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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814973/photoautotrophic-production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-a-synthetic-mixed-culture-of-synechococcus-elongatus-cscb-and-pseudomonas-putida-cscab
#1
Hannes Löwe, Karina Hobmeier, Manuel Moos, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814573/conserved-dynamics-of-chloroplast-cytoskeletal-ftsz-proteins-across-photosynthetic-lineages
#2
Allan D Terbush, Joshua S MacCready, Cheng Chen, Daniel C Ducat, Katherine W Osteryoung
The cytoskeletal FtsZ ring is critical for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in photosynthetic eukaryotes. While bacterial FtsZ rings are composed of a single FtsZ, except in the basal glaucophytes chloroplast division involves two heteropolymer-forming FtsZ isoforms--FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in the green lineage and FtsZA and FtsZB in red algae. FtsZ1 and FtsZB probably arose by duplication of the more ancestral FtsZ2 and FtsZA, respectively. We expressed fluorescent fusions of FtsZ from diverse photosynthetic organisms in a heterologous system to compare their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties...
August 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808007/early-photosynthetic-eukaryotes-inhabited-low-salinity-habitats
#3
Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, John A Raven, Davide Pisani, Andrew H Knoll
The early evolutionary history of the chloroplast lineage remains an open question. It is widely accepted that the endosymbiosis that established the chloroplast lineage in eukaryotes can be traced back to a single event, in which a cyanobacterium was incorporated into a protistan host. It is still unclear, however, which Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the chloroplast, when the plastid lineage first evolved, and in what habitats this endosymbiotic event occurred. We present phylogenomic and molecular clock analyses, including data from cyanobacterial and chloroplast genomes using a Bayesian approach, with the aim of estimating the age for the primary endosymbiotic event, the ages of crown groups for photosynthetic eukaryotes, and the independent incorporation of a cyanobacterial endosymbiont by Paulinella Our analyses include both broad taxon sampling (119 taxa) and 18 fossil calibrations across all Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806650/floating-rice-culture-system-for-nutrient-remediation-and-feed-production-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#4
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Jun Chun, So-Ra Ko, Junhwan Kim, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804480/microbial-community-structure-and-the-persistence-of-cyanobacterial-populations-in-salt-crusts-of-the-hyperarid-atacama-desert-from-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#5
Kari M Finstad, Alexander J Probst, Brian C Thomas, Gary L Andersen, Cecilia Demergasso, Alex Echeverría, Ronald G Amundson, Jillian F Banfield
Although once thought to be devoid of biology, recent studies have identified salt deposits as oases for life in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. To examine spatial patterns of microbial species and key nutrient sources, we genomically characterized 26 salt crusts from three sites along a fog gradient. The communities are dominated by a large variety of Halobacteriales and Bacteroidetes, plus a few algal and Cyanobacterial species. CRISPR locus analysis suggests the distribution of a single Cyanobacterial population among all sites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803778/an-unstable-singularity-underlies-stochastic-phasing-of-the-circadian-clock-in-individual-cyanobacterial-cells
#6
Siting Gan, Erin K O'Shea
The endogenous circadian clock synchronizes with environmental time by appropriately resetting its phase in response to external cues. Of note, some resetting stimuli induce attenuated oscillations of clock output, which has been observed at the population-level in several organisms and in studies of individual humans. To investigate what is happening in individual cellular clocks, we studied the unicellular cyanobacterium S. elongatus. By measuring its phase-resetting responses to temperature changes, we found that population-level arrhythmicity occurs when certain perturbations cause stochastic phases of oscillations in individual cells...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803467/not-gate-genetic-circuits-to-control-gene-expression-in-cyanobacteria
#7
Arnaud Taton, Amy T Ma, Mizuho Ota, Susan Golden, James W Golden
To downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, we constructed NOT gate genetic circuits using orthogonal promoters and their cognate repressors regulated translationally by synthetic riboswitches. Four NOT gates were tested and characterized in five cyanobacterial strains using fluorescent reporter-gene assays. In comparison to alternative systems used to downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, these NOT gates performed well, reducing YFP reporter expression by 4 to 50-fold. We further evaluated these NOT gates by controlling the expression of the ftsZ gene, which encodes a prokaryotic tubulin homolog that is required for cell division and is essential for Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803056/analysis-of-microcystin-lr-and-nodularin-using-triple-quad-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-histopathology-in-experimental-fish
#8
Daljit Vudathala, Stephen Smith, Lester Khoo, David D Kuhn, Mary E Mainous, James Steadman, Lisa Murphy
Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic cyanobacterial metabolites produced sporadically in aquatic environments under favorable environmental conditions. Affinity of these toxins to covalently bind with protein phosphatases poses a challenge in their detection. Lemieux oxidation to release 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB), a common moiety to all MCs congeners, has been used in detection of these compounds, however a lack of sensitivity has limited the usefulness of the method. In this study, modifications of the oxidation and solid phase extraction procedures, combined with a sensitive LC/MS/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) detection, have resulted in 25 ng/g method detection limits in both liver and plasma samples...
August 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800687/the-profound-effect-of-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-food-web-and-management-perspectives
#9
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800136/feathermoss-and-epiphytic-nostoc-cooperate-differently-expanding-the-spectrum-of-plant-cyanobacteria-symbiosis
#10
Denis Warshan, Josh L Espinoza, Rhona K Stuart, R Alexander Richter, Sea-Yong Kim, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides, Kerrie Barry, Vasanth Singan, Erika Lindquist, Charles Ansong, Samuel O Purvine, Heather M Brewer, Philip D Weyman, Christopher L Dupont, Ulla Rasmussen
Dinitrogen (N2)-fixation by cyanobacteria in symbiosis with feathermosses is the primary pathway of biological nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests. Despite its significance, little is known about the cyanobacterial gene repertoire and regulatory rewiring needed for the establishment and maintenance of the symbiosis. To determine gene acquisitions and regulatory changes allowing cyanobacteria to form and maintain this symbiosis, we compared genomically closely related symbiotic-competent and -incompetent Nostoc strains using a proteogenomics approach and an experimental set up allowing for controlled chemical and physical contact between partners...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798489/periphyton-effects-on-bacterial-assemblages-and-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-a-eutrophic-freshwater-lake-a-mesocosm-study
#11
Yingshun Cui, Long Jin, So-Ra Ko, Seong-Jun Chun, Hyung-Seok Oh, Chang Soo Lee, Ankita Srivastava, Hee-Mock Oh, Chi-Yong Ahn
Periphyton comprises a broad range of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms that grow on submerged surfaces in aquatic environments. To investigate the ecological roles of periphyton and their symbiotic bacterial assemblages related to the control of cyanobacterial blooms, mesocosm experiments were performed in a eutrophic lake that is usually infested with harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Our results showed that periphyton, together with their symbionts, reduced Chl-a concentrations (up to 94%), improved water clarity and effectively controlled cyanobacterial blooms in the treatment mesocosm...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794262/super-resolution-microscopy-of-the-%C3%A3-carboxysome-reveals-a-homogenous-matrix
#12
Matthew J Niederhuber, Talley J Lambert, Clarence Yapp, Pamela A Silver, Jessica K Polka
Carbon fixation in cyanobacteria makes a major contribution to the global carbon cycle. The cyanobacterial carboxysome is a proteinaceous microcompartment that protects and concentrates the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCO in a paracrystalline lattice, making it possible for these organisms to fix CO2 from the atmosphere. The protein responsible for the organization of this lattice in beta-type carboxysomes of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, CcmM, occurs in two isoforms thought to localize differentially within the carboxysome matrix...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790992/the-cyanobacteria-dominated-sponge-dactylospongia-elegans-in-the-south-china-sea-prokaryotic-community-and-metagenomic-insights
#13
Zhao-Ming Gao, Guo-Wei Zhou, Hui Huang, Yong Wang
The South China Sea is a special reservoir of sponges of which prokaryotic communities are less studied. Here, a new record of the sponge Dactylospongia elegans is reported near the coast of Jinqing Island in the South China Sea, and its prokaryotic community is comprehensively investigated. Sponge specimens displayed lower microbial diversity compared with surrounding seawater. At the phylum level, prokaryotic communities were consistently dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Thaumarchaeota, and Poribacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777340/growth-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-toxic-and-non-toxic-strains-of-the-cyanobacteria-microcystis-aeruginosa-and-anabaena-circinalis-in-relation-to-light
#14
M Ashraful Islam, John Beardall
Cyanobacteria are major bloom-forming organisms in freshwater ecosystems and many strains are known to produce toxins. Toxin production requires an investment in energy and resources. As light is one of the most important factors for cyanobacterial growth, any changes in light climate might affect cyanobacterial toxin production as well as their growth and physiology. To evaluate the effects of light on the growth and physiological parameters of both toxic and non-toxic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis, cultures were grown at a range of light intensities (10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1))...
August 4, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776189/spatial-variability-of-cyanobacteria-and-heterotrophic-bacteria-in-lake-taihu-china
#15
Haifeng Qian, Tao Lu, Hao Song, Michel Lavoie, Jiahui Xu, Xiaoji Fan, Xiangliang Pan
Cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in Lake Taihu (China), but the intertwined relationships between biotic and abiotic factors modulating the frequency and duration of the blooms remain enigmatic. To better understand the relationships between the key abiotic and biotic factors and cyanobacterial blooms, we measured the abundance and diversity of prokaryotic organisms by high-throughput sequencing, the abundance of key genes involved in microcystin production and nitrogen fixation or loss as well as several physicochemical parameters at several stations in Lake Taihu during a cyanobacterial bloom of Microcystis sp...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772230/the-biodegradation-of-microcystins-in-temperate-freshwater-bodies-with-previous-cyanobacterial-history
#16
Dariusz Dziga, Anna Maksylewicz, Magdalena Maroszek, Agnieszka Budzyńska, Agnieszka Napiorkowska-Krzebietke, Magdalena Toporowska, Magdalena Grabowska, Anna Kozak, Joanna Rosińska, Jussi Meriluoto
Cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins occur in freshwater lakes and reservoirs all over the world. Bacterial degradation of microcystins (MC), hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species, has also been broadly documented. However, information regarding MC biodegradation in European water bodies is very limited. In this paper, the occurrence and identification of MC biodegradation products was documented for 21 European lakes and reservoirs, many of which have well-documented cyanobacterial bloom histories...
July 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766269/analysis-of-neurotoxic-amino-acids-from-marine-waters-microbial-mats-and-seafood-destined-for-human-consumption-in-the-arabian-gulf
#17
Aspassia D Chatziefthimiou, Eric J Deitch, William B Glover, James T Powell, Sandra Anne Banack, Renee A Richer, Paul A Cox, James S Metcalf
Human health risks associated with exposure to algal and cyanobacterial toxins (phycotoxins) have been largely concerned with aquatic habitats. People inhabiting desert environments may be exposed to phycotoxins present in terrestrial environments, where cyanobacterial crusts dominate. Seafood comprises a significant portion of the human diet in desert environments proximal to an ocean or sea. Consequently, in addition to terrestrial exposure to cyanotoxins, the potential exists that seafood may be an important exposure route for cyanotoxins in desert regions...
August 1, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761418/the-interaction-of-genetics-and-environmental-toxicants-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-results-from-animal-models
#18
REVIEW
Roger B Sher
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and eventual death. There is presently no cure for ALS, and only two drugs are available, neither of which provide significant extension of life. The wide variation in onset and progression of the disease, both in sporadic and even in strongly penetrant monogenic familial forms of ALS, indicate that in addition to background genetic variation impacting the disease process, environmental exposures are likely contributors...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756560/in-silico-analysis-of-the-cyanobacterial-lectin-scytovirin-new-insights-into-binding-properties
#19
Andrei Santos Siqueira, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo Lima, Rafael Conceição de Souza, Alberdan Silva Santos, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves
Scytovirin is a lectin isolated from the cyanobacterium Scytonema varium that has shown activity against HIV, SARS coronavirus and Zaire Ebola virus. Its 95 amino acids are divided into two structural domains (SD), the first spanning amino acids 1-48 (SD1) and the second 49-95 (SD2). Interestingly, the domains are nearly identical but differ in their affinities for carbohydrates. With the aim of enhancing understanding of the binding properties of scytovirin, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of scytovirin complexed with Man4...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755717/a-method-for-examining-temporal-changes-in-cyanobacterial-harmful-algal-bloom-spatial-extent-using-satellite-remote-sensing
#20
Erin A Urquhart, Blake A Schaeffer, Richard P Stumpf, Keith A Loftin, P Jeremy Werdell
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
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