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pancreatitis and metabolic disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906711/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#1
Natalie Hecht Baldauff, Selma Feldman Witchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905373/-enteral-distress-syndrome-in-surgery-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis
#2
A P Vlasov, V A Trofimov, T I Grigor'eva, V A Shibitov, P A Vlasov
It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881904/long-noncoding-rnas-in-metabolic-syndrome-related-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Magdalena Losko, Jerzy Kotlinowski, Jolanta Jura
Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are very complex and their all functions have yet to be fully clarified. Noncoding genes (noncoding RNA, sequences, and pseudogenes) comprise 67% of all genes and they are represented by housekeeping noncoding RNAs (transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)) that are engaged in basic cellular processes and by regulatory noncoding RNA (short and long noncoding RNA (ncRNA)) that are important for gene expression/transcript stability...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867203/epac2a-null-mice-exhibit-obesity-prone-nature-more-susceptible-to-leptin-resistance
#4
M Hwang, Y Go, J-H Park, S-K Shin, S E Song, B-C Oh, S-S Im, I Hwang, Y H Jeon, I-K Lee, S Seino, D-K Song
BACKGROUND: The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which is primarily involved in cAMP signaling, has been known to be essential for controlling body energy metabolism. Epac has two isoforms: Epac1 and Epac2. The function of Epac1 on obesity was unveiled using Epac1 knockout (KO) mice. However, the role of Epac2 in obesity remains unclear. METHODS: To evaluate the role of Epac2 in obesity, we used Epac2a KO mice, which is dominantly expressed in neurons and endocrine tissues...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865874/bromodomain-containing-protein-2-induces-insulin-resistance-via-the-mtor-akt-signaling-pathway-and-an-inflammatory-response-in-adipose-tissue
#5
Ruixin Sun, Yi Wu, Weihua Hou, Zujun Sun, Yuxiong Wang, Huanhuan Wei, Wei Mo, Min Yu
Insulin resistance is a major metabolic abnormality in a large majority of patients with type II diabetes. Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2), a transcriptional co-activator/co-repressor with switch mating type/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF)-like functions that regulates chromatin, suppresses adipocyte differentiation and regulates pancreatic β-cell biology. However, the effects of Brd2 on insulin resistance remain unknown. Here, overexpression of Brd2 in white adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) mice led to insulin resistance...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832316/bone-derived-factors-a-new-gateway-to-regulate-glycemia
#6
Nicolas Bonnet
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are two major disorders which prevalence increases with aging and is predicted to worsen in the coming years. Preclinical investigations suggest common mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. Recent evidence has established that there is a clear link between glucose and bone metabolism. The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator through FGF23 and osteocalcin has led to the re-evaluation of the role of bone cells and bone-derived factors in the development of metabolic diseases such as T2DM...
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831640/influence-and-significance-of-intervening-diabetes-microrna-expression-profile-of-nod-mice-with-exendin-4
#7
J-S He, C-W Lian, Y-L Fang, J-Z Wu, X-L Ye, S-B Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To provide selectable microRNA for intervening diabetes mellitus diseases, NOD mice's expression of microRNA in pancreas tissues and blood under the exendin-4 intervention of was observed and the difference of microRNA target gene was screened. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty clean NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups (in each group, n = 10): One is blank control group D which is intervened with normal saline, and the other three groups were divided into low-dose group A, middle-dose group B, and high-dose group C according to the different exendin-4 dosage 2, 4, and 8 μg/kg·d...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814716/the-inhibitory-activity-of-herbal-medicines-on-the-keys-enzymes-and-steps-related-to-carbohydrate-and-lipid-digestion
#8
Weerachat Sompong, Nuttapat Muangngam, Artitaya Kongpatpharnich, Chadakarn Manacharoenlarp, Chanatkarn Amorworasin, Tanyawan Suantawee, Thavaree Thilavech, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are consistently associated with metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Herbal medicines have been currently suggested as an alternative source of potentially useful antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro inhibitory effects of eleven herbal medicines on carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and the key steps of lipid digestion including the inhibition of micelle formation and the ability to bind bile acid...
November 4, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795842/stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#9
M A Borisov, O S Petrakova, I G Gvazava, E N Kalistratova, A V Vasiliev
Diabetes affects over 350 million people worldwide, with the figure projected to rise to nearly 500 million over the next 20 years, according to the World Health Organization. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) is an endocrine disorder caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas, which leads to insulin deficiency. Administration of exogenous insulin remains at the moment the treatment mainstay. This approach helps to regulate blood glucose levels and significantly increases the life expectancy of patients...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778325/a-possible-link-between-famine-exposure-in-early-life-and-future-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-implications-from-age-period-cohort-analysis
#10
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771512/positive-feedback-amplifies-the-response-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-to-glucose-concentration-in-clonal-pancreatic-beta-cells
#11
Akos A Gerencser, Shona A Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D Brand
Analysis of the cellular mechanisms of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, is complicated by the large number of reactions and interactions in metabolic networks. Metabolic control analysis with appropriate modularization is a powerful method for simplifying and analyzing these networks. To analyze control of cellular energy metabolism in adherent cell cultures of the INS-1832/13 pancreatic β-cell model we adapted our microscopy assay of absolute mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) to a fluorescence microplate reader format, and applied it in conjunction with cell respirometry...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763497/regulatory-roles-of-micrornas-in-diabetes
#12
Juan Feng, Wanli Xing, Lan Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes, have been recognized as significant regulators of gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. To date, >2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome, and they orchestrate a variety of biological and pathological processes. Disruption of miRNA levels correlates with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting >400 million people worldwide. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus by affecting pancreatic β-cell functions, insulin resistance, or both...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757762/ligands-at-free-fatty-acid-receptor-1-gpr40
#13
Takafumi Hara
FFA1 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids. FFA1 plays important roles in various physiological processes such as insulin secretion and energy metabolism. FFA1 expressed on pancreatic β-cells and intestine contributes to insulin and incretin secretion, respectively. These physiological functions of FFA1 are interesting as an attractive drug target for type II diabetes and metabolic disorders. A number of synthetic FFA1 ligands have been developed and they have contributed to our current understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of FFA1 both in in vitro and in vivo studies...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723690/-total-pancreatectomy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Yu I Patyutko, N E Kudashkin, A G Kotel'nikov, O V Chistyakova
AIM: to determine the indications and to evaluate early and long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment of 29 patients who underwent one- and two-stage pancreatectomy for different malignancies was analyzed. RESULTS: Median of surgery duration and intraoperative blood loss was 280 min and 2200 ml respectively. Postoperative complications were observed in 9 (31%) patients. There were 2 (6...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710158/hypertriglyceridemia-the-importance-of-identifying-patients-at-risk
#15
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: 'Hypertriglyceridemia'[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699590/high-fructose-diet-is-as-detrimental-as-high-fat-diet-in-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes-mediated-by-hepatic-pancreatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress
#16
M Balakumar, L Raji, D Prabhu, C Sathishkumar, P Prabu, V Mohan, M Balasubramanyam
In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689409/increased-metabolic-disorders-and-impaired-insulin-secretory-function-in-the-first-degree-relatives-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#17
Liling Deng, Songfang Liu, Yuan Gong, Haoming Tian, Yuanyuan Liu, Jie Song, Xingwu Ran, Honglin Yu, Xiangxun Zhang, Yang Long, Yan Ren
OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolic status and pancreatic β-cell function in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of type 2 diabetic patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twelve subjects, who were NGT-FDR of type 2 diabetic patients and 1348 subjects, who were NGT individuals with no family history of diabetes, were defined as NGT-FDRs and NGT-controls (NGT-C), respectively. Blood pressure, body weight, waist circumference, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and insulin levels were measured in all subjects...
September 30, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679730/is-a-fatty-pancreas-a-banal-lesion
#18
REVIEW
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk
So far, a fatty pancreas has been related to obesity and the ageing processes in the body. The current list of pathogenetic factors of the condition is clearly extended with genetically conditioned diseases (cystic fibrosis, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome), pancreatitis, especially hereditary and obstructive, metabolic and hormonal disorders (hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypercortisolemia), alcohol overuse, taking some medicines (especially adrenal cortex hormones), disease of the liver and visceral adiposis...
September 2016: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666763/microrna-19a-3p-enhances-the-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-while-it-inhibits-the-apoptosis-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cells-via-the-inhibition-of-socs3
#19
Yuan Li, Tianyou Luo, Liang Wang, Jing Wu, Shixin Guo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, have been demonstrated to play key roles in various physicological processes and diseases, including diabetes, the most common metabolic disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR‑19a‑3p in diabetes. The results of RT-qPCR demonstrated that the level of miR‑19a‑3p was significantly decreased in the diabetic patients, and that the decreased miR‑50a-5p level was significantly associated with a high concentration of blood glucose...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662816/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-insulin-resistance-obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Sunil J Wimalawansa
The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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