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Olfa Dziri, Raoudha Dziri, Abderrahmen Maraoub, Chedly Chouchani
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae present a real problem worldwide. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics among Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from a Hospital in the southeast of Tunisia. Eighteen cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae were recovered between April 2015 and August 2016. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance encoding genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Results revealed several types of Ambler class A β-lactamase encoding genes among our isolates: [blaCTXM-15 (15), blaSHV-28 (6), blaSHV-1 (2), blaSHV-148 (1), blaSHV-61 (1), blaSHV-76 (1), blaSHV-186 (1), blaTEM-1 (8)]...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Angelo Falconí Sarmiento, Monthy Nolasco Mejia, Alonzo Bedoya Rozas, Catherine Amaro Giraldo, Germán Málaga
A cross-sectional study was conducted aimed at determining the frequency and the risk factors for bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients hospitalized in a public hospital in Lima. The study included patients over 14 years of age, with positive blood cultures during their hospitalization in Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in 2016. Patients were classified according to the isolated bacterium (ESBL-producing or not). Bacteremia was caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacea in 50...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
S Montaña, M Hernandez, J S Fernandez, M Pennini, D Centrón, A Sucari, A Iriarte, M S Ramírez
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen with a high capacity for nosocomial spread. We described the occurrence of plasmid-encoded KPC-2-harbouring K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from a neurosurgical centre in Argentina. The bla KPC-2 gene was surrounded by IS kpn6 and IS kpn7 .
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Annegret Lucke, Josef Böhm, Qendrim Zebeli, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) impairs the intestinal functions and performance in broiler chickens, whereas little is known about the effect of DON on the gastrointestinal microbiota. This study evaluated the impact of graded levels of dietary DON contamination on the cecal bacterial microbiota, their predicted metabolic abilities and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles in chickens. In using a single oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge we further assessed whether an additional intestinal stressor would potentiate DON-related effects on the cecal microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrzej Tkacz, Marion Hortala, Philip S Poole
BACKGROUND: Microbial communities (microbiota) influence human and animal disease and immunity, geochemical nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Specific groups, including bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or fungi, are amplified by PCR to assess the relative abundance of sub-groups (e.g. genera). However, neither the absolute abundance of sub-groups is revealed, nor can different amplicon families (i.e. OTUs derived from a specific pair of PCR primers such as bacterial 16S, eukaryotic 18S or fungi ITS) be compared...
June 19, 2018: Microbiome
Aspen T Reese, Eugenia H Cho, Bruce Klitzman, Scott P Nichols, Natalie A Wisniewski, Max M Villa, Heather K Durand, Sharon Jiang, Firas S Midani, Sai N Nimmagadda, Thomas M O'Connell, Justin P Wright, Marc A Deshusses, Lawrence A David
How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox potential is an important environmental feature affected by both host and microbial actions. We assessed how antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function, change redox state and how this contributes to post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut microbiota model...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Amit K Kishore, Andy Vail, Adam R Jeans, Angel Chamorro, Mario Di Napoli, Lalit Kalra, Peter Langhorne, Christine Roffe, Willeke Westendorp, Paul J Nederkoorn, Javier Garau, Diederik van de Beek, Joan Montaner, Mark Woodhead, Andreas Meisel, Craig J Smith
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying the causal pathogens of pneumonia complicating stroke is challenging, and antibiotics used are often broad spectrum, without recourse to the microbiological cause. We aimed to review existing literature to identify organisms responsible for pneumonia complicating stroke, before developing a consensus-based approach to antibiotic treatment. METHODS: A systematic literature review of multiple electronic databases using predefined search criteria was undertaken, in accordance with Cochrane and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidance...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Anna Vickers, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Michel Doumith, David M Livermore
Pyrrolocytosines RX-04A-D are designed to bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit differently from currently-used antibiotics. The four analogs had broad anti-Gram-negative activity: RX-04A inhibited 94.7% of clinical Enterobacteriaceae , Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5-4 μg/ml, with no MICs >8 μg/ml. MICs for multi-resistant carbapenemase producers were up to two-fold higher than for control strains, with values ≥8 μg/ml for one Serratia isolate with porin and efflux lesions...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sean M Stainton, Kamilia Abdelraouf, Luke Utley, Michael J Pucci, Troy Lister, David P Nicolau
SPR741 is a novel agent with structural similarity to polymyxins, capable of potentiating the activity of various classes of antibiotics. Previously published studies indicated that although Enterobacteriacae isolates had minimal susceptibilities to azithromycin (AZM), the in vitro antimicrobial activity of AZM against Enterobacteriacae was enhanced when combined with SPR741. The current study evaluated the in vivo activity of human-simulated regimens (HSR) of AZM equivalent to clinical doses of 500 mg IV q24h and SPR741 400 mg q8h IV (1h infusion) alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriacae...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Eun-Jeong Joo, Sun Ju Kim, MiSuk Baek, Yujin Choi, Jungyu Seo, Joon-Sup Yeom, Kwan Soo Ko
The spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceaein the community is one of the main challenges for antibiotic treatment of community-onset infections. We evaluated the microbiological and molecular characteristics of stool samples from adults with comprehensive health examinations. Of 109 fecal samples, bacterial growth was observed in 86 samples and 61 Gram-negative bacterial isolates were identified, of which 45 were Escherichia coli isolates (73.8%). Two isolates of Raoultella showed imipenem resistance, and both, E...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gregory G Stone, Paul Newell, Leanne B Gasink, Helen Broadhurst, Angela Wardman, Katrina Yates, Zhangjing Chen, Jie Song, Joseph W Chow
Objectives: This analysis evaluated the clinical activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates pooled from the adult Phase III clinical trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: Baseline isolates from five Phase III randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime/avibactam versus predominantly carbapenem comparators in patients with cIAI (RECLAIM 1 and 2; NCT01499290 and RECLAIM 3; NCT01726023), cUTI (RECAPTURE 1 and 2; NCT01595438 and NCT01599806), NP including VAP (REPROVE; NCT01808092) and cIAI or cUTI caused by ceftazidime-non-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (REPRISE; NCT01644643) were tested for MDR status and susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and carbapenem-based comparators using CLSI broth microdilution methodology...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Víctor Silva, Alicia Marcoleta, Viviana Silva, Dángelo Flores, Teresa Aparicio, Isabel Aburto, Cecilia Latrach, Naldy Febré
BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. AIM: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. METHODS: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
José García, Dianny Martínez, Luisa Caña, Diorelis González, Lucy Rodríguez, Hectorina Rodulfo, Marcos De Donato, Militza Guzmán
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. AIM: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Bao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Shu-Wei Wan, Jun-Jie Hao, Rui-De Jiang, Feng-Jing Song
Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer's markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zishuo Cheng, Pei W Thomas, Lincheng Ju, Alexander Bergstrom, Kelly Mason, Delaney Clayton, Callie Miller, Christopher R Bethel, Jamie VanPelt, David L Tierney, Richard C Page, Robert A Bonomo, Walter Fast, Michael W Crowder
Infections by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are difficult to manage owing to broad antibiotic resistance profiles and because of the inability of clinically-used β-lactamase inhibitors to counter the activity of metallo-β-lactamases often harbored by these pathogens. Of particular importance is New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), which requires a dinuclear zinc ion cluster for catalytic activity. Here, we compare the structures and functions of clinical NDM variants 1-17. The impact of NDM variants on structure is probed by comparing comparing melting temperature and refolding efficiency and also by spectroscopy (UV-Vis, 1 H-NMR, and EPR) of di-cobalt metalloforms...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alexander A Alles, Martin Wiedmann, Nicole H Martin
Microbial spoilage of pasteurized fluid milk is typically due to either (1) postpasteurization contamination (PPC) with psychrotolerant gram-negative bacteria (predominantly Pseudomonas) or (2) growth of psychrotolerant sporeformers (e.g., Paenibacillus) that have the ability to survive pasteurization when present as spores in raw milk, and to subsequently grow at refrigeration temperatures. While fluid milk quality has improved over the last several decades, continued reduction of PPC is hampered by the lack of rapid, sensitive, and specific methods that allow for detection of PPC in fluid milk, with fluid milk processors still often using time-consuming methods (e...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jinxin Zeng, Changwei Lei, Yulong Wang, Yanpeng Chen, Xiuzhong Zhang, Zhuangzhuang Kang, Xiwen Zhai, Xiaolan Ye, Hongning Wang
The aim of this study was to explore the distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in internal organs and variation of cecum microbiota in newly hatched chicken after oral challenge during a 21-day period. The quantities of S. enteritidis DNA in different internal organs (heart, liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, blood and cecum contents) were determined by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). The result showed that all of the above-mentioned samples were positive at 12 h post inoculation (PI) after oral challenge...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Michael A Noble, Robert Rennie
BACKGROUND: Reporting on the presence of antimicrobial resistance is of considerable concern both for individual patient care and for understanding the underlying health status within the community at large. Antimicrobial resistance is solely dependent upon clinical laboratory detection and thus can be impacted upon by the quality and competence of medical laboratories. Proficiency testing or external quality assessment (PT/EQA) is the international standard for the direct measurement of medical laboratory performance on critical testing...
June 15, 2018: Diagnosis
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