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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274893/cognitive-and-self-regulatory-mechanisms-of-obesity-study-cosmos-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-weight-loss-trial-examining-change-in-biomarkers-cognition-and-self-regulation-across-two-behavioral-treatments
#1
M A W Hawkins, Janna Colaizzi, John Gunstad, Joel W Hughes, Larry L Mullins, Nancy Betts, Caitlin E Smith, Natalie G Keirns, Kathleen D Vohs, Shirley M Moore, Evan Forman, William R Lovallo
Obesity is a global epidemic, yet successful interventions are rare. Up to 60% of people fail to achieve clinically meaningful, short-term weight loss (5-10% of start weight), whereas up to 72% are unsuccessful at achieving long-term weight loss (5-10% loss for ≥5years). Understanding how biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors work together to promote or to impede weight loss is clearly needed to optimize obesity treatment. This paper describes the methodology of the Cognitive and Self-regulatory Mechanisms of Obesity Study (the COSMOS trial)...
December 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224374/chemical-characterisation-and-hepatoprotective-potential-of-cosmos-sulphureus-cav-and-cosmos-bipinnatus-cav
#2
Mohammad Saleem, Hafiz Akbar Ali, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Uzma Saleem, Ammara Saleem, Iram Irshad
This study was conducted to validate the hepatoprotective activity of Cosmos sulphureus and Cosmos bipinnatus. Aqua-methanolic extracts of both plants were evaluated for the presence of various phyto-constituents through HPLC. Different doses of both plant extracts were administered to rats for nine days. Standard control was silymarin 100 mg/kg. Paracetamol 1 gm/kg was administered 3 h post treatment on 9th day for induction of hepatotoxicity. Blood was collected for the evaluation of liver biochemical markers and livers were removed for histopathological evaluation 24 h post-paracetamol treatment...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222066/large-scale-randomized-clinical-trials-of-bioactives-and-nutrients-in-relation-to-human-health-and-disease-prevention-lessons-from-the-vital-and-cosmos-trials
#3
REVIEW
Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D Sesso, Joann E Manson
Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supplements are not sufficiently studied and have an unclear role in chronic disease prevention...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210356/single-molecule-studies-contrast-ordered-dna-replication-with-stochastics-translesion-synthesis
#4
Gengjing Zhao, Emma S Gleave, Meindert Hugo Lamers
High fidelity replicative DNA polymerases are unable to synthesize past DNA adducts that result from diverse chemicals, reactive oxygen species or UV light. To bypass these replication blocks, cells utilize specialized translesion DNA polymerases that are intrinsically error prone and associated with mutagenesis, drug resistance, and cancer. How untimely access of translesion polymerases to DNA is prevented is poorly understood. Here we use co-localization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS) to follow the exchange of the E...
December 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138089/rapid-two-step-dipole-inversion-for-susceptibility-mapping-with-sparsity-priors
#5
Christian Kames, Vanessa Wiggermann, Alexander Rauscher
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a post-processing technique of gradient echo phase data that attempts to map the spatial distribution of local tissue magnetic susceptibilities. To obtain these maps, an ill-posed field-to-source inverse problem must be solved to remove non-local magnetic field perturbations. Current state-of-the-art algorithms which aim to solve the dipole inversion problem are plagued by the trade-off between reconstruction speed and accuracy. A two-step dipole inversion algorithm is proposed to bridge this gap...
November 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133442/a-probabilistic-framework-for-identifying-biosignatures-using-pathway-complexity
#6
Stuart M Marshall, Alastair R G Murray, Leroy Cronin
One thing that discriminates living things from inanimate matter is their ability to generate similarly complex or non-random structures in a large abundance. From DNA sequences to folded protein structures, living cells, microbial communities and multicellular structures, the material configurations in biology can easily be distinguished from non-living material assemblies. Many complex artefacts, from ordinary bioproducts to human tools, though they are not living things, are ultimately produced by biological processes-whether those processes occur at the scale of cells or societies, they are the consequences of living systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089633/physiological-and-transcriptome-response-to-cadmium-in-cosmos-cosmos-bipinnatus-cav-seedlings
#7
Yujing Liu, Xiaofang Yu, Yimei Feng, Chao Zhang, Chao Wang, Jian Zeng, Zhuo Huang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Suping Gao, Qibing Chen
To date, several species of Asteraceae have been considered as Cd-accumulators. However, little information on the Cd tolerance and associated mechanisms of Asteraceae species Cosmos bipinnatus, is known. Presently, several physiological indexes and transcriptome profiling under Cd stress were investigated. C. bipinnatus exhibited strong Cd tolerance and recommended as a Cd-accumulator, although the biomasses were reduced by Cd. Meanwhile, Cd stresses reduced Zn and Ca uptake, but increased Fe uptake. Subcellular distribution indicated that the vacuole sequestration in root mainly detoxified Cd under lower Cd stress...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075892/predicting-in-vivo-effect-levels-for-repeat-dose-systemic-toxicity-using-chemical-biological-kinetic-and-study-covariates
#8
Lisa Truong, Gladys Ouedraogo, LyLy Pham, Jacques Clouzeau, Sophie Loisel-Joubert, Delphine Blanchet, Hicham Noçairi, Woodrow Setzer, Richard Judson, Chris Grulke, Kamel Mansouri, Matthew Martin
In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062761/wheelchair-accessibility-to-public-buildings-in-the-kumasi-metropolis-ghana
#9
Cosmos Yarfi, Evans Y K Ashigbi, Emmanuel K Nakua
BACKGROUND: Accessibility implies making public places accessible to every individual, irrespective of his or her disability or special need, ensuring the integration of the wheelchair user into the society and thereby granting them the capability of participating in activities of daily living and ensuring equality in daily life. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to assess the accessibility of the physical infrastructures (public buildings) in the Kumasi metropolis to wheelchairs after the passage of the Ghanaian Disability Law (Act 716, 2006)...
2017: African Journal of Disability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056311/an-international-prospective-cohort-study-of-mobile-phone-users-and-health-cosmos-factors-affecting-validity-of-self-reported-mobile-phone-use
#10
Mireille B Toledano, Anssi Auvinen, Giorgio Tettamanti, Yang Cao, Maria Feychting, Anders Ahlbom, Karin Fremling, Sirpa Heinävaara, Katja Kojo, Gemma Knowles, Rachel B Smith, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Isabelle Deltour, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Paul Elliott, Lena Hillert
This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or <30min/week) mobile phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023008/aphid-species-affect-foraging-behavior-of-coccinella-septempunctata-coccinellidae-coleoptera
#11
Muhammad Umar Farooq, Hafiz Faqir Hussain Qadri, Muhammad Ahmad Khan
BACKGROUND: Flowers are admirable in scenic good looks and artistic beautification. These are also playing necessary roles in therapeutic preparations. Aphid is an important sucking pest of various flowers in ornamental territories and it is generally controlled by predators, so it was necessary to evaluate which aphid species affect the predator more or less. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biocontrol agent Coccinella septempunctata was used against cosmos aphid (Aphis spiraecola, rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosea), gul e ashrafi aphid (Aphis fabae), kaner aphid (Aphis nerii), chandni aphid (Sitobion avenae), dahlia aphid (Myzus persicae) and annual chrysanthemum aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni)...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993700/vegetation-morphologic-and-aerodynamic-characteristics%C3%A2-reduce%C3%A2-aeolian-erosion
#12
Abbas Miri, Deirdre Dragovich, Zhibao Dong
Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932425/crystal-structure-of-unsymmetrical-%C3%AE-di-imine-palladium-ii-complex-cis-arn-c-me-et-c-nar-pdcl2-ar-2-6-ipr-2c6h3
#13
Shravan Kumar Ellandula, Cosmos Opoku Amoako, Joel T Mague, Perumalreddy Chandrasekaran
The unsymmetrical α-di-imine ligand N-{2-[2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)phenylimino]pentan-3-yl-idene}-2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)aniline, [ArN=C(Me)-(Et)C=NAr] [Ar = 2,6-(iPr)2C6H3], (I), and the corresponding palladium complex, cis-(N-{2-[2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)phenylimino]pentan-3-yl-idene}-2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)aniline)di-chlor-ido-palladium(II) 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, [PdCl2(C29H42N2)]·C2H4Cl2 or cis[PdCl2{I}], (II), have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and mol-ecular structure of the palladium(II) complex have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867342/thresholds-of-toxicological-concern-for-cosmetics-related-substances-new-database-thresholds-and-enrichment-of-chemical-space
#14
Chihae Yang, Susan M Barlow, Kristi L Muldoon Jacobs, Vessela Vitcheva, Alan R Boobis, Susan P Felter, Kirk B Arvidson, Detlef Keller, Mark T D Cronin, Steven Enoch, Andrew Worth, Heli M Hollnagel
A new dataset of cosmetics-related chemicals for the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach has been compiled, comprising 552 chemicals with 219, 40, and 293 chemicals in Cramer Classes I, II, and III, respectively. Data were integrated and curated to create a database of No-/Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL/LOAEL) values, from which the final COSMOS TTC dataset was developed. Criteria for study inclusion and NOAEL decisions were defined, and rigorous quality control was performed for study details and assignment of Cramer classes...
September 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766287/single-molecule-analysis-of-pre-mrna-splicing-with-colocalization-single-molecule-spectroscopy-cosmos
#15
Joerg E Braun, Victor Serebrov
Recent development of single-molecule techniques to study pre-mRNA splicing has provided insights into the dynamic nature of the spliceosome. Colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS) allows following spliceosome assembly in real time at single-molecule resolution in the full complexity of cellular extracts. A detailed protocol of CoSMoS has been published previously (Anderson and Hoskins, Methods Mol Biol 1126:217-241, 2014). Here, we provide an update on the technical advances since the first CoSMoS studies including slide surface treatment, data processing, and representation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684380/quantum-gravity-and-taoist-cosmology-exploring-the-ancient-origins-of-phenomenological-string-theory
#16
REVIEW
Steven M Rosen
This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory...
July 4, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655863/evolution-of-biosynthetic-diversity
#17
REVIEW
Anthony J Michael
Since the emergence of the last common ancestor from which all extant life evolved, the metabolite repertoire of cells has increased and diversified. Not only has the metabolite cosmos expanded, but the ways in which the same metabolites are made have diversified. Enzymes catalyzing the same reaction have evolved independently from different protein folds; the same protein fold can produce enzymes recognizing different substrates, and enzymes performing different chemistries. Genes encoding useful enzymes can be transferred between organisms and even between the major domains of life...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648288/characterization-of-bacillus-megaterium-bacillus-pumilus-and-paenibacillus-polymyxa-isolated-from-a-pinot-noir-wine-from-western-washington-state
#18
Nicolas H von Cosmos, Bruce A Watson, J K Fellman, D S Mattinson, Charles G Edwards
This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592654/water-is-an-active-matrix-of-life-for-cell-and-molecular-biology
#19
Philip Ball
Szent-Győrgi called water the "matrix of life" and claimed that there was no life without it. This statement is true, as far as we know, on our planet, but it is not clear whether it must hold throughout the cosmos. To evaluate that question requires a close consideration of the many varied and subtle roles that water plays in living cells-a consideration that must be free of both an assumed essentialism that gives water an almost mystical life-giving agency and a traditional tendency to see it as a merely passive solvent...
June 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556634/uniportal-vats-for-treatment-of-bullous-lung-disease
#20
Hussein Elkhayat, Mahmoud Sallam, Mohamed Farouk, Khaled Hussein, Emad Zarief
This tutorial shows the resection of a bulla by uniportal video assisted thoracoscopic surgery in bullous lung disease. This disease is a benign condition requiring treatment in cases of severe dyspnea, spontaneous secondary pneumothorax, repeated infection, hemoptysis, and an increase in bulla size. The uniportal VATS approach results in less pain, better cosmoses, and a quicker recovery for the patient.
April 26, 2017: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
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