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Molecular genetic personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916927/genetic-test-risk-prediction-and-counseling
#1
Maggie Haitian Wang, Haoyi Weng
Advancement in technology has nurtured the new era of genetic tests for personalized medicine. In this chapter, we will introduce the current development, challenges, and the outlook of genetic test, disease risk prediction, and genetic counseling. In the first section, we will present the success cases in the areas of molecular classification of tumors, pharmacogenomics, and Mendelian disorders, and the challenges of genetic tests implementations. In the second section, common methods for genetic risk prediction models and evaluation measures will be introduced, as well as challenges in feature reliability, risk model stability, and clinical utility...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915716/implementation-and-utilization-of-the-molecular-tumor-board-to-guide-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Shuko Harada, Rebecca Arend, Qian Dai, Jessica A Levesque, Thomas S Winokur, Rongjun Guo, Martin J Heslin, Lisle Nabell, L Burt Nabors, Nita A Limdi, Kevin A Roth, Edward E Partridge, Gene P Siegal, Eddy S Yang
BACKGROUND: With rapid advances in genomic medicine, the complexity of delivering precision medicine to oncology patients across a university health system demanded the creation of a Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) for patient selection and assessment of treatment options. The objective of this report is to analyze our progress to date and discuss the importance of the MTB in the implementation of personalized medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were reviewed in the MTB for appropriateness for comprehensive next generation sequencing (NGS) cancer gene set testing based on set criteria that were in place...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910230/educational-attainment-and-personality-are-genetically-intertwined
#3
René Mõttus, Anu Realo, Uku Vainik, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko
Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that the personality domains of the five-factor model and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants, reflect polygenic influences that have been previously associated with educational attainment. In a sample of more than 3,000 adult Estonians, education polygenic scores (EPSs), which are interpretable as estimates of molecular-genetic propensity for education, were correlated with various personality traits, particularly from the neuroticism and openness domains...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904884/circulating-tumor-cells-and-cdx-models-as-a-tool-for-preclinical-drug-development
#4
REVIEW
Alice Lallo, Maximilian W Schenk, Kristopher K Frese, Fiona Blackhall, Caroline Dive
Lung cancers are the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Efforts placed to improve the survival of lung cancer patients and untangle the complexity of this disease, have resulted in the generation of hundreds of lung cancer cell lines and several genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). Although these research tools have extended our knowledge of lung cancer, improvement in the clinical care of lung cancer patients have been limited overall, with measured optimism regarding initial responses to targeted therapies in stratified subgroups of patients...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902072/hiv-transmission-dynamics-among-foreign-born-persons-in-the-united-states
#5
Eduardo E Valverde, Alexandra M Oster, Songli Xu, Joel O Wertheim, Angela L Hernandez
BACKGROUND: In the United States (U.S.), foreign-born persons are disproportionately affected by HIV and differ epidemiologically from U.S.-born persons with diagnosed HIV infection. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons is important to guide HIV prevention efforts for these populations. We conducted molecular transmission network analysis to describe HIV transmission dynamics among foreign-born persons with diagnosed HIV. METHODS: Using HIV-1 polymerase nucleotide sequences reported to the U...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900075/-circulating-micrornas-in-the-identification-of-biological-fluids-a-new-approach-to-standardization-of-expression-based-diagnostics
#6
A S Bavykin
Molecular profiling of normal tissues is a regular and necessary step when developing systems for expression analyses in biological samples, including diagnostic panels for various diseases and conditions. Yet there are still no rigorous criteria to allow precise typing of normal tissues. A main problem is that the methods employed in diagnostic expression testing are difficult to standardize. While various technologies, instruments, and reagents are available, universal protocols of handling biological material are lacking, thus impairing the reproducibility of data from independent studies...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898880/personalized-management-of-cardiovascular-disorders
#7
Kewal K Jain
Personalized management of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), also referred to as personalized or precision cardiology in accordance with general principles of personalized medicine, is the selection of best treatment for an individual patient. It involves the integration of various 'omics' technologies such as genomics and proteomics as well as other new technologies such as nanobiotechnology. Molecular diagnostics and biomarkers are important for linking diagnosis with therapy and monitoring of therapy. Because CVDs involve perturbations of large complex biological networks, a systems biology approach to CVD risk stratification may be used for improving risk-estimating algorithms and modeling of personalized benefit-of-treatment may be helpful for guiding choice of intervention...
September 11, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895539/frequency-and-clinical-and-molecular-aspects-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-an-endocrinology-unit-in-ciudad-bol%C3%A3-var-venezuela
#8
Marcos M Lima-Martínez, Mariela Paoli, Alejandra Vázquez-Cárdenas, María Teresa Magaña-Torres, Ornella Guevara, María Carolina Muñoz, Alberto Parrilla-Alvarez, Yuliangelys Márquez, Ana Medeiros, Mafalda Bourbon
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in subjects attending an endocrinology unit. METHODS: An observational, descriptive study evaluating 3,140 subjects attending the endocrinology unit of Centro Médico Orinoco in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, from 7 January 2013 to 9 December 2016. The index cases were selected using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Plasma lipid levels were measured, and a molecular analysis was performed by DNA sequencing of the LDLR and APOB genes...
October 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892281/transgenerational-and-developmental-plasticity-at-the-molecular-level-lessons-from-daphnia
#9
Alison M Bell, Laura R Stein
Listen to the news and you are bound to hear that researchers are increasingly interested in the biological manifestations of trauma that reverberate through the generations. Research in this area can be controversial in the public realm, provoking societal issues about personal responsibility (are we really born free or are we born with the burden of our ancestors' experience?). It is also a touchy subject within evolutionary biology because it provokes concerns about Lamarckianism and general scepticism about the importance of extra-genetic inheritance (Laland et al...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891364/an-update-on-pcr-use-for-minimal-residual-disease-monitoring-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
Vittorio Nunes, Gianni Cazzaniga, A Biondi
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the first neoplasm where the assessment of early response to therapy by minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring has proven to be a fundamental tool for guiding therapeutic choices. In recent years, thanks to real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), MRD monitoring has further achieved higher levels of sensitivity and standardization. However, some outstanding issues still remain to be addressed and emerging technologies hold the promise of improving MRD detection in ALL patients...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883284/pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-genetic-alterations
#11
Akira Shimada
Annually, it is estimated that approximately 150-200 children aged 0-16 years are diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In Japan, clinical studies with ANLL91, AML99, CCLSG-AML9805, and JPLSG-AML05 protocols were performed historically, and the risk stratification with a combination of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation resulted in the improvement of clinical outcomes. Regarding the onset of pediatric AML at the molecular level, mutations in FLT3-ITD or KIT (Class I mutation) showed a poor prognosis, but the ratio of mutations in Class III-V genes was smaller than that in adult AML...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880910/no-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-serotonin-4-receptor-in-five-factor-personality-traits-a-positron-emission-tomography-brain-study
#12
Dea Siggaard Stenbæk, Vibeke Høyrup Dam, Patrick MacDonald Fisher, Nanna Hansen, Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Vibe Gedsoe Frokjaer
Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which has recently become possible to image with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This is particularly relevant since availability of 5-HT4R has been shown to adapt to synaptic levels of 5-HT and thus offers information about serotonergic tone in the healthy brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878180/bariatric-surgery-and-precision-nutrition
#13
REVIEW
Carolina F Nicoletti, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Marcela A S Pinhel, Carla B Nonino
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875369/-personalized-oncology
#14
REVIEW
C Heining, P Horak, S Gröschel, H Glimm, S Fröhling
CLINICAL ISSUE: Innovative next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and comprehensive sequencing investigations in large patient cohorts have paved the way for very promising personalized treatment strategies based on the molecular characteristics of individual tumors. STANDARD TREATMENT: Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies and modern immunotherapeutic approaches are well established as monotherapy and combination therapy for many hematological and oncological malignancies...
September 5, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864083/an-operant-based-detection-method-for-inferring-tinnitus-in-mice
#15
Hongyan Zuo, Debin Lei, Shobhana Sivaramakrishnan, Benjamin Howie, Jessica Mulvany, Jianxin Bao
BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus is a hearing disorder in which a person perceives sound when no external sound is present. It can be acute or chronic. Because our current understanding of its pathology is incomplete, no effective cures have yet been established. Mouse models are useful for studying the pathophysiology of tinnitus as well as for developing therapeutic treatments. NEW METHOD: We have developed a new method for determining acute and chronic tinnitus in mice, called sound-based avoidance detection (SBAD)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863391/a-precision-medicine-approach-for-psychiatric-disease-based-on-repeated-symptom-scores
#16
Anthony T Fojo, Katherine L Musliner, Peter P Zandi, Scott L Zeger
For psychiatric diseases, rich information exists in the serial measurement of mental health symptom scores. We present a precision medicine framework for using the trajectories of multiple symptoms to make personalized predictions about future symptoms and related psychiatric events. Our approach fits a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimates a population-average trajectory for all symptoms and individual deviations from the average trajectory, then fits a second model that uses individual symptom trajectories to estimate the risk of experiencing an event...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854343/updates-on-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-markers-in-selected-head-and-neck-diagnostic-problems
#17
Chun-Hui Yi, Qihui Jim Zhai, Beverly Y Wang
CONTEXT: - The head and neck regions have complex anatomic structures. They are not exempted from the rare occurrences of highly unusual, diagnostically challenging malignant neoplasms and mimickers. OBJECTIVE: - To review and update the utility of immunohistochemistry and molecular biomarkers and to pursue diagnostic accuracy on selected rare neoplasms, especially some poorly differentiated malignancies. DATA SOURCES: - Personal experience and information from the literature...
September 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845852/-rare-diseases-in-post-genomic-era
#18
Simonetta Pulciani, Andrea Vittozzi, Stefano Diemoz, Emanuele Nutile, Domenica Taruscio
The Human Genome Project and the "-omics" technologies will in future provide genetic maps and biosynthetic pathways permitting personalized medical interventions directed at maintaining or restoring wellbeing. This is reflected in the strategy aims of 4P medicine in being: predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. The results obtained in the field of cystic fibrosis, with the cloning of CFTR gene, and use of Kalydeco®, have demonstrated how using the mentioned strategies could also have success in rare disease management...
July 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840557/personalised-medicine-genome-maintenance-lessons-learned-from-studies-in-yeast-as-a-model-organism
#19
Arwa A Abugable, Dahlia A Awwad, Dalia Fleifel, Mohamed M Ali, Sherif El-Khamisy, Menattallah Elserafy
Yeast research has been tremendously contributing to the understanding of a variety of molecular pathways due to the ease of its genetic manipulation, fast doubling time as well as being cost-effective. The understanding of these pathways did not only help scientists learn more about the cellular functions but also assisted in deciphering the genetic and cellular defects behind multiple diseases. Hence, yeast research not only opened the doors for transforming basic research into applied research, but also paved the roads for improving diagnosis and innovating personalized therapy of different diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840552/the-emerging-role-of-proteomics-in-precision-medicine-applications-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-neurotrauma
#20
Rana Alaaeddine, Mira Fayad, Eliana Nehme, Hisham F Bahmad, Firas Kobeissy
Inter-individual variability in response to pharmacotherapy has provoked a higher demand to personalize medical decisions. As the field of pharmacogenomics has served to translate personalized medicine from concept to practice, the contribution of the "omics" disciplines to the era of precision medicine seems to be vital in improving therapeutic outcomes. Although we have observed significant advances in the field of genomics towards personalized medicine , the field of proteomics-with all its capabilities- is still in its infancy towards the area of personalized precision medicine...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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