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Kelli A Davis, Kristin M Klohonatz, Darcy S O Mora, Hannah M Twenter, Peter E Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C Eckery, Jason E Bruemmer
Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant...
March 6, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
D Lewczuk, A Bereznowski, M Hecold, M Frąszczak, A Ruść, A Korwin-Kossakowska, J Szyda, S Kamiński
Horses lose potential opportunities because of health problems. Available breeding strategies are not effective enough, probably also because of the different definition used and its genetic usefulness. The aim of the study was to compare the genetic background estimated by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for osteochondrosis using two different scaling osteochondrosis (OC)/healthy and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD)/healthy systems for evaluating the disease status of investigated fetlock joints. Two hundred one Warmblood horses trained for performance tests (87 stallions and 114 mares) were phenotyped and genotyped...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Joao A M Carneiro, Igor F Canisso, R S Bandeira, V F C Scheeren, Camila P Freitas-Dell'Aqua, Marco A Alvarenga, Frederico O Papa, Jose A Dell'Aqua
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) during cryopreservation of semen obtained from stallions having good and bad semen freezing ability (GFA vs. BFA, respectively). Forty ejaculates (n = 20 stallions) were split into five centrifugation and five freezing extenders containing different concentrations of CoQ10 (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μmols/L). If CoQ10 was added to the centrifugation extender, the freezing extender had no CoQ10 added; similarly, if CoQ10 was added to the freezing extender, the centrifugation extender had no CoQ10...
February 24, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
K Roels, K Smits, C Ververs, J Govaere, K D'Herde, A Van Soom
In horse breeding, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has gained interest to obtain offspring from subfertile individuals. This paper presents a case report of a stallion with severe testicular degeneration. Semen analysis showed very low motility and 83.5% of detached heads. Histology of a testicular biopsy showed severely decreased spermatogenesis, while transmission electron microscopy of the sperm cells revealed no significant abnormalities. A total of 39 oocytes were fertilized by ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of this stallion: 25 oocytes with intact spermatozoa and 24 with detached heads...
March 1, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
C Consuegra, F Crespo, M Bottrel, I Ortiz, J Dorado, M Diaz-Jimenez, B Pereira, M Hidalgo
The aim of this study was to assess different concentrations of sucrose-based extenders combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an alternative to stallion sperm cryopreservation with permeable cryoprotectants. Semen samples (n = 16) were collected from six stallions. Sperm was cooled, filled in 0.5 mL straws and frozen in nitrogen vapor. Post-thaw sperm kinetic parameters, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity were statistically compared among treatments. In Experiment 1, extenders containing 1% of BSA and different concentrations of sucrose (mmol/L, M): 0, 50, 100, 250, 350 and 450 mM were compared...
February 21, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Mareike Ewert, Imke Lüders, Jozsef Böröcz, Hubert Uphaus, Ottmar Distl, Harald Sieme
The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of stallion and mare, their ages, and maternal lineage on the gestation length (GL) in Thoroughbreds. In addition, additive genetic effects of the dam, stallion and fetus were analyzed. Data were taken from 1993 through 2009, and included 16,226 pregnancies from 5959 Th oroughbred mares mated with 290 different stallions. All analyses were performed using linear mixed models. The GL ranged from 306 to 390 days, with a mean length of 347.0 ± 14.4 days...
February 7, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Dominik Burger, Charles Meuwly, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Michael Oberthür, Claus Wedekind, Sabine Meinecke-Tillmann
Although female preferences are well studied in many mammals, the possible effects of the oestrous cycle are not yet sufficiently understood. Here we investigate female preferences for visual and non-visual male traits relative to the periodically cycling of sexual proceptivity (oestrus) and inactivity (dioestrus), respectively, in the polygynous horse (Equus caballus). We individually exposed mares to stallions in four experimental situations: (i) mares in oestrus and visual contact to stallions allowed, (ii) mares in oestrus, with blinds (wooden partitions preventing visual contact but allowing for acoustic and olfactory communication), (iii) mares in dioestrus, no blinds, and (iv) mares in dioestrus, with blinds...
2018: PloS One
Aliybek D Khaudov, Astemir S Duduev, Zaur A Kokov, Khazhismel K Amshokov, Mohamed Kh Zhekamukhov, Alexander M Zaitsev, Monika Reissmann
Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome help to understand the origin and distribution of maternal and paternal lineages. The Kabardian horse from Northern Caucasia which is well-known for strength, stamina and endurance in distance riding has a large gap in its breeding documentation especially in the recent past. A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses) and six mutations in Y chromosome (49 Kabardian stallions), respectively, were analyzed to get a better insight into breeding history, phylogenetic relationship to related breeds, maternal and paternal diversity and genetic structure...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, Kathleen M Shuck, Peter J Timoney, R Frank Cook, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) can establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and is shed in the semen. Previous studies showed that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene ( CXCL16S ) and that persistent infection is maintained despite the presence of a local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we demonstrated that equine seminal exosomes (SEs) are enriched in a small subset of miRNAs. Most importantly, we demonstrated that long-term EAV persistence is associated with the downregulation of an SE-associated miRNA (eca-mir-128) and with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 in the reproductive tract, a putative target of eca-mir-128...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
H S Martins, G C da Silva, S F Cortes, F O Paes, O A Martins Filho, Mss Araujo, R Stahlberg, M A Lagares
During cryopreservation, sperm was submitted to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. This work aimed to improve the quality of frozen equine sperm after the addition of antioxidants lactoferrin (Lf) and catalase (Cat) to a freezing extender. Semen from six stallions was frozen with the extenders: F1) control, INRA 82 freezing extender, F2) F1 + 500 μg/ml Lf and F3) F1 + 200 IU/ml Cat. After thawing, sperm motility parameters, membrane functionality and integrity, and acrosome integrity and spontaneous acrosome-reacted sperm were evaluated with a computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypoosmotic swelling test and epifluorescent microscopy, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
A Pinyopummin, S Mahasawangkul, G Nunklang, K Kornkaewrat, S Laopiem, S Koonjaenak, P Wattananit
The dilution effect and effect of restoring seminal plasma (SP) proportion in diluted semen were determined in chilled Asian elephant sperm. Semen was collected from eight males, and samples with ≥30% motile sperm were used in the study. Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender (TE) was used for cooled storage at 4°C for 48 hr. In experiment 1 (n = 18), semen was diluted to 1:1, 1:3, 1:7 and 1:15 with TE (volume per volume). There were no significant changes in sperm viability and sperm with normal acrosome integrity among dilutions, but sperm motility and motility velocities were greater (p < ...
February 6, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Essraa M Al-Essawe, Anders Johannisson, Manuela Wulf, Christine Aurich, Jane M Morrell
Addition of seminal plasma (SP) prior to cryopreservation may influence stallion sperm cryosurvival. The objective of this study was to investigate the addition of pooled SP from "good" or "bad" freezer stallions to spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation (SLC) prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw sperm quality. Semen from 12 stallions was collected; 5 mL was frozen as control (C) and the remainder was processed by SLC to remove SP and was divided into three aliquots: i) SLC sample without SP (SLC); ii) SLC plus pooled SP from "good freezer" stallions (SLC-GF); iii) SLC plus pooled SP from "bad freezer" stallions (SLC-BF)...
February 1, 2018: Cryobiology
S Macedo, M Bliebernicht, J Carvalheira, A Costa, F Ribeiro, A Rocha
Glycerol-based extenders are widely utilized for freezing equine semen, but media combining methylformamide may better preserve sperm motility and mitochondrial function. Semen is cryopreserved utilizing either a Styrofoam box filled with liquid nitrogen or an automatic freezer. The objective of this experiment was to compare the post-thaw characteristics of the same ejaculates cryopreserved in a Styrofoam box or in an automatic freezer, utilizing a glycerol-based extender (Gent) and an extender that combines methylformamide and glycerol (BotuCrio® )...
January 30, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
C Del Prete, S Tafuri, F Ciani, M P Pasolini, F Ciotola, S Albarella, D Carotenuto, V Peretti, N Cocchia
Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity...
January 22, 2018: Andrology
E Jeannerat, E Marti, C Berney, F Janett, H Bollwein, H Sieme, D Burger, C Wedekind
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has repeatedly been found to influence mate choice of vertebrates, with MHC-dissimilar mates typically being preferred over MHC-similar mates. We used horses (Equus caballus) to test whether MHC matching also affects male investment into ejaculates after short exposure to a female. Semen characteristics varied much among stallions. Controlling for this variance with a full-factorial within-subject experimental design, we found that a short exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare enhanced male plasma testosterone and led to ejaculates with elevated sperm numbers as compared to exposure to an MHC-similar mare...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
M Robles, C Dubois, C Gautier, M Dahirel, I Guenon, H Bouraima-Lelong, C Viguié, L Wimel, A Couturier-Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
Primiparous mares are known to produce smaller foals than multiparous mares. This difference seems to be partly explained by the reduced exchange surface and volume of the placental villi in primiparous compared to multiparous placentas. The effect of maternal parity on foals' post-natal growth, metabolism and sexual maturation, however, has been given little consideration. The objectives of this work were to analyse placental biometry and structure at term, growth of foals and yearlings, their metabolism and testicular maturation at one year of age...
December 21, 2017: Theriogenology
Daniel Guillaume, Chantal Moussu, Frédéric de Geoffroy, Didier Chesneau, Matthieu Keller
Stallions show decreased sexual responses and activities during short days in winter. To evaluate the importance of sexual olfactory communication in horses, we tested whether sexual responses could be stimulated through various sexual olfactory stimulations in winter. To this end, we presented stallions with various olfactory stimulations (urine from mares at different stages of the reproductive cycle, urine from stallions or geldings, or chemically defined synthetic odorant) during the non-breeding season and measured their behavioral responses through (1) a test of olfactory investigation (olfactory investigation and flehmen behavior) and (2) a test of sexual activity in the context of semen collection for artificial insemination...
December 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
M C Gil, C Ortega Ferrusola, L Anel-López, J M Ortiz-Rodriguez, M Alvarez, P de Paz, L Anel, F J Peña
Spermatozoa undergo apoptotic changes during the cryopreservation process. These changes, recently termed spermptosis, resemble the cryopreservation induced delayed onset of cell death observed after thawing of somatic cells. Due to its importance in cryobiology, methods to easily identify spermptotic cells are warranted. In this study, a well-validated method for identification of spermatozoa with caspase 3 activity was compared with use of the combination of Hoechst 33342 (H-42) and ethidium homodimer (Eth-1)...
December 16, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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