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pancreatitis and metabolic disorders

William Virgil Brown, Ira Goldberg, Barton Duell, Daniel Gaudet
Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive retention of chylomicrons and usually result from multiple genetic variants with superimposed influences such as diabetes and immune disorders. Less commonly, major gene defects in lipoprotein metabolism can be the cause. These may present soon after birth with strong evidence of familial penetrance. The causes of this syndrome have been discussed in a Roundtable published in the most recent issue of this Journal...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Francis D Gratte, Sara Pasic, John K Olynyk, George C T Yeoh, David Tosh, Deirdre R Coombe, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
The rising prevalence of chronic liver disease, coupled with a permanent shortage of organs for liver transplantation, has sparked enormous interest in alternative treatment strategies. Previous protocols to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) via pancreas-to-liver transdifferentiation have utilised fetal bovine serum, introducing unknown variables and severely limiting study reproducibility. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a protocol for transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells to HLCs in a chemically defined, serum-free culture medium...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vini Singh, Sadagopan Krishnan
Diabetes is a complex immune disorder that requires extensive medical care beyond glycemic control. Recently, the prevalence of diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes (T1D), has significantly increased from 5% to 10%, and this has affected the health-associated complication incidences in children and adults. The 2012 statistics by the American Diabetes Association reported that 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) had diabetes, and 86 million Americans (age ≥20 years, an increase from 79 million in 2010) had prediabetes...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Deniz Kirac, Ceyda Dincer Yazan, Hazal Gezmis, Ali Yaman, Goncagul Haklar, Onder Sirikci, Elif Cigdem Altunok, Oguzhan Deyneli
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an insulin dependent autoimmune disorder resulting the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Another possible factor considered to be related with T1DM is vitamin D deficiency. Therefore in this study it was aimed to investigate the associations between T1DM, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene mutations which are related with vitamin D metabolism. Fifty five T1DM paitents and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited to the study. FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410) mutations in VDR; rs4588 and rs7041 polymorphisms in VDBP were investigated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Kaiyong Liang, Xiaojuan Ou, Xukai Huang, Qunfang Lan
RATIONALE: Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is a very rare condition with an unknown pathology and etiology, although it may be associated with autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant inheritance or retinoic acid and hedgehog signaling pathway alterations. This condition usually manifests with abdominal pain or pancreatitis, although some cases are asymptomatic. Approximately 50% of affected patients with this disorder present with hyperglycemia or various other anomalies. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 23-year-old Chinese woman who visited the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism with insulin-dependent diabetes but no specific symptoms, signs, or other deformities...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (A & B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin, act through G-protein coupled receptors, orexin 1 receptor (OX1 R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2 R). The wide projection of orexin neurons in the hypothalamic region allows them to interact with the other neurons and regulate food intake, emotional status, sleep wake cycle and energy metabolism. The autonomic nervous system plays an important regulatory role in the energy metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis. Orexin neurons are also under the control of GABAergic neurons...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
Iryna Liauchonak, Fady Dawoud, Yatin Riat, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Justin Jain, Regina-Veronicka Kalaydina, Nicole Mendonza, Komal Bajwa, Myron R Szewczuk
Insulin signaling, as mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), plays a critical role in metabolism. Aberrations in this signaling cascade lead to several pathologies, the majority of which are classified under the umbrella term "metabolic syndrome". Although many of these pathologies are associated with insulin resistance, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. One area of current interest is the possibility of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) influencing or regulating IR signaling. This concept is particularly significant, because GPCRs have been shown to participate in cross-talk with the IR...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Yasutaka Murai, Takeshi Ohta, Hironobu Tadaki, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Masami Shinohara, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Takahisa Yamada
Introduction: The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide, and numerous anti-diabetic drugs have been developed to induce good glycemic control. In particular, metformin, which exhibits glucose-lowering effects by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver, is widely used as a first line oral anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: In this study, the pharmacological effects of metformin were investigated using female and male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats, a new obese type 2 diabetic model...
December 2017: Medical Archives
Yingfeng Liu, Qiyuan Tan, Fang Liu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by insufficient secretion or inadequate action of insulin. Nowadays, the increased morbidity of DM is a worldwide issue. Pancreatic beta cell death plays a key role in the progress of DM, especially Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Traditional biomarkers, such as C-peptide and islet autoimmune antibodies are limited to reflect beta cell death and to identify high risk patients in the clinical practice. Recently, a novel biomarker, differentially methylated circulating DNA, has become a research hotspot...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Neha Goyal, Devesh Kesharwani, Malabika Datta
Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Deregulated glucose and lipid metabolism are the primary underlying manifestations associated with this disease and its complications. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of functional RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes by a diverse interplay of mechanisms including recruitment of epigenetic modifiers, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, control of mRNA decay, and sequestration of transcription factors...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Paul C Guest
Pulse-chase radiolabeling of cells with radioactive amino acids is a common method for studying the biosynthesis of proteins. The labeled proteins can then be immunoprecipitated and analyzed by electrophoresis and gel imaging techniques. This chapter presents a protocol for the biosynthetic labeling and immunoprecipitation of pancreatic islet proteins which are known to be affected in disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Loppini, M G Pedersen, M Braun, S Filippi
The importance of gap-junction coupling between β cells in pancreatic islets is well established in mouse. Such ultrastructural connections synchronize cellular activity, confine biological heterogeneity, and enhance insulin pulsatility. Dysfunction of coupling has been associated with diabetes and altered β-cell function. However, the role of gap junctions between human β cells is still largely unexplored. By using patch-clamp recordings of β cells from human donors, we previously estimated electrical properties of these channels by mathematical modeling of pairs of human β cells...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Yali Tuo, Ming Xiang
Diabetes is both a metabolic and an immune disorder. One intriguing link between the two is the serine-threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). As a component of the PI3K/Akt pathway and other cellular signals, mTOR is a key regulator of fuel metabolism and function of both pancreatic islet β cells and immune cells. Consequently, it seems that mTOR has both anti- and prodiabetic effects. On the one hand, activation of mTOR in β cells can increase their growth and proliferation, opposing impairments of insulin secretion in diabetes...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ayesha Noor, S Gunasekaran, M A Vijayalakshmi
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Antony Citterio-Quentin, Mustapha Moulsma, Marie-Paule Gustin, Alain Lachaux, Roselyne Boulieu
Azathioprine (AZA), a thiopurine drug, is widely used in the treatment of children with immunological disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH); however, interindividual variability in the occurrence of adverse drug reaction (ADRs) and drug response is observed. This study investigated 1) the relationships between inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) activity, an enzyme involved in thiopurine metabolism, and the occurrence of ADRs in children with immunological disease on AZA therapy, 2) the relationship between ITPA activity and the inflammatory activity observed in children with IBD...
January 11, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Ye Jin Lim, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Hoon Pan, Jae Kyeom Kim, Tae-Sik Park, Young Jun Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jun Ho Kim
SCOPE: Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside in citrus species, has been shown to display strong antioxidant potential in in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress; however, the underlying protective mechanisms in diabetes are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of naringin in preventing islet dysfunction and diabetes, we examined glucose homeostasis, β-cell apoptosis, and inflammatory response in insulin-deficient diabetic mice exposed to acute oxidative stress with streptozotocin (STZ)...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Angelo Carpinelli, Helenir Medri de Souza
Metformin (MET) is widely used in the correction of insulin (INS) resistance and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on INS resistance and metabolic disorders associated with cancer cachexia is not established. We investigated the MET effects, isolated or associated with INS, on INS resistance and metabolic changes induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats with advanced cachexia. MET (500, oral) and MET + INS (NPH, 1.0, sc) were administered during 12 days, starting on the day of tumor cell inoculation...
January 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
J Yang, B Jia, J Yan, J He
PURPOSE: Pancreatic carcinoma is the most lethal cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of <5%. Hyperglycemia is one of the severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in cancer treatment. The aim was to analyze the blood glucose-related ADR of antineoplastics in treating pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antineoplastic drugs were selected from Martindale-The Complete Drug Reference (36th edition). ADR data were extracted from VigiBase, the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Centre, and the WHO's specialist center for drug safety...
November 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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