biomedical and bioengineering applications, such as red blood cells (RBCs) passing through the curved arteries in circulation, and cells sorting through a shear-induced migration in a curved channels. Most of past numerical studies focused on the cell deformation in small straight microvessels, or on the flow pattern in large curved vessels without considering the cell deformation. However, there have been few attempts to study the cell deformation and the associated flow pattern in a curved microvessel...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101678/liver-bioengineering-using-decellularized-whole-liver-scaffolds
#12
Iris Pla-Palacín, Pilar Sainz-Arnal, Sara Morini, Manuel Almeida, Pedro M Baptista
Currently, due to the progress made in the field of regenerative medicine, whole-organ bioengineering is becoming a valid alternative to cope with the shortages of organs for transplantation. In this chapter, we describe the main techniques carried out for pig liver bioengineering, which serves as an essential model for future human liver bioengineering. These include porcine whole-liver decellularization, endothelial and mesenchymal stem cell isolation, porcine ES-derived hepatoblasts, and scaffold recellularization using a bioreactor perfusion system...
November 4, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101497/using-a-teaching-intervention-and-calibrated-peer-review%C3%A2-diagnostics-to-improve-visual-communication-skills
#13
Ann Saterbak, Anoosha Moturu, Tracy Volz
Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099065/advances-in-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-production
#14
EDITORIAL
Martin Koller
This editorial paper provides a synopsis of the contributions to the Bioengineering special issue "Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production". It illustrates the embedding of the issue's individual research articles in the current global research and development landscape related to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The article shows how these articles are interrelated to each other, reflecting the entire PHA process chain including strain selection, metabolic and genetic considerations, feedstock evaluation, fermentation regimes, process engineering, and polymer processing towards high-value marketable products...
November 2, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097260/advances-in-the-generation-of-bioengineered-bile-ducts
#15
REVIEW
Alexander W Justin, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Athina E Markaki, Ludovic Vallier, Fotios Sampaziotis
The generation of bioengineered biliary tissue could contribute to the management of some of the most impactful cholangiopathies associated with liver transplantation, such as biliary atresia or ischemic cholangiopathy. Recent advances in tissue engineering and in vitro cholangiocyte culture have made the achievement of this goal possible. Here we provide an overview of these developments and review the progress towards the generation and transplantation of bioengineered bile ducts.
October 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095857/laminin-111-derived-peptide-conjugated-fibrin-hydrogel-restores-salivary-gland-function
#16
Kihoon Nam, Christina L Maruyama, Ching-Shuen Wang, Bryan G Trump, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis, Olga J Baker
Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091160/gene-therapy-advances-challenges-and-perspectives
#17
Giulliana Augusta Rangel Gonçalves, Raquel de Melo Alves Paiva
The ability to make site-specific modifications to the human genome has been an objective in medicine since the recognition of the gene as the basic unit of heredity. Thus, gene therapy is understood as the ability of genetic improvement through the correction of altered (mutated) genes or site-specific modifications that target therapeutic treatment. This therapy became possible through the advances of genetics and bioengineering that enabled manipulating vectors for delivery of extrachromosomal material to target cells...
July 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083994/assembly-disassembly-of-a-complex-icosahedral-virus-to-incorporate-heterologous-nucleic-acids
#18
Elena Pascual, Carlos P Mata, José L Carrascosa, Jose R Caston
Hollow protein containers are widespread in nature, and include virus capsids as well as eukaryotic and bacterial complexes. Protein cages are studied extensively for applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and materials science. Their inner and outer surfaces can be modified chemically or genetically, and the internal cavity can be used to template, store and/or arrange molecular cargos. Virus capsids and virus-like particles (VLP, noninfectious particles) provide versatile platforms for nanoscale bioengineering...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078136/bioengineering-a-non-genotoxic-vector-for-genetic-modification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Xuguang Chen, Alireza Nomani, Niket Patel, Faranak S Nouri, Arash Hatefi
Vectors used for stem cell transfection must be non-genotoxic, in addition to possessing high efficiency, because they could potentially transform normal stem cells into cancer-initiating cells. The objective of this research was to bioengineer an efficient vector that can be used for genetic modification of stem cells without any negative somatic or genetic impact. Two types of multifunctional vectors, namely targeted and non-targeted were genetically engineered and purified from E. coli. The targeted vectors were designed to enter stem cells via overexpressed receptors...
January 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070799/controlled-self-assembly-of-stem-cell-aggregates-instructs-pluripotency-and-lineage-bias
#20
Angela W Xie, Bernard Y K Binder, Andrew S Khalil, Samantha K Schmitt, Hunter J Johnson, Nicholas A Zacharias, William L Murphy
Stem cell-derived organoids and other 3D microtissues offer enormous potential as models for drug screening, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. Formation of stem/progenitor cell aggregates is common in biomanufacturing processes and critical to many organoid approaches. However, reproducibility of current protocols is limited by reliance on poorly controlled processes (e.g., spontaneous aggregation). Little is known about the effects of aggregation parameters on cell behavior, which may have implications for the production of cell aggregates and organoids...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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