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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650463/type-vi-secretion-tssk-baseplate-protein-exhibits-structural-similarity-with-phage-receptor-binding-proteins-and-evolved-to-bind-the-membrane-complex
#1
Van Son Nguyen, Laureen Logger, Silvia Spinelli, Pierre Legrand, Thi Thanh Huyen Pham, Thi Trang Nhung Trinh, Yassine Cherrak, Abdelrahim Zoued, Aline Desmyter, Eric Durand, Alain Roussel, Christine Kellenberger, Eric Cascales, Christian Cambillau
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein machine widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that delivers toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The mechanism of action of the T6SS is comparable to that of contractile myophages. The T6SS builds a tail-like structure made of an inner tube wrapped by a sheath, assembled under an extended conformation. Contraction of the sheath propels the inner tube towards the target cell. The T6SS tail is assembled on a platform-the baseplate-which is functionally similar to bacteriophage baseplates...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648824/sheath-cell-invasion-and-trans-differentiation-repair-mechanical-damage-caused-by-loss-of-caveolae-in-the-zebrafish-notochord
#2
Jamie Garcia, Jennifer Bagwell, Brian Njaine, James Norman, Daniel S Levic, Susan Wopat, Sara E Miller, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Didier Y R Stainier, Michel Bagnat
The notochord, a conserved axial structure required for embryonic axis elongation and spine development, consists of giant vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial sheath [1-3]. During morphogenesis, vacuolated cells maintain their structural integrity despite being under constant mechanical stress [4]. We hypothesized that the high density of caveolae present in vacuolated cells [5, 6] could buffer mechanical tension. Caveolae are 50- to 80-nm membrane invaginations lined by cage-like polygonal structures [7, 8] formed by caveolin 1 (Cav1) or Cav3 and one of the cavin proteins [6, 9-11]...
June 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647361/apolipoprotein-o-expression-in-mouse-liver-enhances-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-impairing-mitochondrial-function
#3
Feng Tian, Chen-Lu Wu, Bi-Lian Yu, Ling Liu, Jia-Rui Hu
Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) was recently observed in the cellular mitochondrial inner membrane, which plays a role in mitochondrial function and is associated with myocardiopathy. Empirical information on the physiological functions of apoO is therefore limited. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of apoO on hepatic fatty acid metabolism. An adenoviral vector expressing hApoO was constructed and introduced into chow diet and high-fat diet induced mice and the L02 human hepatoma cell line. High levels of hApoO mRNA and protein were detected in the liver, and the expression of lipid metabolism genes was significantly altered compared with negative controls...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642685/rab-interacting-molecules-2-and-3-directly-interact-with-the-pore-forming-cav1-3-ca-2-channel-subunit-and-promote-its-membrane-expression
#4
Maria M Picher, Ana-Maria Oprişoreanu, SangYong Jung, Katrin Michel, Susanne Schoch, Tobias Moser
Rab interacting molecules (RIMs) are multi-domain proteins that positively regulate the number of Ca(2+) channels at the presynaptic active zone (AZ). Several molecular mechanisms have been demonstrated for RIM-binding to components of the presynaptic Ca(2+) channel complex, the key signaling element at the AZ. Here, we report an interaction of the C2B domain of RIM2α and RIM3γ with the C-terminus of the pore-forming α-subunit of CaV1.3 channels (CaV1.3α1), which mediate stimulus-secretion coupling at the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642371/electrostatic-interactions-between-the-ctx-phage-minor-coat-protein-and-the-bacterial-host-receptor-tola-drives-the-pathogenic-conversion-of-vibrio-cholerae
#5
Laetitia Houot, Romain Navarro, Matthieu Nouailler, Denis Duché, Françoise Guerlesquin, Roland Lloubes
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and converts to a pathogen upon infection by a filamentous phage, CTXφ, that transmits the cholera toxin encoding genes. This toxigenic conversion of V. cholerae has evident implication in both genome plasticity and epidemic risk, but the early stages of the infection have not been thoroughly studied. CTXφ transit across the bacterial periplasm requires binding between the minor coat protein named pIII and a bacterial inner-membrane receptor, TolA, which is part of the conserved Tol-Pal molecular motor...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640849/motility-in-blastogregarines-apicomplexa-native-and-drug-induced-organisation-of-siedleckia-nematoides-cytoskeletal-elements
#6
Andrea Valigurová, Naděžda Vaškovicová, Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Magdaléna Kováčiková
Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640814/a-novel-algorithm-identifies-stress-induced-alterations-in-mitochondrial-connectivity-and-inner-membrane-structure-from-confocal-images
#7
Mathieu Ouellet, Gérald Guillebaud, Valerie Gervais, David Lupien St-Pierre, Marc Germain
Mitochondria exist as a highly interconnected network that is exquisitely sensitive to variations in nutrient availability, as well as a large array of cellular stresses. Changes in length and connectivity of this network, as well as alterations in the mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae), regulate cell fate by controlling metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Given the key roles of mitochondrial dynamics, the process by which mitochondria constantly fuse and fragment, the measure of mitochondrial length and connectivity provides crucial information on the health and activity of various cell populations...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637768/vrk2a-is-an-a-type-lamin-dependent-nuclear-envelope-kinase-that-phosphorylates-baf
#8
K C Birendra, Danielle G May, Benjamin V Benson, Dae In Kim, Winnie G Shivega, Manaal H Ali, Randolph S Faustino, Alexandre R Campos, Kyle J Roux
The nuclear envelope (NE) is critical for numerous fundamental cellular functions and mutations in several NE constituents can lead to a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases. We used proximity biotinylation to uncover new constituents of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by comparative BioID analysis of lamin-A, Sun2 and a minimal INM-targeting motif. These studies identified vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) as a candidate constituent of the INM. We determined that the transmembrane VRK2A isoform is retained at the NE by association with A-type lamins...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636907/epr-spectroscopy-targets-structural-changes-in-the-e-%C3%A2-coli-membrane-fusion-cusb-upon-cu-i-binding
#9
Aviv Meir, Ahmad Abdelhai, Yoni Moskovitz, Sharon Ruthstein
Bacterial cells have developed sophisticated systems to deal with the toxicity of metal ions. Escherichia coli CusCFBA is a complex efflux system, responsible for transferring Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions; this system, located in the periplasm, involves four proteins, CusA, CusB, CusC, and CusF. CusA, CusB, and CusC are connected to one another in an oligomerization ratio of 3:6:3 CusA/CusB/CusC to form the CusCBA periplasm membrane transporter. CusB is an adaptor protein that connects the two membrane proteins CusA (inner membrane) and CusC (outer membrane)...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635493/the-structure-of-lamin-filaments-in-somatic-cells-as-revealed-by-cryo-electron-tomography
#10
Y Turgay, O Medalia
Metazoan nuclei are equipped with nuclear lamina - a thin layer of intermediate filaments (IFs) mostly built of nuclear lamins facing the inner nuclear membrane (INM). The nuclear lamina serves as an interaction hub for INM-proteins, soluble nuclear factors and DNA. It confers structural and mechanical stability to the nucleus, transduces mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the nuclear envelope (NE) and regulates the organization of chromatin. By utilizing cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), we recently provided an unprecedented view into the 3D organization of lamin filaments within the lamina meshwork in mammalian somatic cells...
June 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632757/molecular-mechanism-of-drp1-assembly-studied-in-vitro-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#11
Kaustuv Basu, Driss Lajoie, Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong, Jin Chen, Roman I Koning, Blaise Bossy, Mihnea Bostina, Attila Sik, Ella Bossy-Wetzel, Isabelle Rouiller
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually adapt their morphology by fusion and fission events. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been linked to major neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. A member of the Dynamin superfamily, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a dynamin-related GTPase, is required for mitochondrial membrane fission. Self-assembly of DRP1 into oligomers in a GTP-dependent manner likely drives the division process. We show here that DRP1 self-assembles in two ways: i) in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP analog GMP-PNP into spiral-like structures of ~36 nm diameter; and ii) in the presence of GTP into rings composed of 13-18 monomers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630166/deficiency-of-phb-complex-impairs-respiratory-supercomplex-formation-and-activates-mitochondrial-flashes
#12
Chongshu Jian, Fengli Xu, Tingting Hou, Tao Sun, Li Jinghang, Heping Cheng, Xianhua Wang
Prohibitins (prohibitin 1, PHB1, and prohibitin 2, PHB2) are evolutionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial protein. PHBs form multimeric ring complexes acting as scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are newly discovered mitochondrial signaling events which reflect electrical and chemical excitations of the organelle. Here we investigate possible roles of PHBs in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. Down-regulation of PHBs increases mitoflash frequency by up to 5...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630161/insertion-of-proteins-and-lipopolysaccharide-into-the-bacterial-outer-membrane
#13
REVIEW
Istvan Botos, Nicholas Noinaj, Susan K Buchanan
The bacterial outer membrane contains phospholipids in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet. Both proteins and LPS must be frequently inserted into the outer membrane to preserve its integrity. The protein complex that inserts LPS into the outer membrane is called LptDE, and consists of an integral membrane protein, LptD, with a separate globular lipoprotein, LptE, inserted in the barrel lumen. The protein complex that inserts newly synthesized outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) into the outer membrane is called the BAM complex, and consists of an integral membrane protein, BamA, plus four lipoproteins, BamB, C, D and E...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628337/buckling-under-pressure-curvature-based-lipid-segregation-and-stability-modulation-in-cardiolipin-containing-bilayers
#14
Kevin J Boyd, Nathan N Alder, Eric R May
Mitochondrial metabolic function is affected by the morphology and protein organization of the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique tetra-acyl lipid that is involved in the maintenance of the highly-curved shape of the MIM as well as spatial organization of the proteins necessary for respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Cardiolipin has been suggested to self-organize into lipid domains due to its inverted conical molecular geometry, though the driving forces for this organization are not fully understood...
June 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628083/molecular-basis-of-selective-mitochondrial-fusion-by-heterotypic-action-between-opa1-and-cardiolipin
#15
Tadato Ban, Takaya Ishihara, Hiroto Kohno, Shotaro Saita, Ayaka Ichimura, Katsumi Maenaka, Toshihiko Oka, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Naotada Ishihara
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo frequent fusion and fission. Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an essential GTPase protein for both mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) fusion and cristae morphology. Under mitochondria-stress conditions, membrane-anchored L-OPA1 is proteolytically cleaved to form peripheral S-OPA1, leading to the selection of damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. However, molecular details of the selective mitochondrial fusion are less well understood. Here, we showed that L-OPA1 and cardiolipin (CL) cooperate in heterotypic mitochondrial IM fusion...
June 19, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625779/multiple-isoforms-of-nesprin1-are-integral-components-of-ciliary-rootlets
#16
Chloe Potter, Wanqiu Zhu, David Razafsky, Philip Ruzycki, Alexander V Kolesnikov, Teresa Doggett, Vladimir J Kefalov, Ewelina Betleja, Moe R Mahjoub, Didier Hodzic
SYNE1 (synaptic nuclear envelope 1) encodes multiple isoforms of Nesprin1 (nuclear envelope spectrin 1) that associate with the nuclear envelope (NE) through a C-terminal KASH (Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology) domain (Figure 1A) [1-4]. This domain interacts directly with the SUN (Sad1/Unc84) domain of Sun proteins [5-7], a family of transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) [8, 9], to form the so-called LINC complexes (linkers of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) that span the entire NE and mediate nuclear positioning [10-12]...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#17
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616083/outer-membrane-phospholipase-a-s-roles-in-helicobacter-pylori-acid-adaptation
#18
Hilde S Vollan, Tone Tannæs, Dominique A Caugant, Gert Vriend, Geir Bukholm
BACKGROUND: The pH of the human gastric mucosa varies around 2.5 so that only bacteria with strong acidic stress tolerance can colonize it. The ulcer causing Helicobacter pylori thrives in the gastric mucosa. We analyse the roles of the key outer membrane protein OMPLA in its roles in acid tolerance. RESULTS: The homology model of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) reveals a twelve stranded β-barrel with a pore that allows molecules to pass with a diameter up to 4 Å...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615720/arc6-mediated-z-ring-like-structure-formation-of-prokaryote-descended-chloroplast-ftsz-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Hiroki Irieda, Daisuke Shiomi
Plant chloroplasts proliferate through binary fission, and the stromal-side molecules that are involved in chloroplast division are bacterial derivatives. As in bacteria, the prokaryotic tubulin homolog FtsZ assembles into a ring-like structure (Z ring) at mid-chloroplast, and this process is followed by constriction. However, the properties of chloroplast FtsZs remain unclarified. Here, we employed Escherichia coli as a novel heterologous system for expressing chloroplast FtsZs and their regulatory components...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611436/antibacterial-and-detoxifying-activity-of-nz17074-analogues-with-multi-layers-of-selective-antimicrobial-actions-against-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enteritidis
#20
Na Yang, Xuehui Liu, Da Teng, Zhanzhan Li, Xiumin Wang, Ruoyu Mao, Xiao Wang, Ya Hao, Jianhua Wang
NZ17074 (N1), an arenicin-3 derivative isolated from the lugworm, has potent antibacterial activity and is cytotoxic. To reduce its cytotoxicity, seven N1 analogues with different structures were designed by changing their disulfide bonds, hydrophobicity, or charge. The "rocket" analogue-N2 and the "kite" analogue-N6 have potent activity and showed lower cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells than N1. The NMR spectra revealed that N1, N2, and N6 adopt β-sheet structures stabilized by one or two disulfide bonds. N2 and N6 permeabilized the outer/inner membranes of E...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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