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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913842/alfonso-luis-herrera-and-the-beginnings-of-evolutionism-and-studies-in-the-origin-of-life-in-mexico
#1
Ismael Ledesma-Mateos, H James Cleaves
Alfonso Luis Herrera (1868-1942) was a Mexican biologist, and significant as the principal promoter of Darwinian thought in that country. However, Herrera's thinking went beyond the evolution of living beings, and extended to the question of the origin of life itself and the place of living phenomena in the larger context of the cosmos. Perhaps more significantly, though now largely forgotten, Herrera was among the first to embark on an experimental program to understand the origin of life, one which may be seen as foundational for later workers, most notably Sidney Fox and Alexander Oparin, and which has been resuscitated recently...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775751/association-between-dietary-intake-and-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Jeri W Nieves, Chris Gennings, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jonathan Hupf, Jessica Singleton, Valerie Sharf, Björn Oskarsson, J Americo M Fernandes Filho, Eric J Sorenson, Emanuele D'Amico, Ray Goetz, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Importance: There is growing interest in the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Objective: To evaluate the associations between nutrients, individually and in groups, and ALS function and respiratory function at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional baseline analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress study was conducted from March 14, 2008, to February 27, 2013, at 16 ALS clinics throughout the United States among 302 patients with ALS symptom duration of 18 months or less...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753202/rapid-screening-separation-and-detection-of-hydroxyl-radical-scavengers-from-total-flavonoids-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-by-chromatography-combined-with-molecular-devices
#3
Jing Wang, Meizhu Zheng, Lina Chen, Zhiqiang Liu, Yuchi Zhang, Chun-Ming Liu, Shu Liu
Hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive free radical of human body, a strong contributor to tissue damage. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify hydroxyl radical scavengers from the total flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba leaves, and high-performance counter current chromatography was used to separate and isolate the active compounds. Furthermore, molecular devices were used to determine hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the obtained hydroxyl radical scavengers and other flavonoids from G...
November 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699284/beyond-waste-new-sustainable-fillers-from-fly-ashes-stabilization-obtained-by-low-cost-raw-materials
#4
N Rodella, M Pasquali, A Zacco, F Bilo, L Borgese, N Bontempi, G Tomasoni, L E Depero, E Bontempi
A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www...
September 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612044/etiologic-revelation-and-outcome-of-the-surgical-management-of-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis-an-egyptian-centre-experience
#5
Islam A Elzahaby, Ashraf Khater, Adel Fathi, Islam Hany, Mohamed Abdelkhalek, Khaled Gaballah, Amr Elalfy, Omar Hamdy
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confused with cancer. It usually affects women in child bearing age. The exact aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown, and the optimal therapeutic modality has not yet been established. Treatment most frequently includes Antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressant, surgical excision, and even mastectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a thirty cases diagnosed with IGM in our locality to find out the leading risk factors and the outcome of our surgical approach which involves excision of the lesion in continuity with duct system...
August 1, 2016: Breast Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610839/antiproton-flux-antiproton-to-proton-flux-ratio-and-properties-of-elementary-particle-fluxes-in-primary-cosmic-rays-measured-with-the-alpha-magnetic-spectrometer-on-the-international-space-station
#6
M Aguilar, L Ali Cavasonza, B Alpat, G Ambrosi, L Arruda, N Attig, S Aupetit, P Azzarello, A Bachlechner, F Barao, A Barrau, L Barrin, A Bartoloni, L Basara, S Başeǧmez-du Pree, M Battarbee, R Battiston, J Bazo, U Becker, M Behlmann, B Beischer, J Berdugo, B Bertucci, V Bindi, G Boella, W de Boer, K Bollweg, V Bonnivard, B Borgia, M J Boschini, M Bourquin, E F Bueno, J Burger, F Cadoux, X D Cai, M Capell, S Caroff, J Casaus, G Castellini, I Cernuda, F Cervelli, M J Chae, Y H Chang, A I Chen, G M Chen, H S Chen, L Cheng, H Y Chou, E Choumilov, V Choutko, C H Chung, C Clark, R Clavero, G Coignet, C Consolandi, A Contin, C Corti, B Coste, W Creus, M Crispoltoni, Z Cui, Y M Dai, C Delgado, S Della Torre, M B Demirköz, L Derome, S Di Falco, F Dimiccoli, C Díaz, P von Doetinchem, F Dong, F Donnini, M Duranti, D D'Urso, A Egorov, A Eline, T Eronen, J Feng, E Fiandrini, E Finch, P Fisher, V Formato, Y Galaktionov, G Gallucci, B García, R J García-López, C Gargiulo, H Gast, I Gebauer, M Gervasi, A Ghelfi, F Giovacchini, P Goglov, D M Gómez-Coral, J Gong, C Goy, V Grabski, D Grandi, M Graziani, I Guerri, K H Guo, M Habiby, S Haino, K C Han, Z H He, M Heil, J Hoffman, T H Hsieh, H Huang, Z C Huang, C Huh, M Incagli, M Ionica, W Y Jang, H Jinchi, S C Kang, K Kanishev, G N Kim, K S Kim, Th Kirn, C Konak, O Kounina, A Kounine, V Koutsenko, M S Krafczyk, G La Vacca, E Laudi, G Laurenti, I Lazzizzera, A Lebedev, H T Lee, S C Lee, C Leluc, H S Li, J Q Li, J Q Li, Q Li, T X Li, W Li, Z H Li, Z Y Li, S Lim, C H Lin, P Lipari, T Lippert, D Liu, Hu Liu, S Q Lu, Y S Lu, K Luebelsmeyer, F Luo, J Z Luo, S S Lv, R Majka, C Mañá, J Marín, T Martin, G Martínez, N Masi, D Maurin, A Menchaca-Rocha, Q Meng, D C Mo, L Morescalchi, P Mott, T Nelson, J Q Ni, N Nikonov, F Nozzoli, P Nunes, A Oliva, M Orcinha, F Palmonari, C Palomares, M Paniccia, M Pauluzzi, S Pensotti, R Pereira, N Picot-Clemente, F Pilo, C Pizzolotto, V Plyaskin, M Pohl, V Poireau, A Putze, L Quadrani, X M Qi, X Qin, Z Y Qu, T Räihä, P G Rancoita, D Rapin, J S Ricol, I Rodríguez, S Rosier-Lees, A Rozhkov, D Rozza, R Sagdeev, J Sandweiss, P Saouter, S Schael, S M Schmidt, A Schulz von Dratzig, G Schwering, E S Seo, B S Shan, J Y Shi, T Siedenburg, D Son, J W Song, W H Sun, M Tacconi, X W Tang, Z C Tang, L Tao, D Tescaro, Samuel C C Ting, S M Ting, N Tomassetti, J Torsti, C Türkoğlu, T Urban, V Vagelli, E Valente, C Vannini, E Valtonen, M Vázquez Acosta, M Vecchi, M Velasco, J P Vialle, V Vitale, S Vitillo, L Q Wang, N H Wang, Q L Wang, X Wang, X Q Wang, Z X Wang, C C Wei, Z L Weng, K Whitman, J Wienkenhöver, M Willenbrock, H Wu, X Wu, X Xia, R Q Xiong, W Xu, Q Yan, J Yang, M Yang, Y Yang, H Yi, Y J Yu, Z Q Yu, S Zeissler, C Zhang, J Zhang, J H Zhang, S D Zhang, S W Zhang, Z Zhang, Z M Zheng, Z Q Zhu, H L Zhuang, V Zhukov, A Zichichi, N Zimmermann, P Zuccon
A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×10^{5} antiproton events and 2.42×10^{9} proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p[over ¯], proton p, and positron e^{+} fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e^{-} flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575734/metabolic-cost-of-running-is-greater-on-a-treadmill-with-a-stiffer-running-platform
#7
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553751/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-mepolizumab-in-patients-with-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-a-multi-center-open-label-phase-iiib-study
#8
Njira Lugogo, Christian Domingo, Pascal Chanez, Richard Leigh, Martyn J Gilson, Robert G Price, Steven W Yancey, Hector G Ortega
PURPOSE: Patients with severe eosinophilic asthma often experience recurrent asthma exacerbations despite intensive inhaled corticosteroid therapy. In 2 previous double-blind studies (MENSA [NCT01691521] and SIRIUS [NCT01691508]), treatment with intravenous or subcutaneous mepolizumab was associated with significantly reduced annualized exacerbation rates and oral corticosteroid (OCS) requirements compared with placebo. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of subcutaneous mepolizumab treatment in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma...
September 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496520/cognitive-impairment-behavioral-impairment-depression-and-wish-to-die-in-an-als-cohort
#9
Judith Rabkin, Raymond Goetz, Jennifer Mary Murphy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric/psychosocial measures assessed in a multicenter cohort of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Recently diagnosed patients with definite or probable ALS diagnosis were administered 7 standardized psychiatric/psychosocial measures, including the Patient Health Questionnaire for diagnosis of depression and elicitation of wish to die. The Cognitive Behavioral Screen was used to classify both cognitive and behavioral impairment (emotional-interpersonal function)...
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394836/description-of-two-new-and-six-known-species-of-the-genus-tylencholaimus-de-man-1876-nematoda-dorylaimida-with-a-diagnostic-compendium-and-key-to-species
#10
Sumaya Ahad, Wasim Ahmad
Two new and six known species of the soil-inhabiting nematode genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 are described and illustrated. Tylencholaimus arakii sp. n. is characterized by having 0.56-0.65 mm long body; lip region cap-like, set off by a shallow constriction; labial disc present; odontostyle 7-8 µm and odontophore 7-8 µm long, with well-developed, asymmetrical basal knobs; total spear length 15 μm; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb occupying about 45-47% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; transverse vulva and short, hemispheroid tail...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367386/experimental-neutron-capture-rate-constraint-far-from-stability
#11
S N Liddick, A Spyrou, B P Crider, F Naqvi, A C Larsen, M Guttormsen, M Mumpower, R Surman, G Perdikakis, D L Bleuel, A Couture, L Crespo Campo, A C Dombos, R Lewis, S Mosby, S Nikas, C J Prokop, T Renstrom, B Rubio, S Siem, S J Quinn
Nuclear reactions where an exotic nucleus captures a neutron are critical for a wide variety of applications, from energy production and national security, to astrophysical processes, and nucleosynthesis. Neutron capture rates are well constrained near stable isotopes where experimental data are available; however, moving far from the valley of stability, uncertainties grow by orders of magnitude. This is due to the complete lack of experimental constraints, as the direct measurement of a neutron-capture reaction on a short-lived nucleus is extremely challenging...
June 17, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348377/our-place-in-the-cosmos
#12
Noam I Libeskind, R Brent Tully
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311938/mepolizumab-a-review-in-eosinophilic-asthma
#13
Emma D Deeks
Mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, a cytokine involved in the development, recruitment and activation of eosinophils (cellular mediators of airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and tissue remodelling). The drug is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the placebo-controlled DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS trials. Based on the 52-week, phase II, DREAM study (which assessed varying intravenous mepolizumab dosages), intravenous mepolizumab 75 mg every 4 weeks (q4w) and the corresponding (recommended) subcutaneous dosage of 100 mg q4w were studied in the 32- and 24-week phase III MENSA and SIRIUS trials...
August 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308289/screening-of-methanolic-plant-extracts-against-larvae-of-aedes-aegypti-and-anopheles-stephensi-in-mysore
#14
Thirumalapura Krishnaiah Mohankumar, Kumuda Sathigal Shivanna, Vijayan Valiakottukal Achuttan
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts...
September 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267299/multiscale-modelling-approaches-for-assessing-cosmetic-ingredients-safety
#15
Frédéric Y Bois, Juan G Diaz Ochoa, Monika Gajewska, Simona Kovarich, Klaus Mauch, Alicia Paini, Alexandre Péry, Jose Vicente Sala Benito, Sophie Teng, Andrew Worth
The European Union's ban on animal testing for cosmetic ingredients and products has generated a strong momentum for the development of in silico and in vitro alternative methods. One of the focus of the COSMOS project was ab initio prediction of kinetics and toxic effects through multiscale pharmacokinetic modeling and in vitro data integration. In our experience, mathematical or computer modeling and in vitro experiments are complementary. We present here a summary of the main models and results obtained within the framework of the project on these topics...
June 3, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251613/how-do-microtubule-dynamics-relate-to-the-hallmarks-of-learning-and-memory
#16
Konstantin Kaganovsky, Cosmos Yuqi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195146/intrastromal-injection-of-china-painting-ink-in-corneas-of-male-rabbits-clinical-and-histological-study
#17
Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen Abd Elhaliem Soliman
Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176512/signatures-of-the-primordial-universe-from-its-emptiness-measurement-of-baryon-acoustic-oscillations-from-minima-of-the-density-field
#18
Francisco-Shu Kitaura, Chia-Hsun Chuang, Yu Liang, Cheng Zhao, Charling Tao, Sergio Rodríguez-Torres, Daniel J Eisenstein, Héctor Gil-Marín, Jean-Paul Kneib, Cameron McBride, Will J Percival, Ashley J Ross, Ariel G Sánchez, Jeremy Tinker, Rita Tojeiro, Mariana Vargas-Magana, Gong-Bo Zhao
Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids...
April 29, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149148/cosmos-rice-technology-abrogates-the-biotoxic-effects-of-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-residues
#19
Michela Guarienti, Sdenka Moscoso Cardozo, Laura Borgese, Gloria Rodrigo Lira, Laura E Depero, Elza Bontempi, Marco Presta
Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology...
July 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117826/competition-between-global-and-local-online-social-networks
#20
Kaj-Kolja Kleineberg, Marián Boguñá
The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The higher fitness of international networks is induced by their ability to attract users from all over the world, which can then establish social interactions without the limitations of local networks...
2016: Scientific Reports
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