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Rasmus B Jensen, Signe H Danielsen, Anne-Helene Tauson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
H S Martins, M R Souza, C F A M Penna, G C da Silva, S F Côrtes, R Stahlberg, M A Lagares
Cooled semen has been used routinely to prolong sperm viability until artificial insemination time. However, spermatozoa are subjected to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective and antioxidant effect of the milk proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and caseinate added to equine semen cooling extenders. Semen from six stallions was cooled at 5 °C after resuspension with C1) milk- and glucose-based, C2) 0.6% caseinate, C3) C2 + Lf 200 μg ml(-1) , C4) C2 + Lf 500 μg ml(-1) and C5) C2 + Lf 1000 μg ml(-1) extenders, and kept at 5 °C for 24 h...
November 2016: Andrologia
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Dickson D Varner
Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques...
October 7, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Marco Antonio Alvarenga, Frederico Ozanam Papa, Carlos Ramires Neto
The use of stallion frozen semen minimizes the spread of disease, eliminates geographic barriers, and preserves the genetic material of the animal for an unlimited time. Significant progress on the frozen thawed stallion semen process and consequently fertility has been achieved over the last decade. These improvements not only increased fertility rates but also allowed cryopreservation of semen from "poor freezers." This article reviews traditional steps and new strategies for stallion semen handling and processing that are performed to overcome the deleterious effects of semen preservation and consequently improve frozen semen quality and fertility...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Anthony N J Claes, Barry A Ball
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumors. Considering that AMH is also an ovarian specific product, intact mares can be differentiated from ovariectomized mares. Peripheral AMH concentrations reflect the follicular population in mares, and therefore, are useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve and reproductive life-span of aged mares...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Stamatis P Georgopoulos, Tim D H Parkin
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 1,891,483 race starts by 154,527 Thoroughbred racehorses at 89 racetracks in the United States and Canada from 2009 to 2013. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the Equine Injury Database, which contained information for 93.9% of all official flat racing events in the United States and Canada during the 5-year observation period. Forty-four possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate then multivariable logistic regression to identify those that were significantly associated with fatal injury (death or euthanasia of a horse within 3 days after sustaining an injury during a race)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E M Woodward, E L Squires, B A Ball, Mht Troedsson
In the horse, breeding induces a transient endometrial inflammation. A subset of mares are unable to resolve this inflammation, and they are considered susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis PMIE Select seminal plasma proteins cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin have been shown to affect the innate immune response to sperm in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of CRISP-3 and lactoferrin at the time of insemination had an effect on the mRNA expression of endometrial cytokines in susceptible mares after breeding...
September 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Aleona Swegen, Sarah Renay Lambourne, R John Aitken, Zamira Gibb
Media used for equine sperm storage often contain relatively high concentrations of glucose, even though stallion spermatozoa preferentially utilize oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis to generate ATP and support motility. Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic compound that enhances metabolic flexibility and glucose utilization in various cell types, but its effects on sperm metabolism are unknown. This study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on stallion sperm function in vitro, along with the possible role of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in mediating these effects...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
J de la Torre, P Sánchez-Martín, J Gosálvez, F Crespo
Sperm quality was assessed in normozoospermic human (n = 10) and Spanish breed stallion (n = 10) after sperm fractionation during ejaculation. The first ejaculated fraction was separated from the second. A third sample was reconstituted using equivalent proportion of both fractions (RAW). Fraction 1, Fraction 2 and RAW semen were incubated for 30 min at 37°C to homogenise the impact of iatrogenic damage between both species. Sperm concentration, motility and sperm DNA damage were assessed in each fraction and RAW semen...
September 23, 2016: Andrologia
Bart Leemans, Bart M Gadella, Tom Arjun Edgar Stout, Catharina De Schauwer, Hilde Maria Nelis, Maarten Hoogewijs, Ann Van Soom
In contrast to man and many other mammalian species, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) with horse gametes is not reliably successful. The apparent inability of stallion spermatozoa to penetrate the zona pellucida in vitro is most likely due to incomplete activation of spermatozoa (capacitation) as a result of inadequate capacitating or fertilizing media. In vivo, the oviduct and its secretions provide a micro-environment that does reliably support and regulate interaction between the gametes. This review focuses on equine sperm-oviduct interaction...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Diego Bucci, Elisa Giaretta, Barbara Merlo, Eleonora Iacono, Marcella Spinaci, Beatrice Gadani, Gaetano Mari, Carlo Tamanini, Giovanna Galeati
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is present in equine seminal plasma and spermatozoa, but its functional role is not fully understood yet. Being that, sperm-oocyte interaction in equine species has been reported to be enhanced at a slightly basic pH, this work aimed at verifying whether exogenous alkaline phosphatase exerts any role on stallion spermatozoa and sperm-oocyte interaction at different pHs (7.4; 8.0; 9.0). Stallion spermatozoa were capacitated in Tyrode's medium at pH 7.4, 8.0, and 9.0 for 4 hours at 38 °C, 5% CO2 with 2...
August 13, 2016: Theriogenology
R Käser, R M Bruckmaier, S Thomas, H Sieme, C Wedekind, D Burger
Oxytocin is a hormone that may not only influence reproductive mechanisms in mammals but also their social behavior, including pair bonding. We therefore tested if the concentrations of oxytocin and other hormones reveal mate preferences of 13 mares in estrus. Each mare was first exposed to two stallions (haphazardly selected out of seven) and her behavior recorded. The mare was then returned to her box (i.e., no contact to stallions during that time). Approximately 4.5 hours later, venous blood samples were collected every minute during 30 minutes preceding exposure to one of the two previously used stallions, 6 minutes during exposure, and 30 minutes after exposure back in the mare's box...
July 25, 2016: Theriogenology
Keisuke Suganuma, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Shino Yamasaki, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Batdorj Davaasuren, Badgar Battsetseg, Noboru Inoue
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma equiperdum causes dourine via sexual transmission in Equidae. T. equiperdum is classified under the subgenus Trypanozoon along with the T. brucei sspp. and T. evansi; however, the species classification of Trypanozoon remains a controversial topic due to the limited number of T. equiperdum reference strains. In addition, it is possible that some were misclassified T. evansi strains. Thus, there is a strong need for a new T. equiperdum strain directly isolated from the genital mucosa of a horse with a clinically- and parasitologically-confirmed dourine infection...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
G M Davolli, B A Ball, A Esteller-Vico, A N J Claes, I F Canisso, C E Fedorka, E M Woodward, M H T Troedsson, E L Squires
The GnRH antagonist, acyline, has not yet been investigated in the stallion. Our study aimed to: (1) evaluate the downregulation of the stallion hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by acyline through assessment of seminal parameters, testicular volume, and sexual behavior; (2) assess hormonal response of acyline-treated stallions to GnRH stimulation; and (3) verify reversibility after treatment. Stallions were assessed pretreatment and subsequently treated (every five days) for 50 days: acyline (n = 4; 330 μg/kg acyline) or control (n = 4, vehicle)...
July 26, 2016: Theriogenology
M D Scheidegger, V Gerber, A Ramseyer, G Schüpbach-Regula, R M Bruckmaier, J H van der Kolk
The aim of this study was to further characterize the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response and to measure the short- and long-term repeatability of it in healthy horses as a tool to assess the capacity of the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Nineteen healthy horses were subjected to 3 ACTH stimulation tests. Intervals were 2 wk and 5 mo between the first and second and the second and third tests, respectively. A dose of 1-μg/kg BW synthetic ACTH was injected intravenously. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after administration for cortisol measurements using a competitive enzyme immunoassay...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Jan M Trela, Julie E Dechant, William T Culp, Mary B Whitcomb, Carrie A Palm, Jorge E Nieto
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful management of a urethral stricture with an absorbable stent in a stallion. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Stallion with a urethral stricture. RESULTS: A 12-year-old Thoroughbred breeding stallion was evaluated for acute onset of colic. Uroperitoneum because of presumptive urinary bladder rupture, with urethral obstruction by a urethrolith, was diagnosed. The uroperitoneum was treated conservatively...
August 25, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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