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Enterobacteriacea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922089/elderly-patients-have-an-altered-gut-brain-axis-regardless-of-the-presence-of-cirrhosis
#1
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Joel L Steinberg, Sarah Hobgood, Peter A Boling, Michael Godschalk, Saima Habib, Melanie B White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Dinesh Ganapathy, Phillip B Hylemon, Karen E Stewart, Raffi Keradman, Eric J Liu, Jessica Wang, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, F Gerard Moeller, James B Wade
Cognitive difficulties manifested by the growing elderly population with cirrhosis could be amnestic (memory-related) or non-amnestic (memory-unrelated). The underlying neuro-biological and gut-brain changes are unclear in this population. We aimed to define gut-brain axis alterations in elderly cirrhotics compared to non-cirrhotic individuals based on presence of cirrhosis and on neuropsychological performance. Age-matched outpatients with/without cirrhosis underwent cognitive testing (amnestic/non-amnestic domains), quality of life (HRQOL), multi-modal MRI (fMRI go/no-go task, volumetry and MR spectroscopy), blood (inflammatory cytokines) and stool collection (for microbiota)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921337/extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistance-among-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-in-west-norway-during-2006-2013-a-prospective-surveillance-study
#2
Haima Mylvaganam, Helge Kolstad, Rebecca Irene Breistein, Grete Lind, Dag Harald Skutlaberg
Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0...
December 6, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919898/a-prolonged-outbreak-of-kpc-3-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-driven-by-multiple-mechanisms-of-resistance-transmission-at-a-large-academic-burn-center
#3
Hajime Kanamori, Christian M Parobek, Jonathan J Juliano, David van Duin, Bruce A Cairns, David J Weber, William A Rutala
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter cloacae have been recently recognized in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become a useful tool for analysis of outbreaks and for determining transmission networks of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We experienced a prolonged outbreak of CRE of E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae over a three-year period at a large academic burn center despite rigorous infection control measures...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919894/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-from-the-environment-of-a-swine-farrow-to-finish-operation-in-the-united-states
#4
Dixie F Mollenkopf, Jason W Stull, Dimitria A Mathys, Andrew S Bowman, Sydnee M Feicht, Susan V Grooters, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to public health. While carbapenem antimicrobials are restricted in food-producing animals, other β-lactams, such as ceftiofur, are used in livestock. This use may provide selection pressure favoring the amplification of carbapenem resistance but this relationship has not been established. Previously unreported from US livestock, plasmid-mediated CREs have been reported from livestock in Europe and Asia.Environmental and fecal samples were collected from a 1,500 sow, US farrow-to-finish operation during 4 visits over a 5 month period, 2015...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919893/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-swine-production-in-the-united-states-impact-and-opportunities
#5
Timothy J Johnson
The discovery of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in U.S. swine production is troubling, and underscores a tumultuous period where the outlook on the battle against superbugs is bleak. However, all is not lost. This commentary highlights both the good and the bad that can come from such findings.
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919513/-rapid-test-for-detection-of-susceptibility-to-cefotaxime-in-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Gemma Jiménez-Guerra, Yannik Hoyos-Mallecot, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL...
December 2, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917926/clonal-spread-of-mcr-1-in-pmqr-carrying-st34-salmonella-isolates-from-animals-in-china
#7
Xing-Ping Li, Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Qi Song, Jing Xia, Wei Huo, Jin-Tao Fang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Youjun Feng, Jian Sun
Since initial identification in China, the widespread geographical occurrence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae has been of great concern. In this study, a total of 22 Salmonella enterica were resistant to colistin, while only five isolates which belonged to ST34 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) were mcr-1 positive. Four of them shared nearly identical PFGE type, although they were from different host species and diverse geographical locations. All the mcr-1-positive S...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917725/a-silent-epidemic-of-colistin-and-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-at-a-turkish-university-hospital
#8
Gökhan Metan, Ahmet Ilbay, Ozgen Koseoglu Eser, Serhat Unal, Pinar Zarakolu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916622/a-novel-group-of-incq1-plasmids-conferring-multidrug-resistance
#9
M Oliva, R Monno, P D'Addabbo, G Pesole, A M Dionisi, M Scrascia, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, I Luzzi, C Calia, A M D'Erchia, C Pazzani
The IncQ is a group of non-conjugative but mobilisable plasmids that are stably maintained and found in a wide range of bacteria, contributing to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and to the insurgence of multidrug resistant bacteria. Here we report the identification, in clinical Salmonella Typhimurium strains, of an IncQ1 plasmid (pNUC) conferring resistance to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline encoded by sul2, strAB and tetA, respectively. pNUC was detected in five multidrug resistant S...
December 1, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#10
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916545/chromagar-msupercarba-performance-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-characterized-at-molecular-level-and-routine-surveillance-rectal-swab-specimens
#11
Sergio García-Fernández, Marta Hernández-García, Aránzazu Valverde, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, María Isabel Morosini, Rafael Cantón
Performance of the CHROMagar mSuperCARBA media was assessed in both well-characterized carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (n=52) and routine surveillance rectal swab specimens (n=211). Limit of detection ranged between 10(1) and 10(2)CFU/mL except for OXA-48 producers with low-carbapenem MICs (10(6)CFU/mL). High sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) were obtained with rectal swabs.
November 25, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915487/the-epidemiology-of-carbapenemases-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#12
Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Sergio Reyes, Sergio Gutiérrez, María V Villegas
Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp. infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially due to the emergence and spread of β-lactamases. Carbapenemases, which are β-lactamases with the capacity to hydrolyze or inactivate carbapenems, have become a serious concern as they have the largest hydrolytic spectrum and therefore limit the utility of most β-lactams, including the carbapenems. Areas covered: Here, we present an update of the current status of carbapenemases in Latin America and the Caribbean...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#13
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910908/larval-diet-affects-mosquito-development-and-permissiveness-to-plasmodium-infection
#14
Inbar Linenberg, George K Christophides, Mathilde Gendrin
The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904427/prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-enterobacteriaceae-on-hands-of-workers-in-halal-cattle-abattoirs-in-peninsular-malaysia
#15
Bahri Mohd Tamrin Shamsul, Muhammad Tukur Adamu, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa, Siti Khairani-Bejo
BACKGROUND: Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903600/improved-accuracy-of-cefepime-susceptibility-testing-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-an-on-demand-digital-dispensing-method
#16
Kenneth P Smith, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Susan Weir, James E Kirby
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae generally cannot be treated with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, some later generation cephalosporins, including cefepime, are poorly hydrolyzed by specific ESBL enzymes, and certain strains demonstrate in vitro susceptibility to these agents, potentially affording additional treatment opportunities. Moreover, the ability to adjust both dose and dosing interval of β-lactam agents allows treatment of strains with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) formerly classified in the intermediate range...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903420/microbiology-of-processed-edible-insect-products-results-of-a-preliminary-survey
#17
Nils Th Grabowski, Günter Klein
Little is known of the microbiology of processed insect products. The present survey analysed a total of n=38 samples of deep-fried and spiced (Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, and Omphisa fuscidentalis), cooked in soy sauce ("tsukudani"; Oxya yezoensis, Vespula flaviceps, and Bombyx mori), dried (A. domesticus, L. migatoria, Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, B. mori, Hermetia illucens, and Musca domestica), powdered (H. illucens, T. molitor) and other (incl. deep-frozen B. mori and honeybee pollen) insect products microbiologically (total bacterial count [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, and yeasts and moulds counts, salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902381/detection-of-escherichia-coli-st131-complex-st705-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-among-fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#18
Esther Rios, Maria Carmen López, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Esther Culebras, Juan Jose Picazo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6%) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6%) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates in both settings (community and hospital)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900686/shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing-analysis-of-soft-rot-enterobacteriaceae-in-polymicrobial-communities
#19
James Doonan, Sandra Denman, James E McDonald, Peter N Golyshin
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial communities in necrotic plant lesions allows insights of host-pathogen molecular interactions. Soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae are significant crop pathogens with a wide host range. Reconstructed polymicrobial community DNA from soft-rot affected crops provides details of species relative abundance and functional potential, enabling significant insights into their lifestyle. Here, we describe a workflow for DNA recovery, metagenomic shotgun sequencing and in particular, an in silico analysis of bacterial isolates from affected plant tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#20
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
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