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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650532/biotechnology-and-bioengineering-volume-114-number-8-august-2017
#1
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August 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646678/bioengineering-for-intestinal-organoid-cultures
#2
REVIEW
Ge-Ah Kim, Jason R Spence, Shuichi Takayama
Recent advances allow access to human cell-based intestinal organoids that recreate human physiology to levels not possible with conventional 2D cell cultures. Despite their huge potential, there are many challenges that remain. This review will cover recent bioengineering approaches to improve organoid maturation, scale up, reproducibility and analysis. The first section covers the advances in engineering the culture environment, followed by the section on tools for micro-manipulation and analysis of organoids...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644714/genome-mining-in-silico-validation-and-phase-selection-of-a-novel-aldo-keto-reductase-from-candida-glabratea-for-biotransformation
#3
Souvik Basak, Nanda Gopal Sahoo, Angayar K Pavanasam
Previously, we published cloning, over-expression, characterization and subsequent exploitation of a carbonyl reductase (cr) gene, belonging to general family aldo-keto reductase from Candida glabrata CBS138 to convert keto ester (COBE) to a chiral alcohol (ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate or CHBE). Exploiting global transcription factor CRP, rDNA and transporter engineering, we have improved batch production of CHBE by trinomial bioengineering. Herein, we present the exploration of cr gene in Candida glabrata CBS138 through genome miningapproach, in silico validation of its activity and selection of its biocatalytic phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644395/optical-tracking-and-digital-quantification-of-beating-behavior-in-bioengineered-human-cardiac-organoids
#4
Mahesh Devarasetty, Steven Forsythe, Thomas D Shupe, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala, Aleksander Skardal
Organoid and organ-on-a-chip technologies are rapidly advancing towards deployment for drug and toxicology screening applications. Liver and cardiac toxicities account for the majority of drug candidate failures in human trials. Liver toxicity generally produces liver cell death, while cardiac toxicity causes adverse changes in heart beat kinetics. In traditional 2D cultures, beating kinetics can be measured by electrode arrays, but in some 3D constructs, quantifying beating kinetics can be more challenging...
June 23, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642016/electrospun-vascular-scaffold-for-cellularized-small-diameter-blood-vessels-a-preclinical-large-animal-study
#5
Young Min Ju, Hyunhee Ahn, Juan Arenas-Herrera, Cheil Kim, Mehran Abolbashari, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo, Sang Jin Lee
The strategy of vascular tissue engineering is to create a vascular substitute by combining autologous vascular cells with a tubular-shaped biodegradable scaffold. We have previously developed a novel electrospun bilayered vascular scaffold that provides proper biological and biomechanical properties as well as structural configuration. In this study, we investigated the clinical feasibility of a cellularized vascular scaffold in a preclinical large animal model. We fabricated the cellularized vascular construct with autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) followed by a pulsatile bioreactor preconditioning...
June 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639641/incorporation-of-click-chemistry-glycomimetics-dramatically-alters-triple-helix-stability-in-an-adiponectin-model-peptide
#6
Katherine R Lutteroth, Paul W R Harris, Tom H Wright, Harveen Kaur, Kevin Sparrow, Sung-Hyun Yang, Garth J S Cooper, Margaret A Brimble
Adiponectin (Adpn) has been shown to be a possible therapeutic for Type II diabetes, however the production of a therapeutic version of Adpn has proved to be challenging. Biological studies have highlighted the importance of the glycosylated lysine residues for the formation of bioactive high molecular weight oligomers of Adpn. Through the use of 'click' glycopeptide mimetics, we investigated the role of glycosylated lysine and serine residues for the formation of triple helical structures of the collagenous domain of Adpn, in the context of a collagen model peptide scaffold...
June 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#7
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633205/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#8
EDITORIAL
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, Timothy J Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts from June 2 to 3, 2016, in Bethesda, Maryland, to develop NHLBI recommendations aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MCS devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631900/-experimental-development-and-rationale-for-a-renal-decellularization-protocol-with-subsequent-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-biological-scaffold
#9
P V Glybochko, S N Alekseenko, E A Gubareva, E V Kuevda, A A Basov, A S Sotnichenko, S S Dzhimak, I S Gumenyuk, I Kh Egiev, V N Chechelyan, R Z Nakokhov, O M Lyasota, Yu V Teterin
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is one of the most challenging problems of contemporary medicine. Patients with chronic renal failure usually need renal replacement therapy as either hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or a kidney transplant. The latter is the most promising option for end-stage kidney disease. However, the shortage of donor organs, the complexity of their delivery, the difficulty in finding an immunologically compatible donor and the need for lifelong immunosuppression triggered advances in modern tissue engineering...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631758/bioengineered-constructs-combined-with-exercise-enhance-stem-cell-mediated-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss
#10
Marco Quarta, Melinda Cromie, Robert Chacon, Justin Blonigan, Victor Garcia, Igor Akimenko, Mark Hamer, Patrick Paine, Merel Stok, Joseph B Shrager, Thomas A Rando
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with loss of skeletal muscle function, and current treatments show limited efficacy. Here we show that bioconstructs suffused with genetically-labelled muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and other muscle resident cells (MRCs) are effective to treat VML injuries in mice. Imaging of bioconstructs implanted in damaged muscles indicates MuSCs survival and growth, and ex vivo analyses show force restoration of treated muscles. Histological analysis highlights myofibre formation, neovascularisation, but insufficient innervation...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629381/the-era-of-bioengineering-how-will-this-affect-the-next-generation-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Michele Graciotti, Cristiana Berti, Harm-Anton Klok, Lana Kandalaft
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy consists of activating the patient's immune system to fight cancer and has the great potential of preventing future relapses thanks to immunological memory. A great variety of strategies have emerged to harness the immune system against tumors, from the administration of immunomodulatory agents that activate immune cells, to therapeutic vaccines or infusion of previously activated cancer-specific T cells. However, despite great recent progress many difficulties still remain, which prevent the widespread use of immunotherapy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627385/advances-in-antibody-drug-conjugates-a-new-era-of-targeted-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Samaresh Sau, Hashem O Alsaab, Sushil Kumar Kashaw, Katyayani Tatiparti, Arun K Iyer
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), a potent class of anticancer therapeutics, comprise a high-affinity antibody (Ab) and cytotoxic payload coupled via a suitable linker for selective tumor cell killing. In the initial phase of their development, two ADCs, Mylotarg(®), and Adcetris(®) were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating hematological cancer, but the real breakthrough came with the discovery of the breast cancer-targeting ADC, Kadcyla(®). With advances in bioengineering, linker chemistry, and potent cytotoxic payload, ADC technology has become a more powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy...
June 13, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625830/bioengineering-strategies-for-inducing-tolerance-in-autoimmune-diabetes
#13
Steinunn Baekkeskov, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Edward A Phelps
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease marked by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Strategies to delay onset or prevent the autoimmune recognition of beta cell antigens or T cell-mediated killing of beta cells have mainly focused on systemic immunomodulation and antigen-specific immunotherapy. To bridge the fields of type 1 diabetes immunology and biomaterials engineering, this article will review recent trends in the etiology of type 1 diabetes immunopathology and will focus on the contributions of emerging bioengineered strategies in the fight against beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes...
June 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624103/from-organoids-to-organs-bioengineering-liver-grafts-from%C3%A2-hepatic-stem-cells-and-matrix
#14
REVIEW
Jorke Willemse, Ruby Lieshout, Luc J W van der Laan, Monique M A Verstegen
Due to the complex function and structure of the liver, resourceful solutions for treating end-stage liver disease are required. Currently, liver transplantation is the only curative therapeutic option. However, due to a worldwide donor shortage, researchers have been looking in other fields for alternative sources of transplantable liver tissue. Recent advances in our understanding of liver physiology, stem cell and matrix biology, have accelerated tissue engineering research. Most notable is the discovery of a culture system to grow liver-like organoids from human hepatic stem cells...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620603/advances-in-the-knowledge-about-kidney-decellularization-and-repopulation
#15
REVIEW
Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Gabriela Modenesi Sirtoli, Breno Valentim Nogueira
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of renal function that may compromise different tissues and organs. The major treatment indicated for patients with ESRD is kidney transplantation. However, the shortage of available organs, as well as the high rate of organ rejection, supports the need for new therapies. Thus, the implementation of tissue bioengineering to organ regeneration has emerged as an alternative to traditional organ transplantation. Decellularization of organs with chemical, physical, and/or biological agents generates natural scaffolds, which can serve as basis for tissue reconstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619110/effect-of-aspartic-acid-and-glutamate-on-metabolism-and-acid-stress-resistance-of-acetobacter-pasteurianus
#16
Haisong Yin, Renkuan Zhang, Menglei Xia, Xiaolei Bai, Jun Mou, Yu Zheng, Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely applied in food, bioengineering and medicine fields. However, the acid stress at low pH conditions limits acetic acid fermentation efficiency and high concentration of vinegar production with AAB. Therefore, how to enhance resistance ability of the AAB remains as the major challenge. Amino acids play an important role in cell growth and cell survival under severe environment. However, until now the effects of amino acids on acetic fermentation and acid stress resistance of AAB have not been fully studied...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617486/ultra-high-loading-of-sinoporphyrin-sodium-in-ferritin-for-single-wave-motivated-photothermal-and-photodynamic-co-therapy
#17
Chao Huang, Chengchao Chu, Xiaoyong Wang, Huirong Lin, Junqing Wang, Yun Zeng, Wenzhen Zhu, Yi-Xiang J Wang, Gang Liu
In this work, a potent photosensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS), was loaded into RGD-modified ferritin (R-Fn) nanocages by a rapid, scalable and versatile approach for imaging guided photodynamic and photothermal (PTT/PDT) co-therapy. The resulting nanocomposite formed a well-defined nanocage with a photosensitizer loading capacity as high as 66.67 wt%, which far exceeds those reported previously. The bioengineered protein nanocage-based nanotheranostics exhibits a remarkably improved tumor treatment effect over DVDMS with good biocompatibility and the potential of clinical translation...
June 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#18
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616247/planarian-regeneration-in-space-persistent-anatomical-behavioral-and-bacteriological-changes-induced-by-space-travel
#19
Junji Morokuma, Fallon Durant, Katherine B Williams, Joshua M Finkelstein, Douglas J Blackiston, Twyman Clements, David W Reed, Michael Roberts, Mahendra Jain, Kris Kimel, Sunia A Trauger, Benjamin E Wolfe, Michael Levin
Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616151/therapeutic-potential-of-dental-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Elna Paul Chalisserry, Seung Yun Nam, Sang Hyug Park, Sukumaran Anil
Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
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