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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437463/relationship-of-the-crebc-two-component-regulatory-system-and-inner-membrane-protein-cred-with-swimming-motility-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#1
Hsin-Hui Huang, Wei-Ching Chen, Cheng-Wen Lin, Yi-Tsung Lin, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Yi-Chih Chang, Tsuey-Ching Yang
The CreBC two-component system (TCS) is a conserved regulatory system found in Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study, we determined how CreBC TCS regulates secreted protease activities and swimming motility using creB, creC, and creBC in-frame deletion mutants (KJΔCreB, KJΔCreC, and KJΔBC) of S. maltophilia KJ. Compared to wild-type KJ, KJΔCreB had a comparable secreted protease activity; however, the secreted protease activities were obviously reduced in KJΔCreC and KJΔBC, suggesting that CreC works together with another unidentified response regulator (not CreB) to regulate secreted protease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434914/full-length-oligomeric-structure-of-wzz-determined-by-cryoelectron-microscopy-reveals-insights-into-membrane-bound-states
#2
Richard F Collins, Vasileios Kargas, Brad R Clarke, C Alistair Siebert, Daniel K Clare, Peter J Bond, Chris Whitfield, Robert C Ford
Wzz is an integral inner membrane protein involved in regulating the length of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen glycans and essential for the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. In all Wzz homologs, the large periplasmic domain is proposed to be anchored by two transmembrane helices, but no information is available for the transmembrane and cytosolic domains. Here we have studied purified oligomeric Wzz complexes using cryoelectron microscopy and resolved the transmembrane regions within a semi-continuous detergent micelle...
April 11, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434777/the-heat-shock-protein-60-promotes-progesterone-synthesis-in-mitochondria-of-jeg-3-cells
#3
Jessica Monreal-Flores, María Teresa Espinosa-García, Alejandro García-Regalado, Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco, Federico Martínez
Progesterone synthesis in human placenta is essential to maintain pregnancy. The limiting step in placental progesterone synthesis is cholesterol transport from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Multiple proteins located in mitochondrial contact sites seem to play a key role in this process. Previously, our group identified the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as part of mitochondrial contact sites in human placenta, suggesting its participation in progesterone synthesis. Here, we examined the role of HSP60 in progesterone synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433661/differential-protein-acetylation-assists-import-of-excess-sod2-into-mitochondria-and-mediates-sod2-aggregation-associated-with-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-murine-sod2-tg-heart
#4
Liwen Zhang, Chwen-Lih Chen, Patrick T Kang, Zhicheng Jin, Yeong-Renn Chen
SOD2 is the primary antioxidant enzyme neutralizing ((•))O2((-)) in mitochondria. Cardiac-specific SOD2 overexpression (SOD2-tg) induces supernormal function and cardiac hypertrophy in the mouse heart. However, the reductive stress imposed by SOD2 overexpression results in protein aggregation of SOD2 pentamers and differential hyperacetylation of SOD2 in the mitochondria and cytosol. Here, we studied SOD2 acetylation in SOD2-tg and wild-type mouse hearts. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of four acetylated lysines in matrix SOD2 and nine acetylated lysines in cytosolic SOD2 from the SOD2-tg heart...
April 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432958/membrane-fusion-between-baculovirus-budded-virus-enveloped-particles-and-giant-liposomes-generated-using-a-droplet-transfer-method-for-the-incorporation-of-recombinant-membrane-proteins
#5
Misako Nishigami, Takaaki Mori, Masahiro Tomita, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto
Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431522/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-neisseria-meningitidis-wildtype-and-dpra-null-mutant-strains-links-dna-processing-to-pilus-biogenesis
#6
Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Shewit Kalayou, Tahira Riaz, Tone Tonjum
BACKGROUND: DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA binding protein which is ubiquitous in bacteria, and is required for DNA transformation to various extents among bacterial species. However, the interaction of DprA with competence and recombination proteins is poorly understood. Therefore, the proteomes of whole Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) wildtype and dprA mutant cells were compared. Such a comparative proteomic analysis increases our understanding of the interactions of DprA with other Nm components and may elucidate its potential role beyond DNA processing in transformation...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430241/probing-the-germination-kinetics-of-ethanol-treated-bacillus-thuringiensis-spores
#7
Guiwen Wang, Huanjun Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Lixin Peng, Yuan Peng, Yong-Qing Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial insecticide. To clarify the mechanism of bacterial resistance to ethanol toxicity, the present study investigated the effects of 70% (v/v) ethanol at a moderate temperature (65°C) on Bt spore germination by single-cell Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. We found that over 80% of Bt spores were inviable after 30 min of treatment. Moreover, ethanol treatment affected spore germination; the time for initiation of rapid calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA) release (i...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430006/evolutionary-changes-in-lamin-expression-in-the-vertebrate-lineage
#8
Reimer Stick, Annette Peter
The nuclear lamina is involved in fundamental nuclear functions and provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. Lamin filaments form a meshwork closely apposed to the inner nuclear membrane and a small fraction of lamins exist in the nuclear interior. Mutations in lamin genes cause severe hereditary diseases, the laminopathies. During vertebrate evolution the lamin protein family has expanded. While most vertebrate genomes contain four lamin genes, encoding the lamins A, B1, B2, and LIII, the majority of non-vertebrate genomes harbor only a single lamin gene...
April 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421443/genomic-mapping-of-chromatin-proteins-by-using-dam-inv-modification-of-an-flp-dependent-damid-approach
#9
A V Pindyurin
To identify interactions of chromatin proteins with the genome of the cell type of interest that is a part of heterologous tissues and organs of Drosophila, an FLP-dependent DamID approach was recently developed [4], which does not require sorting of cells or nuclei. Here, a modification of this approach, Dam(inv), is described. The modified approach was validated by generating the binding pattern of the LAM protein, a component of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, with the genome of glial cells of the Drosophila larval central brains...
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#10
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419595/lipopolysaccharide-lps-binding-to-the-periplasmic-protein-lpta
#11
Kathryn M Schultz, Tanner J Lundquist, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the periplasmic protein LptA are two essential components of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS, also known as endotoxin, is found asymmetrically distributed in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and plays a role in the organism's natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptA is a member of the lipopolysaccharide transport protein (Lpt) family, which also includes LptC, LptDE, and LptBFG2 , that functions to transport LPS through the periplasm to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane after MsbA flips LPS across the inner membrane...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418037/mitochondrial-c11orf83-is-a-potent-antiviral-protein-independent-of-interferon-production
#12
Yun Yang, Shaoquan Xiong, Bei Cai, Hui Luo, E Dong, Qiqi Li, Gaili Ji, Chengjian Zhao, Yanjun Wen, Yuquan Wei, Hanshuo Yang
Mitochondria have a central position in innate immune response via the adaptor protein MAVS in mitochondrial outer membrane to limit viral replication by inducing interferon production. Here, we reported that C11orf83, a component of complex III of electronic transfer chain in mitochondrial inner membrane, was a potent antiviral protein independent of interferon production. C11orf83 expression significantly increased in response to viral infection, and endows cells with stronger capability of inhibiting viral replication...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413119/the-two-dictyostelium-discoideum-autophagy-8-proteins-have-distinct-autophagic-functions
#13
Susanne Meßling, Jan Matthias, Qiuhong Xiong, Sarah Fischer, Ludwig Eichinger
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation pathway which is crucial for various cellular processes. The autophagic process is subdivided in the initiation, autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation phases and involves more than forty core and accessory autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Autophagy 8 (ATG8, in mammals LC3) is a well-established marker of autophagy and is linked to the autophagic membrane from initiation until fusion with the lysosome. We generated single and double knock-out mutants of the two Dictyostelium paralogues, ATG8a and ATG8b, as well as strains that expressed RFP-ATG8a and/or GFP-ATG8b, RFP-ATG8b, RFP-GFP-ATG8a or RFP-GFP-ATG8b in different knock-out mutants...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408867/visualization-of-snare-mediated-hemifusion-between-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-arrested-by-myricetin
#14
Paul Heo, Joon-Bum Park, Yeon-Kyun Shin, Dae-Hyuk Kweon
Neurotransmitters are released within a millisecond after Ca(2+) arrives at an active zone. However, the vesicle fusion pathway underlying this synchronous release is yet to be understood. At the center of controversy is whether hemifusion, in which outer leaflets are merged while inner leaflets are still separated, is an on-pathway or off-pathway product of Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Using the single vesicle fusion assay, we recently demonstrated that hemifusion is an on-pathway intermediate that immediately proceeds to full fusion upon Ca(2+) triggering...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408344/repurposing-bacterial-toxins-for-intracellular-delivery-of-therapeutic-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Greg L Beilhartz, Seiji N Sugiman-Marangos, Roman A Melnyk
Despite enormous efforts, achieving efficacious levels of proteins inside mammalian cells remains one of the greatest challenges in biologics-based drug discovery and development. The inability of proteins to readily cross biological membranes precludes access to the wealth of intracellular targets and applications that lie within mammalian cells. Existing methods of delivery commonly suffer from an inability to target specific cells and tissues, poor endosomal escape, and limited in vivo efficacy. The aim of the present commentary is to highlight the potential of certain classes of bacterial toxins, which naturally deliver a large protein into the cytosolic compartment of target cells after binding a host cell-surface receptor with high affinity, as robust protein delivery platforms...
April 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406958/molecular-analysis-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-responses-to-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-bin-toxin
#16
Chontida Tangsongcharoen, Natapong Jupatanakul, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, George Dimopoulos, Panadda Boonserm
Lysinibacillus sphaericus produces the mosquito larvicidal binary toxin consisting of BinA and BinB, which are both required for toxicity against Culex and Anopheles larvae. The molecular mechanisms behind Bin toxin-induced damage remain unexplored. We used whole-genome microarray-based transcriptome analysis to better understand how Culex larvae respond to Bin toxin treatment at the molecular level. Our analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae transcriptome changes at 6, 12, and 18 h after Bin toxin treatment revealed a wide range of transcript signatures, including genes linked to the cytoskeleton, metabolism, immunity, and cellular stress, with a greater number of down-regulated genes than up-regulated genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404750/human-adenine-nucleotide-translocases-physically-and-functionally-interact-with-respirasomes
#17
Ya-Wen Lu, Michelle Grace Acoba, Kandasamy Selvaraju, Tai-Chung Huang, Raja S Nirujogi, Gajanan Sathe, Akhilesh Pandey, Steven M Claypool
Members of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) family exchange ADP for ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane, an activity that is essential for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mutations in or dysregulation of ANTs is associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiomyopathy, non-syndromic intellectual disability, apoptosis and the Warburg effect. Binding partners of human ANTs have not been systematically identified. The absence of such information has prevented a detailed molecular understanding of the assorted ANT-associated diseases including insight into their disparate phenotypic manifestations...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397779/the-transmembrane-morphogenesis-protein-gp1-of-filamentous-phages-contains-walker-a-and-walker-b-motifs-essential-for-phage-assembly
#18
Belinda Loh, Maximilian Haase, Lukas Mueller, Andreas Kuhn, Sebastian Leptihn
In contrast to lytic phages, filamentous phages are assembled in the inner membrane and secreted across the bacterial envelope without killing the host. For assembly and extrusion of the phage across the host cell wall, filamentous phages code for membrane-embedded morphogenesis proteins. In the outer membrane of Escherichia coli, the protein gp4 forms a pore-like structure, while gp1 and gp11 form a complex in the inner membrane of the host. By comparing sequences with other filamentous phages, we identified putative Walker A and B motifs in gp1 with a conserved lysine in the Walker A motif (K14), and a glutamic and aspartic acid in the Walker B motif (D88, E89)...
April 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394325/structural-basis-for-lipopolysaccharide-extraction-by-abc-transporter-lptb2fg
#19
Qingshan Luo, Xu Yang, Shan Yu, Huigang Shi, Kun Wang, Le Xiao, Guangyu Zhu, Chuanqi Sun, Tingting Li, Dianfan Li, Xinzheng Zhang, Min Zhou, Yihua Huang
After biosynthesis, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are transiently anchored to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane (IM). The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LptB2FG extracts LPS molecules from the IM and transports them to the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of nucleotide-free LptB2FG from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The structure reveals that lipopolysaccharide transport proteins LptF and LptG each contain a transmembrane domain (TMD), a periplasmic β-jellyroll-like domain and a coupling helix that interacts with LptB on the cytoplasmic side...
April 10, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394313/structure-of-the-mycobacterial-esx-5-type-vii-secretion-system-membrane-complex-by-single-particle-analysis
#20
Katherine S H Beckham, Luciano Ciccarelli, Catalin M Bunduc, Haydyn D T Mertens, Roy Ummels, Wolfgang Lugmayr, Julia Mayr, Mandy Rettel, Mikhail M Savitski, Dmitri I Svergun, Wilbert Bitter, Matthias Wilmanns, Thomas C Marlovits, Annabel H A Parret, Edith N G Houben
Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids(1). To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems(2). In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs(3). However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information...
April 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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