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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527102/studies-of-environmental-risk-factors-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-l-serine
#1
Walter G Bradley, R X Miller, T D Levine, E W Stommel, P A Cox
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to Guam ALS/PDC and shown to produce neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo (Drosophila, mice, rats, primates). BMAA misincorporation into neuroproteins produces protein misfolding and is inhibited by L-serine. Case-control studies in Northern New England indicate that living near to water-bodies with cyanobacterial blooms increases the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The distribution of addresses of ALS cases in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Florida was compared to that of controls...
May 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526121/rates-of-nitrogen-uptake-by-cyanobacterially-dominated-assemblages-in-lake-taihu-china-during-late-summer
#2
Jingjing Yang, Han Gao, Patricia M Glibert, Yu Wang, Mengmeng Tong
Lake Taihu has suffered an increasing number of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) over the past three decades, bringing about formidable ecological and economical losses. Efforts to control phosphate (P) and/or nitrogen (N) have been applied to mitigate these blooms, but there has been much less attention paid to N and its different forms on the ecology of the blooms. Therefore, kinetic and nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted to assess N uptake rates under differing conditions, and to examine effects of changes in N forms (NH4(+), NO3(-) and urea) and P availability on phytoplankton community physiology...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526117/the-efficiency-of-combined-coagulant-and-ballast-to-remove-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-a-tropical-shallow-system
#3
Marcela Miranda, Natália Noyma, Felipe S Pacheco, Leonardo de Magalhães, Ernani Pinto, Suzan Santos, Maria Fernanda A Soares, Vera L Huszar, Miquel Lürling, Marcelo M Marinho
We tested the hypothesis that a combination of coagulant and ballast could be efficient for removal of positively buoyant harmful cyanobacteria in shallow tropical waterbodies, and will not promote the release of cyanotoxins. This laboratory study examined the efficacy of coagulants [polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (made of shrimp shells)] alone, and combined with ballast (lanthanum modified bentonite, red soil or gravel) to remove the natural populations of cyanobacteria collected from a shallow eutrophic urban reservoir with alternating blooms of Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524869/characterising-and-predicting-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-an-8-year-amplicon-sequencing-time-course
#4
Nicolas Tromas, Nathalie Fortin, Larbi Bedrani, Yves Terrat, Pedro Cardoso, David Bird, Charles W Greer, B Jesse Shapiro
Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522865/lipoxygenase-2-from-cyanothece-sp-controls-dioxygen-insertion-by-steric-shielding-and-substrate-fixation
#5
Julia Newie, Piotr Neumann, Martin Werner, Ricardo A Mata, Ralf Ficner, Ivo Feussner
The biological function of lipoxygenases depends on the regio and stereo specific formation of fatty acid-derived hydroperoxides and different concepts exist to explain the mechanism that directs dioxygen to a specific carbon atom within the substrate. Here, we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a cyanobacterial lipoxygenase that produces bis-allylic hydroperoxides (CspLOX2). Site directed mutagenesis experiments combined with computational approaches reveal that residues around the active site direct dioxygen to a preferred carbon atom and stereo configuration in the substrate fatty acid...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521755/high-dietary-quality-of-non-toxic-cyanobacteria-for-a-benthic-grazer-and-its-implications-for-the-control-of-cyanobacterial-biofilms
#6
Sophie Groendahl, Patrick Fink
BACKGROUND: Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey...
May 18, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520412/identification-of-the-ferredoxin-binding-site-of-a-ferredoxin-dependent-cyanobacterial-nitrate-reductase
#7
Anurag P Srivastava, Emily P Hardy, James P Allen, Brian J Vaccaro, Michael K Johnson, David B Knaff
An in silico model for the 1:1 ferredoxin (Fd)/nitrate reductase (NR) complex, using the known structure of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Fd and the in silico model of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 NR, is used to map the interaction sites that define the interface between Fd and NR. To test the electrostatic interactions predicted by the model complex, five positively charged NR amino acids Arg43, Arg46, Arg197, Lys201 and Lys614; and a negatively charged amino acid, Glu219, were altered using site-directed mutagenesis and characterized by activity measurements, metal analysis and EPR studies...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515313/low-temperature-nullifies-the-circadian-clock-in-cyanobacteria-through-hopf-bifurcation
#8
Yoriko Murayama, Hiroshi Kori, Chiaki Oshima, Takao Kondo, Hideo Iwasaki, Hiroshi Ito
Cold temperatures lead to nullification of circadian rhythms in many organisms. Two typical scenarios explain the disappearance of rhythmicity: the first is oscillation death, which is the transition from self-sustained oscillation to damped oscillation that occurs at a critical temperature. The second scenario is oscillation arrest, in which oscillation terminates at a certain phase. In the field of nonlinear dynamics, these mechanisms are called the Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node on an invariant circle bifurcation, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513152/a-molecular-mechanism-for-non-photochemical-quenching-in-cyanobacteria
#9
Yue Lu, Haijun Liu, Rafael Saer, Veronica Lynn Li, Hao Zhang, Liuqing Shi, Carrie Goodson, Michael L Gross, Robert E Blankenship
The cyanobacterial Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) protects photosynthetic cyanobacteria from photodamage by dissipating excess excitation energy collected by phycobilisomes (PBS) as heat. Dissociation of the PBS-OCP complex in vivo is facilitated by another protein known as the Fluorescence Recovery Protein (FRP), which primarily exists as a dimeric complex. We used various mass spectrometry(MS)-based techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of this FRP-mediated process. FRP in the dimeric state (dFRP) retains its high affinity to the C-terminal domain (CTD) of OCP in the red state (OCP(r))...
May 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503830/synthetic-ocp-heterodimers-are-photoactive-and-recapitulate-the-fusion-of-two-primitive-carotenoproteins-in-the-evolution-of-cyanobacterial-photoprotection
#10
Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Matthew R Melnicki, Han Bao, Beronda L Montgomery, Cheryl A Kerfeld
The Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) governs photoprotection in the majority of cyanobacteria. It is structurally and functionally modular, comprised of a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD), an N-terminal effector domain (NTD) and a ketocarotenoid; the chromophore spans the two domains in the ground state and translocates fully into the NTD upon illumination. Using both the canonical OCP1 from Fremyella diplosiphon and the presumably more primitive OCP2 paralog from the same organism, we show that an NTD-CTD heterodimer forms when the domains are expressed as separate polypeptides...
May 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501176/liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometric-methods-for-the-surveillance-monitoring-of-cyanotoxins-in-freshwaters
#11
Sara Bogialli, Claudio Bortolini, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Federica Nigro Di Gregorio, Luca Lucentini, Gabriella Favaro, Paolo Pastore
A comprehensive risk management on human exposure to cyanotoxins, whose production is actually unpredictable, is limited by reliable analytical tools for monitoring as many toxic algal metabolites as possible. Two analytical approaches based on a LC-QTOF system for target analysis and suspect screening of cyanotoxins in freshwater were presented. A database with 369 compounds belonging to cyanobacterial metabolites was developed and used for a retrospective data analysis based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500903/microcystin-lr-bioconcentration-induces-antioxidant-responses-in-the-digestive-gland-of-two-marine-bivalves-crassostrea-gigas-and-mytilus-edulis
#12
Young Dae Kim, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Shin, Do-Hee Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Jang Kyun Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of potent cyanobacterial toxins found in freshwater and even brackish waterbodies. To understand the putative correlation between bioconcentration of MCs and antioxidant responses of the digestive gland of bivalves, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20μgL(-1)) of MC-Leucine-Arginine (LR) for seven days. MC-LR bioconcentrated in the digestive glands of both bivalves during exposure period...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500716/functional-expression-of-gloeobacter-rhodopsin-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc6803
#13
Que Chen, Jos Arents, Srividya Ganapathy, Willem J de Grip, Klaas J Hellingwerf
Proteorhodopsins are light-driven proton pumps that occur widespread in Nature, where they function predominantly in environments with high incident irradiance. Their maximal absorbance is usually in the blue range, but can be extended into the (far)red range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because they can be expressed heterologously, they may be exploited in studies aimed at increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis. Here we report further studies toward this goal, by comparing the expression of two different bacterial rhodopsins (Proteorhodopsin and Gloeobacter rhodopsin) in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500327/metazoan-ribosome-inactivating-protein-encoding-genes-acquired-by-horizontal-gene-transfer
#14
Walter J Lapadula, Paula L Marcet, María L Mascotti, M Virginia Sanchez-Puerta, Maximiliano Juri Ayub
Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are RNA N-glycosidases that depurinate a specific adenine residue in the conserved sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. These enzymes are widely distributed among plants and their presence has also been confirmed in several bacterial species. Recently, we reported for the first time in silico evidence of RIP encoding genes in metazoans, in two closely related species of insects: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Here, we have experimentally confirmed the presence of these genes in mosquitoes and attempted to unveil their evolutionary history...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500030/translating-divergent-environmental-stresses-into-a-common-proteome-response-through-hik33-in-a-model-cyanobacterium
#15
Haitao Ge, Longfa Fang, Xiahe Huang, Jinlong Wang, Weiyang Chen, Ye Liu, Yuanya Zhang, Xiaorong Wang, Wu Xu, Qingfang He, Yingchun Wang
The histidine kinase Hik33 plays important roles in mediating cyanobacterial response to divergent types of abiotic stresses including cold, salt, high light (HL), and osmotic stresses. However, how these functions are regulated by Hik33 remains to be addressed. Using a hik33-deficient strain (Δhik33) of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and quantitative proteomics, we found that Hik33 depletion induces differential protein expression highly similar to that induced by divergent types of stresses. This typically includes downregulation of proteins in photosynthesis and carbon assimilation that are necessary for cell propagation, and upregulation of heat shock proteins, chaperons, and proteases that are important for cell survival...
May 12, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498848/modulation-of-the-growth-and-metabolic-response-of-cyanobacteria-by-the-multifaceted-activity-of-naringenin
#16
Beata Żyszka, Mirosław Anioł, Jacek Lipok
The interactions between the plant-derived bioflavonoid, naringenin, and prokaryotic microalgae representatives (cyanobacteria), were investigated with respect to its influence on the growth and metabolic response of these microorganisms. To achieve reliable results, the growth of cyanobacteria was determined based on measurements of chlorophyll content, morphological changes were assessed through microscopic observations, and the chemical response of cells was determined using liquid and gas chromatography (HPLC; GC-FID)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494422/cyanobacteria-blooms-before-and-during-the-restoration-process-of-a-shallow-urban-lake
#17
Joanna Rosińska, Anna Kozak, Renata Dondajewska, Ryszard Gołdyn
Swarzędzkie Lake (near Poznań) has been heavily polluted. To improve the water quality, the restoration of lake by three methods: aeration, phosphorus inactivation using small doses of iron sulphate and magnesium chloride (FeSO4 and MgCl2) and biomanipulation was initiated at the end of 2011. The aim of the present study was to determine whether sustainable restoration has a significant impact on phytoplankton, especially cyanobacterial blooms in a shallow, urban, degraded lake. Therefore, phytoplankton and the physico-chemical parameters of water at the summer thermal stratification and autumn water mixing before (2011) and during restoration (2012-2014) was studied...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494149/comparison-of-three-anti-hapten-vhh-selection-strategies-for-the-development-of-highly-sensitive-immunoassays-for-microcystins
#18
Macarena Pírez-Schirmer, Martin A Rossotti, Natalia Badagian, Carmen Leizagoyen, Beatriz Margarita Brena, Gualberto G Gonzalez-Sapienza
Owing to their reproducibility, stability and cost-effective production, the recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) are becoming a salient option as immunoassay reagents. Recently, there have been several reports describing their application to the detection of small molecules (haptens). However, lacking the heavy-light chain interface of conventional antibodies, VHHs are not particularly apt to bind small analytes and failures are not uncommon. Here we describe the construction of a VHH phage display library against the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin LR, and its selection using competitive panning and two novel panning strategies...
May 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493476/first-report-on-free-and-covalently-bound-microcystins-in-fish-and-bivalves-from-vietnam-assessment-of-risks-to-humans
#19
Thanh-Luu Pham, Kazuya Shimizu, Thanh-Son Dao, Utsumi Motoo
The free and covalently bound microcystins (MCs) in three fish and two bivalves from the Dau Tieng Reservoir (DTR) were investigated for the first time in the present study. The results showed that all species were contaminated with MCs. Our findings indicated that eating the muscle of fish from the DTR is safe but not the bivalves during toxic cyanobacterial bloom episodes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492366/digitizing-mass-spectrometry-data-to-explore-the-chemical-diversity-and-distribution-of-marine-cyanobacteria-and-algae
#20
Tal Luzzatto Knaan, Neha Garg, Mingxun Wang, Evgenia Glukhov, Yao Peng, Gail Ackermann, Amnon Amir, Brendan M Duggan, Sergey Ryazanov, Lena Gerwick, Rob Knight, Theodore Alexandrov, Nuno Bandeira, William H Gerwick, Pieter C Dorrestein
Natural product screening programs have uncovered molecules from diverse natural sources with various biological activities and unique structures. However, much is yet underexplored and additional information is hidden in these exceptional collections. We applied untargeted mass spectrometry approaches to capture the chemical space and dispersal patterns of metabolites from an in-house library of marine cyanobacterial and algal collections. Remarkably, 86% of the metabolomics signals detected were not found in other available datasets of similar nature, supporting the hypothesis that marine cyanobacteria and algae possess distinctive metabolomes...
May 11, 2017: ELife
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