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Inner membrane protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544763/hp30-2-a-mitochondrial-prat-protein-for-import-of-signal-sequence-less-precursor-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Claudia Rossig, John Gray, Oscar Valdes, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain a family of putative preprotein and amino acid transporters designated PRAT. Here, we analyzed the role of two previously characterized PRAT protein family member, encoded by At3g49560 (HP30) and At5g24650 (HP30-2), in planta using a combination of genetic, cell biological and biochemical approaches. Expression studies and GFP tagging identified HP30-2 both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, whereas HP30 was located exclusively in chloroplasts. Biochemical evidence was obtained for an association of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-like electron transport chain...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533415/mechanistic-insight-into-the-nucleus-vacuole-junction-based-on-the-vac8p-nvj1p-crystal-structure
#3
Hanbin Jeong, Jumi Park, Hye-In Kim, Miriam Lee, Young-Joon Ko, Sanghwa Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Changwook Lee
Formation of the nucleus-vacuole junction (NVJ) is mediated by direct interaction between the vacuolar protein Vac8p and the outer nuclear endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein Nvj1p. Herein we report the crystal structure of Vac8p bound to Nvj1p at 2.4-Å resolution. Vac8p comprises a flexibly connected N-terminal H1 helix followed by 12 armadillo repeats (ARMs) that form a right-handed superhelical structure. The extended 80-Å-long loop of Nvj1p specifically binds the highly conserved inner groove formed from ARM1-12 of Vac8p...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#4
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526685/differences-in-molecular-mechanisms-of-k-clearance-in-the-auditory-sensory-epithelium-of-birds-and-mammals
#5
Viviane Wilms, Chris Söffgen, Hans Gerd Nothwang
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the vertebrate inner ear is a highly conserved mechanism depending on K(+) influx into hair cells. Here, we investigated the molecular underpinnings of subsequent K(+) recycling in the chicken basilar papilla and compared it with those in the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium. Like mammals, the avian auditory hair cell uses KCNQ4, KCNMA1, and KCNMB1 as K(+) efflux systems. Expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 suggests an additional efflux apparatus in avian hair cells. Marked differences were observed for K(+) clearance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#6
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524857/a-defined-metabolic-state-in-pre-b-cells-governs-b-cell-development-and-is-counterbalanced-by-swiprosin-2-efhd1
#7
Merle Stein, Sebastian Dütting, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Michael Bösl, Kristin Fritsch, Dorothea Reimer, Sophia Urbanczyk, Tobit Steinmetz, Wolfgang Schuh, Aline Bozec, Thomas H Winkler, Hans-Martin Jäck, Dirk Mielenz
B-cell development in the bone marrow comprises proliferative and resting phases in different niches. We asked whether B-cell metabolism relates to these changes. Compared to pro B and small pre B cells, large pre B cells revealed the highest glucose uptake and ROS but not mitochondrial mass, whereas small pre B cells exhibited the lowest mitochondrial membrane potential. Small pre B cells from Rag1(-/-);33.C9 μ heavy chain knock-in mice revealed decreased glycolysis (ECAR) and mitochondrial spare capacity compared to pro B cells from Rag1(-/-) mice...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523273/novel-treponema-pallidum-recombinant-antigens-for-syphilis-diagnostics-current-status-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Aleksey Kubanov, Anastassia Runina, Dmitry Deryabin
The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521058/enhanced-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-energy-production-and-transfer-in-breast-muscle-of-pedigree-male-broilers-exhibiting-high-feed-efficiency
#9
W G Bottje, K Lassiter, S Dridi, N Hudson, B-W Kong
In cells with fluctuating energy demand (e.g., skeletal muscle), a transfer system of proteins across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes links mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytosolic phosphorylated creatine (PCr) that serves as a phosphate reservoir for rapid repletion of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Crucial proteins of this energy transfer system include several creatine kinase (CK) isoforms found in the cytosol and mitochondria. In a recent proteomic study (Kong et al., 2016), several components of this system were up-regulated in high feed efficiency (FE) compared to low FE breast muscle; notably adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), voltage dependent activated channel (VDAC), the brain isoform of creatine kinase (CK-B), and several proteins of the electron transport chain...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516953/signal-recognition-particle-prevents-n-terminal-processing-of-bacterial-membrane-proteins
#10
Amitabh Ranjan, Evan Mercier, Arshiya Bhatt, Wolfgang Wintermeyer
Bacterial proteins are synthesized with an N-formylated amino-terminal methionine, and N-formylated peptides elicit innate-immunity responses against bacterial infections. However, the source of these formylated peptides is not clear, as most bacterial proteins are co-translationally deformylated by peptide deformylase. Here we develop a deformylation assay with translating ribosomes as substrates, to show that the binding of the signal recognition particle (SRP) to signal sequences in nascent proteins on the ribosome prevents deformylation, whereas deformylation of nascent proteins without signal sequence is not affected...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515229/unique-cell-biological-profiles-of-retinal-disease-causing-missense-mutations-in-the-polarity-protein-crumbs
#11
Milena Pellikka, Ulrich Tepass
Mutations in human CRB1 are a major cause of retinal disease that lead to blindness. CRB1 is a transmembrane protein found in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) and the apical membrane of Müller glia. The function of the extracellular region of CRB1 is poorly understood although more than 80 disease-causing missense mutations have been mapped to it. We have recreated four mutations in Drosophila Crumbs (Crb) that affect different extracellular domains. Crb regulates epithelial polarity and growth, and contributes to PRC differentiation and survival...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#12
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512220/increasing-intracellular-magnesium-levels-with-the-31-amino-acid-mgts-protein
#13
Hanbo Wang, Xuefeng Yin, Mona Wu Orr, Michael Dambach, Rebecca Curtis, Gisela Storz
Synthesis of the 31-amino acid, inner membrane protein MgtS (formerly denoted YneM) is induced by very low Mg(2+) in a PhoPQ-dependent manner in Escherichia coli Here we report that MgtS acts to increase intracellular Mg(2+) levels and maintain cell integrity upon Mg(2+) depletion. Upon development of a functional tagged derivative of MgtS, we found that MgtS interacts with MgtA to increase the levels of this P-type ATPase Mg(2+) transporter under Mg(2+)-limiting conditions. Correspondingly, the effects of MgtS upon Mg(2+) limitation are lost in a ∆mgtA mutant, and MgtA overexpression can suppress the ∆mgtS phenotype...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510448/oxidized-or-reduced-cytochrome-c-and-axial-ligand-variants-all-form-the-apoptosome-in-vitro
#14
Deanna L Mendez, Ildikó V Akey, Christopher W Akey, Robert G Kranz
Cytochrome c (cyt c) has two important roles in vertebrates: mitochondrial electron transport and activating the intrinsic cell death pathway (apoptosis). To initiate cell death, cyt c dissociates from the inner mitochondrial membrane and migrates to the cytosol. In the cytosol, cyt c interacts stoichiometrically with apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and upon ATP binding induces formation of the heptameric apoptosome. It is not clear however what the redox state of cyt c is when it functions as the "active signal" for apoptosis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508150/exogenous-bdnf-increases-mitochondrial-pcreb-and-alleviates-neuronal-metabolic-defects-following-mechanical-injury-in-a-mptp-dependent-way
#15
Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Man Lu, Zhang Jin
Metabolic defects are common pathological phenomena following traumatic brain injury (TBI) which contribute to poor prognosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of BDNF on TBI-induced metabolic defects and their underlying molecular mechanisms. BDNF was added into cultured neurons to a concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml, respectively, right after mechanical injury and metabolite levels were analyzed 4 h post injury...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504659/structure-of-the-macab-tolc-abc-type-tripartite-multidrug-efflux-pump
#16
Anthony W P Fitzpatrick, Salomé Llabrés, Arthur Neuberger, James N Blaza, Xiao-Chen Bai, Ui Okada, Satoshi Murakami, Hendrik W van Veen, Ulrich Zachariae, Sjors H W Scheres, Ben F Luisi, Dijun Du
The MacA-MacB-TolC assembly of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane machine that spans the cell envelope and actively extrudes substrates, including macrolide antibiotics and polypeptide virulence factors. These transport processes are energized by the ATPase MacB, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We present an electron cryo-microscopy structure of the ABC-type tripartite assembly at near-atomic resolution. A hexamer of the periplasmic protein MacA bridges between a TolC trimer in the outer membrane and a MacB dimer in the inner membrane, generating a quaternary structure with a central channel for substrate translocation...
May 15, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500525/ftsz-constriction-force-curved-protofilaments-bending-membranes
#17
Harold P Erickson, Masaki Osawa
FtsZ assembles in vitro into protofilaments (pfs) that are one subunit thick and ~50 subunits long. In vivo these pfs assemble further into the Z ring, which, along with accessory division proteins, constricts to divide the cell. We have reconstituted Z rings in liposomes in vitro, using pure FtsZ that was modified with a membrane targeting sequence to directly bind the membrane. This FtsZ-mts assembled Z rings and constricted the liposomes without any accessory proteins. We proposed that the force for constriction was generated by a conformational change from straight to curved pfs...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500222/energy-requirements-of-odor-transduction-in-the-chemosensory-cilia-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-rely-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-glycolytic-processing-of-extracellular-glucose
#18
Pablo S Villar, Ricardo Delgado, Cecilia Vergara, Juan G Reyes, Juan Bacigalupo
The mechanisms that power the physiological events occuring in cilia, flagella and microvilli are of fundamental importance for the functions of these important and ubicuous organelles. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. The only OSN dendrite extends to the surface forming a knob projecting several chemosensory cilia of approximately 50 x 0.2 μm, devoid of inner membranes embedded in a mucus layer...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499087/identification-of-intrahelical-bifurcated-h-bonds-as-a-new-type-of-gate-in-k-channels
#19
Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder
Gating of ion channels is based on structural transitions between open and closed states. To uncover the chemical basis of individual gates, we performed a comparative experimental and computational analysis between two K(+) channels, KcvS and KcvNTS. These small viral encoded K(+) channel proteins, with a monomer size of only 82 amino acids, resemble the pore module of all complex K(+) channels in terms of structure and function. Even though both proteins share about 90% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different open probabilities with ca...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494547/-dynamic-expression-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-in-the-mitochondrial-inner-membrane-during-hepatocyte-malignant-transformation-induced-by-lipid-accumulation
#20
J J Gu, M Yao, Y Cai, M Fang, L Wang, W J Zheng, D B Yao, Z Z Dong, D F Yao
Objective: To investigate the dynamic expression of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) in the mitochondrial inner membrane during hepatocyte malignant transformation induced by lipid accumulation. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into control, fatty liver, and induced cancer groups, which were fed with normal, high-fat (HF), and HF containing 2-fluorenylacetamide (0.05%, 2-FAA) diets, respectively, for 14 weeks. One rat from each group was sacrificed every two weeks and the blood and liver samples were collected...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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