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Infections rrt

Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Anna Likos, Isabel Griffin, Andrea M Bingham, Danielle Stanek, Marc Fischer, Stephen White, Janet Hamilton, Leah Eisenstein, David Atrubin, Prakash Mulay, Blake Scott, Patrick Jenkins, Danielle Fernandez, Edhelene Rico, Leah Gillis, Reynald Jean, Marshall Cone, Carina Blackmore, Janet McAllister, Chalmers Vasquez, Lillian Rivera, Celeste Philip
During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease cases among Florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing Zika virus transmission or sexual contacts of recent travelers...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
C Senthilkumaran, H Bittner, A Ambagala, O Lung, S Babiuk, M Yang, J Zimmerman, L G Giménez-Lirola, C Nfon
The use of swine oral fluid (OF) for the detection of nucleic acids and antibodies is gaining significant popularity. Assays have been developed for this purpose for endemic and foreign animal diseases of swine. Here, we report the use of OF for the detection of virus and antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a virus that causes a disease clinically indistinguishable from the economically devastating foot-and-mouth disease. Viral genome was detected in OF by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (DPI) to 21 DPI...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Carolyn Brent, Angela Dunn, Harry Savage, Ary Faraji, Mike Rubin, Ilene Risk, Wendy Garcia, Margaret Cortese, Shannon Novosad, Elisabeth Raquel Krow-Lucal, Jacqueline Crain, Mary Hill, Annette Atkinson, Dallin Peterson, Kimberly Christensen, Melissa Dimond, J Erin Staples, Allyn Nakashima
On July 12, 2016, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) was notified by a clinician caring for an adult (patient A) who was evaluated for fever, rash, and conjunctivitis that began on July 1. Patient A had not traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission; had not had sexual contact with a person who recently traveled; and had not received a blood transfusion, organ transplant, or mosquito bites (1). Patient A provided care over several days to an elderly male family contact (the index patient) who contracted Zika virus abroad...
September 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Riasat Wasee Ullah, Aamer Bin Zahur, Asma Latif, Javid Iqbal Dasti, Hamid Irshad, Muhammad Afzal, Tahir Rasheed, Adnan Rashid Malik, Zafar-Ul-Ahsan Qureshi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kate Russell, Sara E Oliver, Lillianne Lewis, Wanda D Barfield, Janet Cragan, Dana Meaney-Delman, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer, Georgina Peacock, Titilope Oduyebo, Emily E Petersen, Sherif Zaki, Cynthia A Moore, Sonja A Rasmussen
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elisabeth Coupez, Jean-François Timsit, Stéphane Ruckly, Carole Schwebel, Didier Gruson, Emmanuel Canet, Kada Klouche, Laurent Argaud, Julien Bohe, Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Christophe Mariat, François Vincent, Sophie Cayot, Olivier Cointault, Alain Lepape, Michael Darmon, Alexandre Boyer, Elie Azoulay, Lila Bouadma, Alexandre Lautrette, Bertrand Souweine
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients require dialysis catheters (DCs) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). They carry a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease, and therefore their vascular access must be preserved. Guidewire exchange (GWE) is often used to avoid venipuncture insertion (VPI) at a new site. However, the impact of GWE on infection and dysfunction of DCs in the ICU is unknown. Our aim was to compare the effect of GWE and VPI on DC colonization and dysfunction in ICU patients...
July 30, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Titilope Oduyebo, Irogue Igbinosa, Emily E Petersen, Kara N D Polen, Satish K Pillai, Elizabeth C Ailes, Julie M Villanueva, Kim Newsome, Marc Fischer, Priya M Gupta, Ann M Powers, Margaret Lampe, Susan Hills, Kathryn E Arnold, Laura E Rose, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Charles B Beard, Jorge L Muñoz, Carol Y Rao, Dana Meaney-Delman, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Qin Hu, Dekang Zhu, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes significant bleeding lesions in the viscera of ducklings less than 3 weeks old. There are three serotypes of DHAV: serotype 1 (DHAV-1), serotype 2 (DHAV-2) and serotype 3 (DHAV-3). These serotypes have no cross-antigenicity with each other. To establish an rRT-PCR assay for the rapid detection of a mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, two pairs of primers and a pair of matching TaqMan probes were designed based on conserved regions of DHAV-1 VP0 and DHAV-3 VP3...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Jacob Lee, Woo Joo Kim
On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015...
June 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Heungsup Sung, Dongeun Yong, Chang Seok Ki, Jae Seok Kim, Moon Woo Seong, Hyukmin Lee, Mi Na Kim
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) of sputum samples is commonly used to diagnose Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Owing to the difficulty of extracting RNA from sputum containing mucus, sputum homogenization is desirable prior to nucleic acid isolation. We determined optimal homogenization methods for isolating viral nucleic acids from sputum. METHODS: We evaluated the following three sputum-homogenization methods: proteinase K and DNase I (PK-DNase) treatment, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium citrate (NALC) treatment...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Mi Na Kim, Young Jin Ko, Moon Woo Seong, Jae Seok Kim, Bo Moon Shin, Heungsup Sung
BACKGROUND: During the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), six different commercial MERS-CoV RNA detection kits based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) were available in Korea. We performed analytical and clinical validations of these kits. METHODS: PowerChek (Kogene Biotech, Korea), DiaPlexQ (SolGent, Korea), Anyplex (Seegene, Korea), AccuPower (Bioneer, Korea), LightMix (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Switzerland), and UltraFast kits (Nanobiosys, Korea) were evaluated...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
J Todd Weaver, Sasidhar Malladi, Peter J Bonney, Kelly A Patyk, Justin G Bergeron, Jamie L Middleton, Catherine Y Alexander, Timothy J Goldsmith, David A Halvorson
Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
Swati Sharma, Satyendra K Singh, Kavita Kakkar, Nikky Nyari, Tapan N Dhole, Rajesh Kashyap, Saba Hasan
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a systemic viral infection that spreads to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The secreted NS1 protein of dengue virus activates macrophages and human PBMCs via TLR4 and induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. Mutations in TLR4 gene have been associated with the increased susceptibility to many viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of TLR4 Asp299Gly (rs4986790) and Thr399Ile (rs4986791) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to dengue infection...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yi Tang, Hao Chen, Youxiang Diao
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which threatens both poultry production and public health. In this study we developed a complete open reading frame alignment-based rRT-LAMP method for the universal detection of TUMV. To prevent false-positive results, the reaction was supplemented with uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) to eliminate carryover contamination. The detection limit of the newly developed UDG-rRT-LAMP for TMUV was as low as 100 copies/reaction of viral RNA and 1 × 10(0.89) - 1 × 10(1...
June 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ingrid B Rabe, J Erin Staples, Julie Villanueva, Kimberly B Hummel, Jeffrey A Johnson, Laura Rose, Susan Hills, Annemarie Wasley, Marc Fischer, Ann M Powers
Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Flavivirus and is closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses (1,2). Among flaviviruses, Zika and dengue virus share similar symptoms of infection, transmission cycles, and geographic distribution. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection can be accomplished using both molecular and serologic methods. For persons with suspected Zika virus disease, a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) result confirms Zika virus infection, but a negative rRT-PCR result does not exclude infection (3-7)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Matthew S Shotwell, Ross Nesbitt, Phillip N Madonia, Edward R Gould, Michael J Connor, Charbel Salem, Olufemi A Aduroja, Milen Amde, Joseph J Groszek, Peilin Wei, Maria E Taylor, Ashita J Tolwani, William H Fissell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection is the most common cause of death in severe AKI, but many patients receiving continuous RRT do not reach target antibiotic concentrations in plasma. Extended infusion of β-lactams is associated with improved target attainment in critically ill patients; thus, we hypothesized that extended infusion piperacillin-tazobactam would improve piperacillin target attainment compared with short infusion in patients receiving continuous RRT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted an institutional review board-approved observational cohort study of piperacillin-tazobactam pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration at three tertiary care hospitals between 2007 and 2015...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
M Allison Arwady, Basem Alraddadi, Colin Basler, Esam I Azhar, Eltayb Abuelzein, Abdulfattah I Sindy, Bakr M Bin Sadiq, Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi, Omaima Shabouni, Ayman Banjar, Lia M Haynes, Susan I Gerber, Daniel R Feikin, Tariq A Madani
Risk factors for human-to-human transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are largely unknown. After MERS-CoV infections occurred in an extended family in Saudi Arabia in 2014, relatives were tested by using real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and serologic methods. Among 79 relatives, 19 (24%) were MERS-CoV positive; 11 were hospitalized, and 2 died. Eleven (58%) tested positive by rRT-PCR; 8 (42%) tested negative by rRT-PCR but positive by serology. Compared with MERS-CoV-negative adult relatives, MERS-CoV-positive adult relatives were older and more likely to be male and to have chronic medical conditions...
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
D G Diel, S Lawson, F Okda, A Singrey, T Clement, M H V Fernandes, J Christopher-Hennings, E A Nelson
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of an acute, highly contagious, and severe enteric disease that leads to high mortality rates in suckling piglets. Therefore, rapid diagnosis of PEDV infection is critical for the implementation of control measures for the virus. Many diagnostic tests have been recently developed and are currently available for the detection of PEDV, its proteins or nucleic acid, including virus isolation, immunofluorescence (IF) or immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification assays...
May 14, 2016: Virus Research
Swati Sharma, Satyendra K Singh, Kavita Kakkar, Nikky Nyari, Dharamveer Singh, Tapan N Dhole, Rajesh Kashyap, Saba Hasan
Dengue infection is caused by flavivirus is one of the leading cause of mortality. There are certain factors which play role in the transformation of a mild form of the disease (DF) into a severe form (DHF) but the most important ones are: viral strain virulence, host genetics, and host immune status. In severe dengue infection, plasma leakage occurs due to vascular endothelial cell activation through expression of adhesion molecule like intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). A total of 100 dengue patients (DF; n = 53 and DHF/DSS; n = 47) and 200 healthy controls were included in the study...
July 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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