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Barbara Kiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
Olaf Prieske, Tom Krüger, Markus Aehle, Erik Bauer, Urs Granacher
Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alistair Appleby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Regan L Bailey, Howard D Sesso, Cornelia M Ulrich
Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS) are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Marije Reedijk, Virissa Lenters, Pauline Slottje, Anouk Pijpe, Petra H Peeters, Joke C Korevaar, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, W M Monique Verschuren, Robert A Verheij, Inka Pieterson, Flora E van Leeuwen, Matti A Rookus, Hans Kromhout, Roel C H Vermeulen
PURPOSE: LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection, baseline characteristics of participants and the repeatability of key questionnaire items. PARTICIPANTS: 88 466 participants were enrolled in three cohort studies in 2011-2012...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Irene Aasmul, Bettina S Husebo, Elisabeth Flo
BACKGROUND: Advance Care Planning (ACP) is the repeated communication and decision-making process between the patient, family, and healthcare professionals. This study describes an ACP intervention in nursing homes and evaluates the outcomes of the implementation process. METHODS: The ACP intervention was part of a 4-month complex, cluster randomized controlled trial (COSMOS). 37 Norwegian nursing homes with 72 units (1 cluster = 1 unit) and 765 patients were invited to participate and eligible units were randomised to the intervention group or control...
January 25, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Jane Derges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
M A W Hawkins, Janna Colaizzi, John Gunstad, Joel W Hughes, Larry L Mullins, Nancy Betts, Caitlin E Smith, Natalie G Keirns, Kathleen D Vohs, Shirley M Moore, Evan Forman, William R Lovallo
Obesity is a global epidemic, yet successful interventions are rare. Up to 60% of people fail to achieve clinically meaningful, short-term weight loss (5-10% of start weight), whereas up to 72% are unsuccessful at achieving long-term weight loss (5-10% loss for ≥5years). Understanding how biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors work together to promote or to impede weight loss is clearly needed to optimize obesity treatment. This paper describes the methodology of the Cognitive and Self-regulatory Mechanisms of Obesity Study (the COSMOS trial)...
December 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Mohammad Saleem, Hafiz Akbar Ali, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Uzma Saleem, Ammara Saleem, Iram Irshad
This study was conducted to validate the hepatoprotective activity of Cosmos sulphureus and Cosmos bipinnatus. Aqua-methanolic extracts of both plants were evaluated for the presence of various phyto-constituents through HPLC. Different doses of both plant extracts were administered to rats for nine days. Standard control was silymarin 100 mg/kg. Paracetamol 1 gm/kg was administered 3 h post treatment on 9th day for induction of hepatotoxicity. Blood was collected for the evaluation of liver biochemical markers and livers were removed for histopathological evaluation 24 h post-paracetamol treatment...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D Sesso, JoAnn E Manson
Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supplements are not sufficiently studied and have an unclear role in chronic disease prevention...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Gengjing Zhao, Emma S Gleave, Meindert Hugo Lamers
High fidelity replicative DNA polymerases are unable to synthesize past DNA adducts that result from diverse chemicals, reactive oxygen species or UV light. To bypass these replication blocks, cells utilize specialized translesion DNA polymerases that are intrinsically error prone and associated with mutagenesis, drug resistance, and cancer. How untimely access of translesion polymerases to DNA is prevented is poorly understood. Here we use co-localization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS) to follow the exchange of the E...
December 6, 2017: ELife
Christian Kames, Vanessa Wiggermann, Alexander Rauscher
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a post-processing technique of gradient echo phase data that attempts to map the spatial distribution of local tissue magnetic susceptibilities. To obtain these maps, an ill-posed field-to-source inverse problem must be solved to remove non-local magnetic field perturbations. Current state-of-the-art algorithms which aim to solve the dipole inversion problem are plagued by the trade-off between reconstruction speed and accuracy. A two-step dipole inversion algorithm is proposed to bridge this gap...
November 11, 2017: NeuroImage
Stuart M Marshall, Alastair R G Murray, Leroy Cronin
One thing that discriminates living things from inanimate matter is their ability to generate similarly complex or non-random structures in a large abundance. From DNA sequences to folded protein structures, living cells, microbial communities and multicellular structures, the material configurations in biology can easily be distinguished from non-living material assemblies. Many complex artefacts, from ordinary bioproducts to human tools, though they are not living things, are ultimately produced by biological processes-whether those processes occur at the scale of cells or societies, they are the consequences of living systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yujing Liu, Xiaofang Yu, Yimei Feng, Chao Zhang, Chao Wang, Jian Zeng, Zhuo Huang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Suping Gao, Qibing Chen
To date, several species of Asteraceae have been considered as Cd-accumulators. However, little information on the Cd tolerance and associated mechanisms of Asteraceae species Cosmos bipinnatus, is known. Presently, several physiological indexes and transcriptome profiling under Cd stress were investigated. C. bipinnatus exhibited strong Cd tolerance and recommended as a Cd-accumulator, although the biomasses were reduced by Cd. Meanwhile, Cd stresses reduced Zn and Ca uptake, but increased Fe uptake. Subcellular distribution indicated that the vacuole sequestration in root mainly detoxified Cd under lower Cd stress...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lisa Truong, Gladys Ouedraogo, LyLy Pham, Jacques Clouzeau, Sophie Loisel-Joubert, Delphine Blanchet, Hicham Noçairi, Woodrow Setzer, Richard Judson, Chris Grulke, Kamel Mansouri, Matthew Martin
In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Cosmos Yarfi, Evans Y K Ashigbi, Emmanuel K Nakua
BACKGROUND: Accessibility implies making public places accessible to every individual, irrespective of his or her disability or special need, ensuring the integration of the wheelchair user into the society and thereby granting them the capability of participating in activities of daily living and ensuring equality in daily life. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to assess the accessibility of the physical infrastructures (public buildings) in the Kumasi metropolis to wheelchairs after the passage of the Ghanaian Disability Law (Act 716, 2006)...
2017: African journal of disability
Mireille B Toledano, Anssi Auvinen, Giorgio Tettamanti, Yang Cao, Maria Feychting, Anders Ahlbom, Karin Fremling, Sirpa Heinävaara, Katja Kojo, Gemma Knowles, Rachel B Smith, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Isabelle Deltour, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Paul Elliott, Lena Hillert
This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or <30min/week) mobile phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Muhammad Umar Farooq, Hafiz Faqir Hussain Qadri, Muhammad Ahmad Khan
BACKGROUND: Flowers are admirable in scenic good looks and artistic beautification. These are also playing necessary roles in therapeutic preparations. Aphid is an important sucking pest of various flowers in ornamental territories and it is generally controlled by predators, so it was necessary to evaluate which aphid species affect the predator more or less. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biocontrol agent Coccinella septempunctata was used against cosmos aphid (Aphis spiraecola, rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosea), gul e ashrafi aphid (Aphis fabae), kaner aphid (Aphis nerii), chandni aphid (Sitobion avenae), dahlia aphid (Myzus persicae) and annual chrysanthemum aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni)...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Abbas Miri, Deirdre Dragovich, Zhibao Dong
Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shravan Kumar Ellandula, Cosmos Opoku Amoako, Joel T Mague, Perumalreddy Chandrasekaran
The unsymmetrical α-di-imine ligand N-{2-[2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)phenylimino]pentan-3-yl-idene}-2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)aniline, [ArN=C(Me)-(Et)C=NAr] [Ar = 2,6-(iPr)2C6H3], (I), and the corresponding palladium complex, cis-(N-{2-[2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)phenylimino]pentan-3-yl-idene}-2,6-bis-(propan-2-yl)aniline)di-chlor-ido-palladium(II) 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, [PdCl2(C29H42N2)]·C2H4Cl2 or cis[PdCl2{I}], (II), have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and mol-ecular structure of the palladium(II) complex have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
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