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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901454/signalment-clinical-features-and-outcome-for-male-horses-with-urethral-rents-following-perineal-urethrotomy-or-corpus-spongiotomy-33-cases-1989-2013
#1
Kati G Glass, Carolyn E Arnold, Dickson D Varner, M Keith Chaffin, James Schumacher
OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical features, and outcome for male horses with urethral rents following perineal urethrotomy (PU) or corpus spongiotomy (CS). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 33 horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of male horses examined because of hematuria or hemospermia caused by urethral rents that underwent PU or CS at a referral hospital between 1989 and 2013 were reviewed. Data regarding signalment, clinical features, urethroscopic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome were recorded...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892857/genotyping-of-german-and-austrian-taylorella-equigenitalis-isolates-using-repetitive-extragenic-palindromic-rep-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-pfge
#2
Reinhard Sting, Christoph Seeh, Norman Mauder, Michaela Maurer, Igor Loncaric, Beatrix Stessl, Peter Kopp, Klaus Banzhaf, Brigitte Martin, Falk Melzer, Astrid Raßbach, Joachim Spergser
A total of 124 Taylorella (T.) equigenitalis and five T. asinigenitalis field isolates collected between 2002 and 2014 were available for genotyping using REP- (repetitive extragenic palindromic) PCR and PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). The study comprised 79 T. equigenitalis field isolates originating from ten defined breeds of German horses and revealed a spectrum of five REP (rep-E1-E4, rep-E3a) and 15 PFGE (TE-A1-A9, TE-B1-B3, TE-C, TE-E1, and TE-E2) genotypes. T. equigenitalis field isolates (n=40) obtained from Austrian Lipizzaner horses were differentiated into three REP (rep-E1, rep-E3a, and rep-E4) and three PFGE genotypes (TE-A2, TE-A5, and TE-D); those isolated from four Austrian Trotters belonged to the REP/PFGE genotype rep-E2/TE-A1...
October 4, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887759/implementing-an-open-access-casa-software-for-the-assessment-of-stallion-sperm-motility-relationship-with-other-sperm-quality-parameters
#3
Elisa Giaretta, Mauro Munerato, Marc Yeste, Giovanna Galeati, Marcella Spinaci, Carlo Tamanini, Gaetano Mari, Diego Bucci
Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm...
November 13, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865864/construction-and-manipulation-of-a-full-length-infectious-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-clone-of-equine-herpesvirus-type-3-ehv-3
#4
Maksat Akhmedzhanov, Mariela Scrochi, Maria Barrandeguy, Aldana Vissani, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Armando Mario Damiani
Equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3) is the causal agent of equine coital exanthema, a disease characterized by pox-like lesions on the penis of stallions and the vulva of mares. Although the complete genomic sequence of EHV-3 has been recently made available, its genomic content remains poorly characterized and the molecular mechanisms of disease development not yet elucidated. In an attempt to facilitate genetic manipulation of EHV-3, we describe here the construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of EHV-3...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842717/mhc-correlated-preferences-in-diestrous-female-horses-equus-caballus
#5
D Burger, C Meuwly, E Marti, H Sieme, M Oberthür, J Janda, S Meinecke-Tillmann, C Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence communication in many vertebrates, possibly with context-specific MHC-correlated reactions. Here we test for MHC-linked female preferences in the polygynous horse (Equus caballus) by repeatedly exposing 19 mares to a group of seven sexually experienced stallions. Each mare was tested four times during two consecutive reproductive cycles, twice during estrus and twice during diestrus. Male plasma testosterone concentrations were determined from weekly blood samples, and equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I and II alleles were determined serologically at the end of the experiments...
September 20, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818621/diffuse-type-testicular-seminoma-in-a-stallion
#6
G Farjanikish, M Sayari, A Raisi, S Shirian
A 7-year-old stallion with progressive left testicular enlargement was presented. Grossly, the excised testicle measured 25 × 15 × 12 cm and weighed 3.7 kg. It was multinodular with a gray-white surface; however, the right testis was normal. Histologically, the neoplastic cells were disseminated diffusely in the tumoral stroma with a minimal fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were round to polygonal with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large round to oval vesicular or hyperchromatic nucleous with a single prominent nucleolus...
2016: Comparative Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810038/modern-techniques-for-semen-evaluation
#7
REVIEW
Charles C Love
Stallion semen evaluation is an important part of the breeding soundness evaluation. The results of the semen evaluation cannot be interpreted without a thorough knowledge of the mare and management effects that may have played a role or may affect the potential fertility of the stallion evaluated. There are considerations and limitations that the clinician should understand about each test. Any sperm quality test must be interpreted with a clear understanding of how it relates to fertility.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798668/the-lin28-expression-in-stallion-testes
#8
Geumhui Lee, Heejun Jung, Minjung Yoon
The molecular markers for specific germ cell stages can be utilized for identifying, monitoring, and separating a particular stage of germ cells. The RNA-binding protein Lin28 is expressed in gonocytes of human fetal testes. The Lin28 expression is restricted to a very small population of spermatogonial cells in human, mice, and monkey. The main objective of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of Lin28 in stallion testes at different reproductive stages. Based on the presence or absence of full spermatogenesis and lumina in seminiferous tubules, the testicular samples were categorized into two reproductive stages pre-pubertal and post-pubertal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798283/mitochondrial-atp-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-membrane-integrity-in-stallion-spermatozoa-whereas-motility-requires-both-glycolysis-and-oxidative-phosphorylation
#9
M Plaza Davila, P Martin Muñoz, J M Gallardo Bolaños, T A E Stout, B M Gadella, J A Tapia, C Balao da Silva, C Ortega Ferrusola, F J Peña
To investigate the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is a major source of ATP to fuel stallion sperm motility, oxidative phosphorylation was suppressed using the mitochondrial uncouplers CCCP and 2,4,-dinitrophenol (DNP) and by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration at complex IV using sodium cyanide or at the level of ATP synthase using oligomycin-A. As mitochondrial dysfunction may also lead to oxidative stress, production of reactive oxygen species was monitored simultaneously. All inhibitors reduced ATP content, but oligomycin-A did so most profoundly...
December 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790795/development-and-application-of-an-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-17-steroidal-hormones-in-equine-serum
#10
Michele Genangeli, Giovanni Caprioli, Manuela Cortese, Fulvio Laus, Mara Matteucci, Riccardo Petrelli, Massimo Ricciutelli, Gianni Sagratini, Stefano Sartori, Sauro Vittori
A new, fast and simple analytical method that is able to identify and quantify simultaneously 17 steroid hormones and metabolites (Pregnenolone, 17-OH-Pregnenolone, Progesterone, 17-OH Progesterone, Androsterone, Androstenedione, DHEA, DHEAS, Testosterone, Cortisol, Corticosterone, Aldosterone, 11-Deoxycortisol, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, Estrone, Estradiol) has been developed in equine serum using the UHPLC-MS/MS technique. 400 μL of sample were deproteinized with 1000 µl of acetonitrile, evaporated, restored with 50 µl of a solution of 25% methanol and injected in UHPLC-MS/MS triple quadrupole...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785817/the-presence-of-seminal-plasma-especially-derived-from-stallion-semen-helps-preserve-chilled-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-sperm-motility
#11
A Pinyopummin, S Mahasawangkul, K Kornkaewrat, S Rattanapirom, W Leartsang, S Kitkha
The effects of seminal plasma (SP), derived from autologous, homologous and heterologous species (stallion, boar and dog) on chilled Asian elephant sperm quality, were determined. Semen was collected from eight males and samples with ≥30% motile spermatozoa were used in the study. Semen was diluted with Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender, supplemented with different SP types and preserved at 4°C for 48 hr. Experiment 1 (n = 31), showed that the presence of SP (autologous) helped to preserve sperm quality in terms of sperm motility and acrosome integrity (p < ...
October 26, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766968/body-condition-score-morphometric-measurements-and-estimation-of-body-weight-in-mature-icelandic-horses-in-denmark
#12
Rasmus B Jensen, Signe H Danielsen, Anne-Helene Tauson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760752/ectopic-trophoblast-allografts-in-the-horse-resist-destruction-by-secondary-immune-responses
#13
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755962/induced-sub-lethal-oxidative-damage-affects-osmotic-tolerance-and-cryosurvival-of-spermatozoa
#14
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746003/expression-and-localization-of-cysteine-rich-secretory-protein-3-crisp-3-in-the-prepubertal-and-postpubertal-male-horse
#15
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739145/milk-caseinate-and-lactoferrin-addition-to-equine-semen-cooling-extenders
#16
H S Martins, M R Souza, C F A M Penna, G C da Silva, S F Côrtes, R Stahlberg, M A Lagares
Cooled semen has been used routinely to prolong sperm viability until artificial insemination time. However, spermatozoa are subjected to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective and antioxidant effect of the milk proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and caseinate added to equine semen cooling extenders. Semen from six stallions was cooled at 5 °C after resuspension with C1) milk- and glucose-based, C2) 0.6% caseinate, C3) C2 + Lf 200 μg ml(-1) , C4) C2 + Lf 500 μg ml(-1) and C5) C2 + Lf 1000 μg ml(-1) extenders, and kept at 5 °C for 24 h...
November 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726992/advances-in-diagnostics-and-therapeutic-techniques-in-breeding-behavior-disorders-in-stallions
#17
REVIEW
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726991/strategies-for-processing-semen-from-subfertile-stallions-for-cooled-transport
#18
REVIEW
Dickson D Varner
Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726989/advances-in-stallion-semen-cryopreservation
#19
REVIEW
Marco Antonio Alvarenga, Frederico Ozanam Papa, Carlos Ramires Neto
The use of stallion frozen semen minimizes the spread of disease, eliminates geographic barriers, and preserves the genetic material of the animal for an unlimited time. Significant progress on the frozen thawed stallion semen process and consequently fertility has been achieved over the last decade. These improvements not only increased fertility rates but also allowed cryopreservation of semen from "poor freezers." This article reviews traditional steps and new strategies for stallion semen handling and processing that are performed to overcome the deleterious effects of semen preservation and consequently improve frozen semen quality and fertility...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726984/biological-functions-and-clinical-applications-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-stallions-and-mares
#20
REVIEW
Anthony N J Claes, Barry A Ball
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumors. Considering that AMH is also an ovarian specific product, intact mares can be differentiated from ovariectomized mares. Peripheral AMH concentrations reflect the follicular population in mares, and therefore, are useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve and reproductive life-span of aged mares...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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