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Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Jenna Jones, Emmanuel Donkor, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Farris Pole, Chang-Hao Wu, Claire Vieille, Michael W W Adams, Bertrand B Hankoua
To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus , together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( glgC ) from Escherichia coli , were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ze-Wei Tao, Mohamed Mohamed, Jeffrey G Jacot, Ravi K Birla
Bioengineering cardiac tissue constructs with adult cardiomyocytes may help treat adult heart defects and injury. In this study, we fabricated cardiac tissue constructs by seeding adult rat cardiomyocytes on a fibrin gel matrix and analyzed the electromechanical properties of the formed cardiac tissue constructs. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated with a collagenase type II buffer using an optimized Langendorff perfusion system. Cardiac tissue constructs were fabricated using either indirect plating with cardiomyocytes that were cultured for 1 week and dedifferentiated or with freshly isolated cardiomyocytes...
March 13, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Raquel T Yokoda, Bolni M Nagalo, Mitesh J Borad
Gastrointestinal malignancies are challenging cancers with considerable economic and societal impacts on health care systems worldwide. While advances in surgical approaches have provided benefits to a proportion of patients, only modest improvements have been attained in the treatment of patients with advanced disease, resulting in limited improvement in survival rates in these patients. Oncolytic adenoviruses are being developed to address gastrointestinal malignancies. Each platform has evolved to maximize tumor-cell killing potency while minimizing toxicities...
March 11, 2018: Biomedicines
D Bradley Welling, Robert K Jackler
PURPOSE: To review contributions of the American Otological Society (AOS) over the most recent quarter century (1993-2018) and to comment on possible future evolution of the field during the quarter century to come. METHODS: Retrospective review of selected topics from the AOS transactions, distinguished lectureships over the past 25 years, and selective reflection by the authors. Speculation on potential advances of the next quarter century derived from emerging topics in the current literature and foreseeable trends in science and technology are also proffered for consideration (and possible future ridicule)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Thomas Betzel, Ivana Dinulovic, Stefanie D Krämer, Roger Schibli, Tullio Sulser, Christoph Handschin, Simon M Ametamey, Daniel Eberli
While many groups demonstrated new muscle tissue formation after muscle precursor cell (MPC) injection, the capacity of these cells to heal muscle damage, for example, sphincter in stress urinary incontinence, in long-term is still limited. Therefore, the first goal of our project was to optimize the functional regenerative potential of hMPC by genetic modification to overexpress human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (hPGC-1 α ), key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation...
2018: Stem Cells International
A I Mirulla, L Bragonzoni, S Zaffagnini, M Bontempi, V Nigrelli, T Ingrassia
INTRODUCTION: Traditional prosthetic solutions expose the amputee to numerous problems that limit his ability to safely perform the normal activities of daily life. In order to eliminate the problems related to the use of the traditional prosthesis with socket, a new technique was developed for fixing the prosthesis to the amputees based on the principle of osseointegration. The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the stress distribution on the interface between a trans-humeral osseointegrated prosthetic implant and the residual bone, identifying the most stressed areas and thus foreseeing possible failure phenomena of the entire prosthetic system and, after, to compare the stress distribution on three different prosthetic designs that differ from each other for some geometric characteristics...
March 7, 2018: Injury
Yong Zhou, Jeffrey C Horowitz, Alexandra Naba, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Kamran Atabai, Jenna Balestrini, Peter B Bitterman, Richard A Corley, Bi-Sen Ding, Adam J Engler, Kirk C Hansen, James S Hagood, Farrah Kheradmand, Qing S Lin, Enid Neptune, Laura Niklason, Luis A Ortiz, William C Parks, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Eric S White, Harold A Chapman, Victor J Thannickal
The lung's unique extracellular matrix (ECM), while providing structural support for cells, is critical in the regulation of developmental organogenesis, homeostasis and injury-repair responses. The ECM, via biochemical or biomechanical cues, regulates diverse cell functions, fate and phenotype. The composition and function of lung ECM become markedly deranged in pathological tissue remodeling. ECM-based therapeutics and bioengineering approaches represent promising novel strategies for regeneration/repair of the lung and treatment of chronic lung diseases...
March 7, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Ayako Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kajiya, Nana Yamamoto-M, Tsukasa Yanagi, Ayaka Imamura, Koji Okabe, Tadao Fukushima, Hirofumi Kido, Jun Ohno
Scaffolds implanted into bone defect sites must achieve optimal biodegradation rates while appropriately filling the void as new bone formation progresses. We recently developed a unique biomaterial consisting of salmon deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and protamine, which can be used as an osteoconductive scaffold for tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the degradation rate of the scaffold affects bone regeneration. We examined the relationships between the degradation rate of salmon DNA scaffolds and new bone formation using a rat skin flank subcutaneous model and rat calvarial defect model...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
In the version of this Article originally published, the affiliations for Roland A. Fleck and José Antonio Del Río were incorrect due to a technical error that resulted in affiliations 8 and 9 being switched. The correct affiliations are: Roland A. Fleck:8 Centre for Ultrastructural Imaging, Kings College London, London, UK. José Antonio Del Río:2 Cellular and Molecular Neurobiotechnology, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain;9 Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;10 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Barcelona, Spain...
March 8, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Chun Liu, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Nazish Sayed, Joseph C Wu
The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) presents unprecedented opportunities to model human diseases. Differentiated cells derived from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers have proven to be a relatively simple tool for exploring disease pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms. In this Spotlight article, we discuss the progress and limitations of the current 2D iPSC disease-modeling platform, as well as recent advancements in the development of human iPSC models that mimic in vivo tissues and organs at the three-dimensional (3D) level...
March 8, 2018: Development
Lobat Tayebi, Morteza Rasoulianboroujeni, Keyvan Moharamzadeh, Thafar K D Almela, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is currently being intensely studied for a diverse set of applications, including the development of bioengineered tissues, as well as the production of functional biomedical materials and devices for dental and orthopedic applications. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a 3D-printed hybrid construct that can be potentially suitable for guided tissue regeneration (GTR). For this purpose, the rheology analyses have been performed on different bioinks and a specific solution comprising 8% gelatin, 2% elastin and 0...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Firas Awaja, Giorgio Speranza, Heike Kaltenegger, Débora Coraça-Huber, Birgit Lohberger
Osteo-integration and tissue regeneration are vital for the longevity, durability, and unremitting functionality of medical implants/scaffolds implanted in vivo. It's essential for biomaterials used for in vivo implantation to induce the cellular secretion of growth factors, necessary for the desired tissue generation, since the administration of artificial growth factors, in vivo, is largely prohibited. Plasma functionalized (N2 and O2 ) and stabilized Graphene Oxide (GO) thin layers in a hybrid with amorphous carbon (aC) induced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) growth factors in fibroblasts (hGF) and, more remarkably, in osteoblasts (hFOB) cells confirming the suitability for tissue regeneration and osteo-integration applications...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Xiaodong Shi, Yuxi Gu, Tingwei Dai, Yang Wu, Peng Wu, Ying Xu, Fang Chen
Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco...
March 5, 2018: Gene
M D Tang-Schomer, W B Wu, D L Kaplan, M J Bookland
In vitro culture of primary neurons are widely adapted with embryonic but not mature brain tissue. Here, we extended a previously developed bioengineered 3D embryonic brain tissue model to resected normal patient brain tissue in an attempt to regenerate human neurons in vitro. Single cells and small sized (diameter < 100 μm) spheroids from dissociated brain tissue were seeded into 3D silk fibroin-based scaffolds, with or without collagen or Matrigel, and compared with 2D cultures and scaffold-free suspension cultures...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Zhantong Wang, Haiyan Gao, Yang Zhang, Gang Liu, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Ferritin, a major iron storage protein with a hollow interior cavity, has been reported recently to play many important roles in biomedical and bioengineering applications. Owing to the unique architecture and surface properties, ferritin nanoparticles offer favorable characteristics and can be either genetically or chemically modified to impart functionalities to their surfaces, and therapeutics or probes can be encapsulated in their interiors by controlled and reversible assembly/disassembly. There has been an outburst of interest regarding the employment of functional ferritin nanoparticles in nanomedicine...
December 2017: Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering
H-H Greco Song, Rowza T Rumma, C Keith Ozaki, Elazer R Edelman, Christopher S Chen
Although the clinical demand for bioengineered blood vessels continues to rise, current options for vascular conduits remain limited. The synergistic combination of emerging advances in tissue fabrication and stem cell engineering promises new strategies for engineering autologous blood vessels that recapitulate not only the mechanical properties of native vessels but also their biological function. Here we explore recent bioengineering advances in creating functional blood macro and microvessels, particularly featuring stem cells as a seed source...
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Thomas A Rando, Fabrisia Ambrosio
The emerging field of regenerative rehabilitation integrates biological and bioengineering advances in regenerative medicine with rehabilitative sciences. Here we highlight recent stem cell-based examples of the regenerative rehabilitation paradigm to promote tissue repair and regeneration, and we discuss remaining challenges and future directions for the field.
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Firouz Abbasian, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh, Sebastian Magierowski
Microorganisms have a significant influence on human activities and health, and consequently, there is high demand to develop automated, sensitive, and rapid methods for their detection. These methods might be applicable for clinical, industrial, and environmental applications. Although different techniques have been suggested and employed for the detection of microorganisms, and the majority of these methods are not cost effective and suffer from low sensitivity and low specificity, especially in mixed samples...
March 2, 2018: Bioengineering
Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs), which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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