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pancreatitis and metabolic disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649604/combined-immunotherapy-with-anti-insulin-resistance-therapy-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Wakako Koike, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Kazunari Sekiyama, Makoto Hashimoto
Protein aggregation is a pathological hallmark of and may play a central role in the neurotoxicity in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, inhibiting aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid β and α-synuclein, has been a main therapeutic target for these disorders. Among various strategies, amyloid β immunotherapy has been extensively investigated in Alzheimer's disease, followed by similar studies of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646158/metabolic-recovery-of-lipodystrophy-liver-steatosis-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-after-the-withdrawal-of-osi-906
#2
Kazuki Tajima, Jun Shirakawa, Yu Togashi, Shunsuke Yamazaki, Tomoko Okuyama, Mayu Kyohara, Hiromi Konishi, Yasuo Terauchi
Growth factor signaling via insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) plays several important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. OSI-906 (linsitinib), an anti-tumor drug, is an orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of IR and IGF1R. To investigate the recovery from metabolic changes induced by the acute inhibition of IR and IGF1R in adult mice, mice were treated with OSI-906 or a vehicle for 7 days and the results were analyzed on the last day of injection (Day 7) or after 7 or 21 days of withdrawal (Day 14 or Day 28)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618995/the-complexity-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-modulation-of-signaling-pathways-related-to-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Carolina Torres, Andrew M Diaz, Daniel R Principe, Paul J Grippo
Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Although cancer death rate has dropped by 23% since 1991, there are certain types of cancer for which death rates are still increasing such as, pancreatic cancer. There is an urgent need to find new therapies that could help improve this dreadful outcome. In this regard, the role of nutrition in health and disease has attracted much attention. Several dietary ingredients are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular signaling affecting tumor growth and progression...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612706/autophagy-and-its-link-to-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Yuan-Man Hsu, Shih-Chang Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yng-Tay Chen, Ying-Ju Lin, Yu-Chuen Huang, Chao-Jung Chen, Wei-De Lin, Wen-Lin Liao, Wei-Yong Lin, Yu-Huei Liu, Jinn-Chyuan Sheu, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Autophagy, a double-edged sword for cell survival, is the research object on 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Autophagy is a molecular mechanism for maintaining cellular physiology and promoting survival. Defects in autophagy lead to the etiology of many diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, neurodegeneration, infection disease and aging. DM is a metabolic and chronic disorder and has a higher prevalence in the world as well as in Taiwan. The character of diabetes mellitus is hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both...
June 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579755/past-and-current-perspective-on-new-therapeutic-targets-for-type-ii-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Pradip D Patil, Umesh B Mahajan, Kalpesh R Patil, Sandip Chaudhari, Chandragouda R Patil, Yogeeta O Agrawal, Shreesh Ojha, Sameer N Goyal
Loss of pancreatic β-cell function is a hallmark of Type-II diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. Recently, United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study reported that Type-II DM is a progressive disorder. Although, DM can be treated initially by monotherapy with oral agent; eventually, it may require multiple drugs. Additionally, insulin therapy is needed in many patients to achieve glycemic control. Pharmacological approaches are unsatisfactory in improving the consequences of insulin resistance...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577185/light-emitting-diode-modulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-by-pancreatic-duct-regeneration
#6
José Carlos Tatmatsu-Rocha, Cynthia Aparecida de Castro, Marcela Sene-Fiorese, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Pancreatic lesions can produce metabolic disorders. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been used as a safe and effective phototherapy for cell proliferation and regeneration. We investigate the effects of phototherapy using LED irradiation on the pancreas after the injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce experimental diabetes and evaluate that the β cells can regenerate in the pancreas in an in vivo model and observe its implications on the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Twenty Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, and diabetic treated with LED...
June 3, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576871/steap4-its-emerging-role-in-metabolism-and-homeostasis-of-cellular-iron-and-copper
#7
Rachel T Scarl, C Martin Lawrence, Hannah M Gordon, Craig S Nunemaker
Preserving energy homeostasis in the presence of stressors such as proinflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload is crucial to maintaining normal cellular function. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4 (STEAP4), a metalloreductase involved in iron and copper homeostasis, is thought to play a potentially important role in the cellular response to inflammatory stress. Genome-wide association studies have linked various mutations in STEAP4 with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544245/ghrelin-receptor-inverse-agonists-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-obesity-related-metabolic-disease
#8
Kathrin Abegg, Lara Bernasconi, Melanie Hutter, Lynda Whiting, Claudio Pietra, Claudio Giuliano, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
AIMS: Ghrelin is implicated in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The ghrelin receptor exhibits ligand independent constitutive activity, which can be pharmacologically exploited to induce inverse ghrelin actions. Since ghrelin receptor inverse agonists (GHSR-IA) might be effective for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disease, we tested two novel synthetic compounds GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In functional cell assays, electrophysiogical and immunohistochemical experiments, we demonstrated inverse agonist activity for GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2...
May 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527893/chemistry-and-biology-of-reactive-species-with-special-reference-to-the-antioxidative-defence-status-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#9
REVIEW
Sigurd Lenzen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease. Dysfunction and subsequent loss of the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans through apoptosis ultimately cause a life-threatening insulin deficiency. The underlying reason for the particular vulnerability of the β-cells is an extraordinary sensitivity to the toxicity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) due to its low antioxidative defense status. SCOPE REVIEW: This review considers the different aspects of the chemistry and biology of the biologically most important reactive species and their chemico-biological interactions in the β-cell toxicity of proinflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes and of lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes development...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513455/glucose-tolerance-disorders-during-treatment-with-glucocorticoids-in-patients-with-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-based-on-the-analysis-of-data-from-the-literature-and-own-research-results
#10
Piotr Dąbrowski, Maria Majdan
Glucocorticoids are among the most frequently used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. They are widely used in the treatment of numerous autoimmune disorders. However, the treatment with glucocorticoids is connected with the risk of a number of side effects. Among them, glucose tolerance disorders play an important role. The results of meta-analyses show that the risk of diabetes is from 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in the case of treated patients in comparison to the general population. Glucocorticoids can directly impair pancreatic β-cell secretion...
May 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#11
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447763/berberine-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-through-regulating-metabolic-endotoxemia-and-gut-hormone-levels
#12
Jian Hui Xu, Xing Zhen Liu, Wei Pan, Da Jin Zou
Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414683/recurrent-hypertriglyceridemic-pancreatitis-htgp-and-the-use-of-insulin-drip-as-treatment
#13
T Tran, N Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis by definition is a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis and is commonly associated with alcoholism in the US. Another cause of chronic pancreatitis is hypertriglyceridemia (HTGP);, occurring in 1-5 percent of cases. The incidence of HTGP is higher in patients with diabetes and HIV, usually requiring triglyceride levels > 1000 mg/dL. CASE: A 33 year old man with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes and recurrent pancreatitis, first diagnosed 5 years prior, presented as a transfer from an outside hospital for a recurrent episode of HTGP...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405880/steap4-expression-in-human-islets-is-associated-with-differences-in-body-mass-index-sex-hba1c-and-inflammation
#14
Hannah M Gordon, Neil Majithia, Patrick E MacDonald, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Poonam R Sharma, Frances L Byrne, Kyle L Hoehn, Carmella Evans-Molina, Linda Langman, Kenneth L Brayman, Craig S Nunemaker
OBJECTIVE: STEAP4 (six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4) is a metalloreductase that has been shown previously to protect cells from inflammatory damage. Genetic variants in STEAP4 have been associated with numerous metabolic disorders related to obesity, including putative defects in the acute insulin response to glucose in type 2 diabetes. PURPOSE: We examined whether obesity and/or type 2 diabetes altered STEAP4 expression in human pancreatic islets...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404513/correlation-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-body-weight-of-adults-above-the-age-of-30-years-in-a-medical-facility-in-ghana
#15
Frederick Vuvor, Godfred Egbi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin production or ineffective pancreatic secretions. In Ghana, the prevalence of DM was estimated to be 6.3% amongst men and women older than 30 years living in the Greater Accra region. The disease can be determined by various means including the use of the multistix that assesses the presence of glucose in urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 100 subjects were sampled made up of 65% males and 35% females whose urine samples were verified using multistix...
April 4, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401058/a-rare-cause-of-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-a-child-isovaleric-acidemia-with-novel-mutation
#16
Elif Sag, Alper Han Cebi, Gulay Kaya, Gulay Karaguzel, Murat Cakir
Recurrent acute pancreatic attacks is a rare clinical condition (2-5% of all acute pancreatis) in children and is mainly idiopathic in most cases. Sometimes it may be associated with congenital anomalies, metabolic diseases or hereditary conditions. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a rare autosomal recessive amino acid metabolism disorder associated with isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency presenting the clinical findings such metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, hyperammonemia, ketonemia, hypoglycemia, "the odor of sweaty feet," abdominal pain, vomiting, feeding intolerance, shock and coma...
March 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389636/rna-sequence-analysis-of-rat-acute-experimental-pancreatitis-with-and-without-fatty-liver-a-gene-expression-profiling-comparative-study
#17
Qian Wang, Hongkai Yan, Gang Wang, Zhaoyan Qiu, Bin Bai, Shiqi Wang, Pengfei Yu, Quanxin Feng, Qingchuan Zhao, Xianli He, Chaoxu Liu
Fatty liver (FL) is one of the risk factors for acute pancreatitis and is also indicative of a worse prognosis as compared to acute pancreatitis without fatty liver (AP). The aim of the present study was to analyze, at the hepatic level, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between acute pancreatitis with fatty liver (APFL) rats and AP rats. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses of these DEGs indicated that PPARα signalling pathway and fatty acid degradation pathway may be involved in the pathological process of APFL, which indicated that fatty liver may aggravate pancreatitis through these pathways...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348424/immunohistochemistry-detected-and-localized-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-bovine-fetal-pancreas-at-late-gestation
#18
Cecilia Dall'Aglio, Angela Polisca, Maria Grazia Cappai, Francesca Mercati, Alessandro Troisi, Carolina Pirino, Paola Scocco, Margherita Maranesi
At present, data on the endocannabinoid system expression and distribution in the pancreatic gland appear scarce and controversial as descriptions are limited to humans and laboratory animals. Since the bovine pancreas is very similar to the human in endocrine portion development and control, studies on the fetal gland could prove to be very interesting, as an abnormal maternal condition during late pregnancy may be a predisposing trigger for adult metabolic disorders. The present investigation studied cannabinoid receptor type 2 presence and distribution in the bovine fetal pancreas towards the end of gestation...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#19
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316139/changes-in-body-composition-and-metabolic-profile-during-interleukin-6-inhibition-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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