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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#1
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076815/fluorescent-labeling-preserving-ocp-photoactivity-reveals-its-reorganization-during-the-photocycle
#2
Eugene G Maksimov, Nikolai N Sluchanko, Kirill S Mironov, Evgeny A Shirshin, Konstantin E Klementiev, Georgy V Tsoraev, Marcus Moldenhauer, Thomas Friedrich, Dmitry A Los, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev, Vladimir Z Paschenko, Andrei B Rubin
Orange carotenoid protein (OCP), responsible for the photoprotection of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus under excessive light conditions, undergoes significant rearrangements upon photoconversion and transits from the stable orange to the signaling red state. This is thought to involve a 12-Å translocation of the carotenoid cofactor and separation of the N- and C-terminal protein domains. Despite clear recent progress, the detailed mechanism of the OCP photoconversion and associated photoprotection remains elusive...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075568/reaction-pathways-and-kinetics-of-a-cyanobacterial-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-during-chlorination
#3
Yiting Chen, Wan-Ru Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Tsair-Fuh Lin
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a probable cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), or Alzheimer's disease, has been identified in more than 20 cyanobacterial genera. However, its removal and fate in drinking water has never been reported before. In this study, the reaction of BMAA with chlorine, a common drinking-water oxidant/disinfectant, was investigated. A liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to quantify BMAA and its intermediates...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074871/long-term-modis-observations-of-cyanobacterial-dynamics-in-lake-taihu-responses-to-nutrient-enrichment-and-meteorological-factors
#4
Kun Shi, Yunlin Zhang, Yongqiang Zhou, Xiaohan Liu, Guangwei Zhu, Boqiang Qin, Guang Gao
We developed and validated an empirical model for estimating chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) in Lake Taihu to generate a long-term Chla and algal bloom area time series from MODIS-Aqua observations for 2003 to 2013. Then, based on the long-term time series data, we quantified the responses of cyanobacterial dynamics to nutrient enrichment and climatic conditions. Chla showed substantial spatial and temporal variability. In addition, the annual mean cyanobacterial surface bloom area exhibited an increasing trend across the entire lake from 2003 to 2013, with the exception of 2006 and 2007...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074036/redox-crisis-underlies-conditional-light-dark-lethality-in-cyanobacterial-mutants-that-lack-the-circadian-regulator-rpaa
#5
Spencer Diamond, Benjamin E Rubin, Ryan K Shultzaberger, You Chen, Chase D Barber, Susan S Golden
Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073912/auxiliary-metabolic-genes-distinct-features-of-cyanophage-encoded-t-type-phycobiliprotein-lyase-%C3%AE-cpet
#6
Raphael Gasper, Julia Schwach, Jana Hartmann, Andrea Holtkamp, Jessica Wiethaus, Natascha Riedel, Eckhard Hofmann, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMG) are commonly found in the genomes of phages that infect cyanobacteria and increase cyanophage's fitness. AMGs are often homologs of host genes, and also typically related to photosynthesis. For example, the θcpeT gene in the cyanophage P-HM1 encodes a putative phycobiliprotein lyase related to cyanobacterial T-type lyases, which facilitate attachment of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits, suggesting that θCpeT may also help assemble light-harvesting phycobiliproteins during infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073560/an-alternative-explanation-for-cyanobacterial-scum-formation-and-persistence-by-oxygenic-photosynthesis
#7
E Aparicio Medrano, R E Uittenbogaard, B J H van de Wiel, L M Dionisio Pires, H J H Clercx
The cause of persistent cyanobacteria scum formation in lakes is an unresolved subject. Scum refers to the event in which cyanobacteria are at the water surface of a lake. Factors like low turbulence levels, long day-light, high water temperatures and the buoyant capacity of cyanobacterial cells play a role in the occurrence of scums. However, they do not explain why scums are observed at periods during the day when according to theory they should have disappeared into the deeper water layers. In this study, we present an alternative explanation...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073554/an-overview-of-cyanobacterial-bloom-occurrences-and-research-in-africa-over-the-last-decade
#8
REVIEW
L L Ndlela, P J Oberholster, J H Van Wyk, P H Cheng
Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073551/the-common-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-is-prone-to-a-wide-array-of-microbial-antagonists
#9
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Wichelen, Pieter Vanormelingen, Geoffrey A Codd, Wim Vyverman
Many degraded waterbodies around the world are subject to strong proliferations of cyanobacteria - notorious for their toxicity, high biomass build-up and negative impacts on aquatic food webs - the presence of which puts serious limits on the human use of affected water bodies. Cyanobacterial blooms are largely regarded as trophic dead ends since they are a relatively poor food source for zooplankton. As a consequence, their population dynamics are generally attributed to changes in abiotic conditions (bottom-up control)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073548/cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins-in-fishponds-and-their-effects-on-fish-tissue
#10
Damjana Drobac, Nada Tokodi, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Gordana Subakov-Simić, Tamara Dulić, Tamara Važić, Sonja Nybom, Jussi Meriluoto, Geoffrey A Codd, Zorica Svirčev
Cyanobacteria can produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. Common and frequently investigated cyanotoxins include microcystins (MCs), nodularin (NOD) and saxitoxins (STXs). During the summer of 2011 extensive cyanobacterial growth was found in several fishponds in Serbia. Sampling of the water and fish (common carp, Cyprinus carpio) was performed. Water samples from 13 fishponds were found to contain saxitoxin, microcystin, and/or nodularin. LC-MS/MS showed that MC-RR was present in samples of fish muscle tissue...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073545/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-surveillance-of-ten-aquatic-biotoxins-in-european-brackish-and-freshwater-systems
#11
Brett Greer, Sara E McNamee, Bas Boots, Lucia Cimarelli, Delphine Guillebault, Karim Helmi, Stefania Marcheggiani, Stefan Panaiotov, Ulrich Breitenbach, Reyhan Akçaalan, Linda K Medlin, Katrin Kittler, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through recreational activities such as bathing/swimming. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multi-toxin method has been developed and validated for freshwater cyanotoxins; microcystins-LR, -YR, -RR, -LA, -LY and -LF, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and the marine diatom toxin domoic acid...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073534/turbulence-increases-the-risk-of-microcystin-exposure-in-a-eutrophic-lake-lake-taihu-during-cyanobacterial-bloom-periods
#12
Jian Zhou, Boqiang Qin, Xiaoxia Han, Lin Zhu
Toxic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) have posed serious water use and public health threats because of the toxins they produce, such as the microcystins (MCs). The direct physical effects of turbulence on MCs, however, have not yet been addressed and is still poorly elucidated. In this study, a 6-day mesocosm experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of wind wave turbulence on the competition of toxic Microcystis and MCs production in highly eutrophicated and turbulent Lake Taihu, China...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073507/evidence-of-freshwater-algal-toxins-in-marine-shellfish-implications-for-human-and-aquatic-health
#13
Corinne M Gibble, Melissa B Peacock, Raphael M Kudela
The occurrence of freshwater harmful algal bloom toxins impacting the coastal ocean is an emerging threat, and the potential for invertebrate prey items to concentrate toxin and cause harm to human and wildlife consumers is not yet fully recognized. We examined toxin uptake and release in marine mussels for both particulate and dissolved phases of the hepatotoxin microcystin, produced by the freshwater cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. We also extended our experimental investigation of particulate toxin to include oysters (Crassostrea sp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073505/characterization-of-akinetes-from-cyanobacterial-strains-and-lake-sediment-a-study-of-their-resistance-and-toxic-potential
#14
Benjamin Legrand, Amélie Lamarque, Marion Sabart, Delphine Latour
Nostocalean cyanobacteria are known to proliferate abundantly in eutrophic aquatic ecosystems, and to produce several cyanotoxins, including anatoxin-a. In this study, we investigated both the resistance and toxic potential of the akinetes (resistant cells), using cyanobacterial cultures and akinetes extracted from the sediment of Lake Aydat (France) sampled in the winter and spring. Intact and lysed akinetes were differentiated using a double control based on the autofluorescence of akinetes and SYTOX-green staining...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073498/cyanotoxins-in-inland-lakes-of-the-united-states-occurrence-and-potential-recreational-health-risks-in-the-epa-national-lakes-assessment-2007
#15
Keith A Loftin, Jennifer L Graham, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Sarah C Lehmann, Michael T Meyer, Julie E Dietze, Christopher B Griffith
A large nation-wide survey of cyanotoxins (1161 lakes) in the United States (U.S.) was conducted during the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse toxicity data to evaluate potential recreational risks. Cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, and saxitoxins were detected (ELISA) in 4.0, 32, and 7.7% of samples with mean concentrations of 0.56, 3.0, and 0.061μg/L, respectively (detections only)...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073495/influence-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-saxitoxin-and-analogs-in-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#16
Paula Vico, Luis Aubriot, Fátima Martigani, Natalia Rigamonti, Sylvia Bonilla, Claudia Piccini
The development of cyanobacterial blooms in inland aquatic ecosystems is greatly promoted by nutrient availability, especially nitrogen and phosphorous. When blooms are dominated by toxigenic species the harmful effects of nutrient loading becomes particularly relevant. Among toxic species, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii found in South American ecosystems is characterized by the production of saxitoxin and analogs (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, PSP), for which the factors that trigger their production have not been elucidated...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073492/stress-responsive-expression-of-a-glutathione-s-transferase-delta-gene-in-waterflea-daphnia-magna-challenged-by-microcystin-producing-and-microcystin-free-microcystis-aeruginosa
#17
Kai Lyu, Lei Gu, Bangping Li, Yichun Lu, Changcan Wu, Haoyong Guan, Zhou Yang
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms resulting from eutrophication and global warming have emerged as a worldwide environmental concern. Some zooplankton populations, including Daphnia, have been shown to adapt locally to microcystin-producing Microcystis. Previous in vitro experiments indicate that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) may act as the first step of detoxification in Daphnia by conjugating microcystins (MCs) with glutathione. The GST family is categorized into many classes, and different classes present distinct responses to MC detoxification...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073484/the-genetics-biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-toxic-specialized-metabolites-of-cyanobacteria
#18
REVIEW
Leanne A Pearson, Elke Dittmann, Rabia Mazmouz, Sarah E Ongley, Paul M D'Agostino, Brett A Neilan
The production of toxic metabolites by cyanobacterial blooms represents a significant threat to the health of humans and ecosystems worldwide. Here we summarize the current state of the knowledge regarding the genetics, biosynthesis and regulation of well-characterized cyanotoxins, including the microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins and anatoxins, as well as the lesser-known marine toxins (e.g. lyngbyatoxin, aplysiatoxin, jamaicamides, barbamide, curacin, hectochlorin and apratoxins).
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073483/the-dual-role-of-nitrogen-supply-in-controlling-the-growth-and-toxicity-of-cyanobacterial-blooms
#19
REVIEW
Christopher J Gobler, JoAnn M Burkholder, Timothy W Davis, Matthew J Harke, Tom Johengen, Craig A Stow, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Historically, phosphorus (P) has been considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. This review, supported by new findings from Lake Erie, highlights recent molecular, laboratory, and field evidence that the growth and toxicity of some non-diazotrophic blooms of cyanobacteria can be controlled by nitrogen (N). Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis possess physiological adaptations that allow them to dominate low-P surface waters, and in temperate lakes, cyanobacterial densities can be controlled by N availability...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073482/an-overview-of-diversity-occurrence-genetics-and-toxin-production-of-bloom-forming-dolichospermum-anabaena-species
#20
REVIEW
Xiaochuang Li, Theo W Dreher, Renhui Li
The new genus name Dolichospermum, for most of the planktonic former members of the genus Anabaena, is one of the most ubiquitous bloom-forming cyanobacterial genera. Its dominance and persistence have increased in recent years, due to eutrophication from anthropogenic activities and global climate change. Blooms of Dolichospermum species, with their production of secondary metabolites that commonly include toxins, present a worldwide threat to environmental and public health. In this review, recent advances of the genus Dolichospermum are summarized, including taxonomy, genetics, bloom occurrence, and production of toxin and taste-and-odor compounds...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
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