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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782527/detection-of-influenza-a-virus-in-aerosols-of-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-pigs-in-a-warm-environment
#1
Victor Neira, Matt Allerson, Cesar Corzo, Marie Culhane, Aaron Rendahl, Montserrat Torremorell
The 2009 influenza pandemic, the variant H3N2v viruses in agricultural fairs and the zoonotic poultry H5N9 infections in China have highlighted the constant threat that influenza A viruses (IAV) present to people and animals. In this study we evaluated the effect of IAV vaccination on aerosol shedding in pigs housed in warm environmental conditions. Thirty-six, three-week old weaned pigs were obtained from an IAV negative herd and were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups: 1) a homologous vaccine group, 2) a heterologous multivalent vaccine group, 3) a heterologous monovalent group and, 4) a non-vaccinated group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778659/sepsis-3-septic-shock-criteria-and-associated-mortality-among-infected-hospitalized-patients-assessed-by-a-rapid-response-team
#2
Shannon M Fernando, Peter M Reardon, Bram Rochwerg, Nathan I Shapiro, Donald M Yealy, Andrew J E Seely, Jeffrey J Perry, Douglas P Barnaby, Kyle Murphy, Peter Tanuseputro, Kwadwo Kyeremanteng
BACKGROUND: Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) respond to deteriorating hospitalized patients, and help determine subsequent management, including Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. In such patients with sepsis and septic shock, the Sepsis-3 clinical criteria have a potential role in detection, risk-stratification, and prognostication, though their accuracy in comparison to the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)-based septic shock criteria are unknown. We sought to evaluate prognostic accuracy of the Sepsis-3 criteria for in-hospital mortality among infected hospitalized patients with acute deterioration...
May 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754431/expanding-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-surveillance-beyond-influenza-the-process-and-data-from-1-year-of-implementation-in-vietnam
#3
Karen A Alroy, Trang Thuy Do, Phu Dac Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Long Ngoc Vu, Nga Thi Hang Le, Anh Duc Dang, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Huy Ngo, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Lan Trong Phan, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Long Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Viet Nguyen, Mai Quang Vien, Huy Xuan Le, Anh The Dao, Trieu Bao Nguyen, Duoc Tho Pham, Van Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Pham, Binh Hai Phan, Brett Whitaker, Thuy Thi Thu Do, Phuong Anh Dao, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Anthony W Mounts
BACKGROUND: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. METHOD: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI)...
May 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738825/the-fifth-influenza-a-h7n9-epidemic-a-family-cluster-of-infection-in-suzhou-city-of-china-2016
#4
Jiajia Wang, Nan Su, Zefeng Dong, Cheng Liu, Pengwei Cui, Jian-An Huang, Cheng Chen, Yehan Zhu, Liling Chen
OBJECTIVE: Influenza A(H7N9) virus is known for its high pathogenicity in human. A family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection was identified in Suzhou, China. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of human-to-human transmission of the virus and examine the virologic features of this family cluster. METHODS: The clinical and epidemiologic data of two patients in the family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were collected. Viral RNA in samples derived from the two patients, their close contacts, and the environments with likely influenza A(H7N9) virus transmission were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720052/high-density-lipoprotein-mean-platelet-volume-and-uric-acid-as-biomarkers-for-outcomes-in-patients-with-sepsis-an-observational-study
#5
Luis Bolívar Montero-Chacón, Juan Ignacio Padilla-Cuadra, Sy Han Chiou, Gabriel Torrealba-Acosta
BACKGROUND: We conducted an observational study evaluating the association between uric acid, mean platelet volume (MPV), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with complications and outcomes of patients with sepsis in a critical care setting. METHODS: We followed patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock for a maximum of 28 days. Main outcomes assessed included length of stay (LOS), the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), assisted mechanical ventilation (AMV), and vasopressor support as well as in-unit mortality...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694446/clinical-biochemical-and-genetic-risk-factors-for-30-day-and-5-year-mortality-in-518-adult-patients-subjected-to-cardiopulmonary-bypass-during-cardiac-surgery-the-inflacor-study
#6
Maciej Michał Kowalik, Romuald Lango, Piotr Siondalski, Magdalena Chmara, Maciej Brzeziński, Krzysztof Lewandowski, Dariusz Jagielak, Andrzej Klapkowski, Jan Rogowski
There is increasing evidence that genetic variability influences patients' early morbidity after cardiac surgery performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The use of mortality as an outcome measure in cardiac surgical genetic association studies is rare. We publish the 30-day and 5-year survival analyses with focus on pre-, intra-, postoperative variables, biochemical parameters, and genetic variants in the INFLACOR (INFLAmmation in Cardiac OpeRations) cohort. In a prospectively recruited cohort of 518 adult Polish Caucasians, who underwent cardiac surgery in which CPB was used, the clinical data, biochemical parameters, IL-6, soluble ICAM-1, TNFα, soluble E-selectin, and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated for their association with 30-day and 5-year mortality...
April 25, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663718/epidemiology-and-genetic-characterization-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-bangladesh
#7
Mohammed Z Rahman, Najmul Haider, Emily S Gurley, Sadia Ahmed, Mozaffar G Osmani, Muhammad B Hossain, Ariful Islam, Shahneaz A Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Jonathan H Epstein, Nord Zeidner, Mustafizur Rahman
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible sheep and goats. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of PPR and characterize the strains circulating in Bangladesh. Veterinarians enrolled goats showing signs consistent with PPR, including diarrhoea, fever and respiratory distress, from three veterinary hospitals...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656480/development-of-a-risk-prediction-model-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-dialysis-patients
#8
Anwar E Ahmed, Abeer N Alshukairi, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
Introduction The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection can cause transmission clusters and high mortality in hemodialysis facilities. We attempted to develop a risk-prediction model to assess the early risk of MERS-CoV infection in dialysis patients. Methods This two-center retrospective cohort study included 104 dialysis patients who were suspected of MERS-CoV infection and diagnosed with rRT-PCR between September 2012 and June 2016 at King Fahd General Hospital in Jeddah and King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh...
April 14, 2018: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652913/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-assisted-by-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-treatment-failure
#9
Adrien Bouglé, Camille Bombled, Dimitri Margetis, Guillaume Lebreton, Charles Vidal, Marine Coroir, David Hajage, Julien Amour
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. In the specific case of patients treated with Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support (VA-ECMO), VAP treatment failures (VAP-TF) have been incompletely investigated. METHODS: To investigate the risk factors of treatment failure (VAP-TF) in a large cohort of ICU patients treated with VA-ECMO, we conducted a retrospective study in a Surgical ICU about patients assisted with VA-ECMO between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644536/cigarette-smoke-and-nicotine-effects-on-brain-proinflammatory-responses-and-behavioral-and-motor-function-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#10
Walter Royal, Adem Can, Todd D Gould, Ming Guo, Jared Huse, Myles Jackson, Harry Davis, Joseph Bryant
Cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection is associated with the induction of chronic proinflammatory responses in the brains of infected individuals. The risk of HIV-related cognitive impairment is increased by cigarette smoking, which induces brain inflammation in rodent models. To better understand the role of smoking and the associated immune response on behavioral and motor function in HIV infection, wild-type F344 and HIV-1 transgenic (HIV1Tg) rats were exposed to either smoke from nicotine-containing (regular) cigarettes, smoke from nicotine-free cigarettes, or to nicotine alone...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644070/intravenous-drug-users-who-require-dialysis-causes-of-renal-failure-and-outcomes
#11
Jemima K Scott, Dominic M Taylor, Chris R K Dudley
Background: Intravenous drug use is associated with progressive kidney disease of several aetiologies. It is associated with behavioural and lifestyle characteristics that make the provision of renal replacement therapies (RRTs) challenging. We observed that patients who use intravenous drugs [people who inject drugs (PWID)] present late to renal services and struggle to engage with treatment. We describe the experience of a UK centre providing renal services to a mixed city and rural population...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624866/factors-associated-with-recovery-delay-in-a-sample-of-patients-diagnosed-by-mers-cov-rrt-pcr-a-saudi-arabian-multicenter-retrospective-study
#12
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Yosra Z Ali, Hazza Al Otaibi, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
AIM: Research evidence exists that poor prognosis is common in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients. This study estimates recovery delay intervals and identifies associated factors in a sample of Saudi Arabian patients admitted for suspected MERS-CoV and diagnosed by rRT-PCR assay. METHOD: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted on 829 patients admitted between September 2012 and June 2016 and diagnosed by rRT-PCR procedures to have MERS-CoV and non-MERS-CoV infection in which 396 achieved recovery...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611509/internally-controlled-multiplex-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-dengue-virus-and-yellow-fever-virus-detection
#13
Alejandra Rojas, Cheikh T Diagne, Victoria D Stittleburg, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, Yvalena Arévalo de Guillén, Angel Balmaseda, Oumar Faye, Ousmane Faye, Amadou A Sall, Eva Harris, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner
The differential diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) infections in endemic areas is complicated by nonspecific early clinical manifestations. In this study, we describe an internally controlled, multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection of DENV and YFV. The DENV-YFV assay demonstrated specific detection and had a dynamic range of 2.0-8.0 log10 copies/μL of eluate for each DENV serotype and YFV. Clinical performance was similar to a published pan-DENV assay: 48/48 acute-phase samples from dengue cases were detected in both assays...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579873/long-term-survival-and-evolution-of-the-kidney-function-for-liver-transplant-patients-who-required-postoperative-dialysis
#14
F Rosique, J B Cabezuelo, D Ferreras, M R González-Sánchez, J Ros, J A Pons, P A Cascales-Campos, F Sánchez-Bueno, R Robles, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
Patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) frequently develop chronic kidney disease, with those who present postoperative acute kidney failure and require renal replacement therapy (RRT) at higher risk. The objective of the study was to assess the kidney function and long-term survival of patients who underwent OLT and required RRT during or in the immediate postoperative period. Medical records of OLT and postoperative RRT patients with over 6-month survival were reviewed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2015...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552953/extended-mortality-and-chronic-kidney-disease-after-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550445/early-identification-of-pneumonia-patients-at-increased-risk-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-saudi-arabia
#16
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: The rapid and accurate identification of individuals who are at high risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection remains a major challenge for the medical and scientific communities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for the screening of suspected cases of MERS-CoV infection in patients who have developed pneumonia. METHODS: A two-center, retrospective case-control study was performed...
May 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519529/effective-surveillance-for-early-classical-swine-fever-virus-detection-will-utilize-both-virus-and-antibody-detection-capabilities
#17
Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongtham Kedkovid, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Apisit Kittawornrat, Ju Ji, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey Zimmerman
Early recognition and rapid elimination of infected animals is key to controlling incursions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of 10 CSFV assays were evaluated using individual serum (n = 601) and/or oral fluid (n = 1417) samples collected from -14 to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). Serum samples were assayed by virus isolation (VI), 2 commercial antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), virus neutralization (VN), and 3 antibody ELISAs...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507064/pneumonia-and-renal-replacement-therapy-are-risk-factors-for-ceftazidime-avibactam-treatment-failures-and-resistance-among-patients-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#18
Ryan K Shields, M Hong Nguyen, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy
Ceftazidime-avibactam was used to treat 77 patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections at our center. Thirty- and 90-day survival rates were 81% and 69%, respectively; these rates were higher than those predicted by SAPS II and SOFA scores at the onset of infection. Clinical success was achieved for 55% of patients but differed by the site of infection. Success rates were lowest for pneumonia (36%) and higher for bacteremia (75%) and urinary tract infections (88%). By multivariate analysis, pneumonia ( P = 0...
May 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466521/prolonged-zika-virus-viremia-in-a-patient-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#19
Gabriel Gonzalez-Escobar, Anne Marie Valadere, Rosmond Adams, Karen Polson-Edwards, Avery Q J Hinds, Akenath Misir, C James Hospedales
An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427907/human-coronavirus-circulation-in-the-united-states-2014-2017
#20
Marie E Killerby, Holly M Biggs, Amber Haynes, Rebecca M Dahl, Desiree Mustaquim, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. HCoVs are globally distributed and the predominant species may vary by region or year. Prior studies have shown seasonal patterns of HCoV species and annual variation in species prevalence but national circulation patterns in the US have not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: To describe circulation patterns of HCoVs -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 in the US...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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