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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719891/serum-interleukin-10-levels-correlate-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#1
Lucio D'Anna, Samir Abu-Rumeileh, Martina Fabris, Cinzia Pistis, Antonio Baldi, Nova Sanvilli, Francesco Curcio, Gian Luigi Gigli, Sebastiano D'Anna, Mariarosaria Valente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer disease (AD) inflammation becomes evident throughout the course of the disease. However, the association between inflammation, cognitive impairment, and cerebrospinal biomarkers (Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42/p-tau181 ratio) is poorly understood. METHODS: A large panel of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor) was analyzed using a multiplex immunoassay in 27 patients with a diagnosis of AD dementia and in 18 control subjects...
July 19, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#2
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719691/associations-of-weight-gain-from-early-to-middle-adulthood-with-major-health-outcomes-later-in-life
#3
Yan Zheng, JoAnn E Manson, Changzheng Yuan, Matthew H Liang, Francine Grodstein, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
Importance: Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control. Objective: To examine the association of weight gain from early to middle adulthood with health outcomes later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort analysis of US women from the Nurses' Health Study (1976-June 30, 2012) and US men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-January 31, 2012) who recalled weight during early adulthood (at age of 18 years in women; 21 years in men), and reported current weight during middle adulthood (at age of 55 years)...
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719509/the-relationship-between-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-and-altered-emotion-and-cognition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-of-mri-and-fmri-studies
#4
Sin Ki Ng, Donna M Urquhart, Paul B Fitzgerald, Flavia M Cicuttini, Sultana Monira Hussain, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major health issue, yet its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Studies have demonstrated the importance of emotion and cognition in chronic pain, however, the relevant brain physiology in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are unclear in CLBP populations. Therefore, this review aimed to identify MRI brain changes and examine their potential relationship with emotional and cognitive processes in CLBP. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted in 5 databases...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719298/cognitive-outcomes-and-psychiatric-symptoms-of-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria-cohort-description-and-baseline-results
#5
Rachel Brim, Sebastian Mboma, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Sam Kampondeni, Jed Magen, Terrie Taylor, John Langfitt
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common cause of death and disability among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior studies of neuropsychiatric morbidity have been limited by a cross-sectional design or a short duration of follow-up. Most have included subjects who may have presented with coma due to a disease process other than CM. No studies have assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term outcomes. The Cognitive Outcomes and Psychiatric symptoms of retinopathy-positive CM (COPS) cohort is the first large (N = 221) prospectively recruited cohort of stringently defined cases of CM and hospital-based, age-matched, non-CM controls in whom cognitive and psychiatric outcomes are assessed with standardized measures semi-annually for up to 5 years...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719226/learned-helplessness-and-sexual-risk-taking-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-african-american-females
#6
Laura Pittiglio
Research involving adolescent and young African American (AA) females has demonstrated that they face uncontrollable obstacles which can interfere with the negotiation of safer sexual behaviors. If these obstacles are perceived as uncontrollable, then these females may be at risk for the development of Learned Helplessness (LH). As the LH model predicts, if these obstacles are believed not to be in their control, it may lead to deficits in motivational or cognitive decision-making, deficits that could certainly influence their sexual risk taking behaviors...
July 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718864/-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-addressing-fear-of-progression-in-cancer-out-patients
#7
Bärbel Rudolph, Alexander Wünsch, Peter Herschbach, Andreas Dinkel
Fear of progression (FoP) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and its treatments. However, patients experiencing elevated, dysfunctional levels of FoP often feel severely distressed and are in need of treatment. We previously conducted a (partly-)randomized controlled study with cancer patients undergoing in-patient rehabilitation and showed that a brief, four-session cognitive-behavioral group therapy significantly reduced dysfunctional FoP. In this report, we describe the adaption of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for use with cancer out-patients...
June 29, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718753/aging-and-list-wide-modulations-of-strategy-execution-a-study-in-arithmetic
#8
Thomas Hinault, Patrick Lemaire
Background/Study Context: This study aimed at further our understanding of the cognitive processes involved during strategy execution, and how the processes involved change with age. More specifically, the main goal was to investigate whether poorer-strategy effects (i.e., poorer performance when a cued strategy is not the best) and sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects (i.e., decreased poorer-strategy effects on current problems following poorer-strategy problems compared with after better-strategy problems) are influenced by proportions of poorer-strategy problems...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718181/erythropoietin-for-cognitive-deficits-associated-with-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression-a-systematic-review
#9
Xian-Bin Li, Wei Zheng, Yu-Ping Ning, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Chuan-Yue Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang
Introduction The purpose of this study is to systematically review the efficacy and safety of adjunctive erythropoietin (EPO) in treating cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods Two evaluators independently and systematically searched and selected studies, extracted data, and conducted quality assessment. Results Four RCTs with 144 patients (71 in the EPO group and 73 in the placebo group) met the study entry criteria...
July 17, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717921/female-headed-households-associated-with-lower-childhood-stunting-across-culturally-diverse-regions-of-pakistan-results-from-a-cross-sectional-household-survey
#10
Hina Khalid, Erika G Martin
Objectives Early childhood stunting adversely influences long-term cognitive and health outcomes. There is limited evidence on whether female empowerment within households could reduce its prevalence. We investigated this relationship in Punjab, Pakistan, which has high stunting rates and a sizeable proportion of female-headed households, and whether this relationship differed across three provincial regions with diverse cultural attitudes towards the role of women in society. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we identified 13,412 children aged 1-4 from 8985 two-parent households in three culturally distinct regions in Punjab, Pakistan...
July 17, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717819/atrophic-degeneration-of-cerebellum-impairs-both-the-reactive-and-the-proactive-control-of-movement-in-the-stop-signal-paradigm
#11
Giusy Olivito, Emiliano Brunamonti, Silvia Clausi, Pierpaolo Pani, Francesca R Chiricozzi, Margherita Giamundo, Marco Molinari, Maria Leggio, Stefano Ferraina
The cognitive control of movement suppression, including performance monitoring, is one of the core properties of the executive system. A complex cortical and subcortical network involving cerebral cortex, thalamus, subthalamus, and basal ganglia has been regarded as the neural substrate of inhibition of programmed movements. Using the countermanding task, a suitable tool to explore behavioral components of movement suppression, the contribution of the cerebellum in the proactive control and monitoring of voluntary action has been recently described in patients affected by focal lesions involving in particular the cerebellar dentate nucleus...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717522/effect-of-hypoxic-injury-in-mood-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Fenglian Zhao, Junling Yang, Ranji Cui
Hypoxemia is a common complication of the diseases associated with the central nervous system, and neurons are highly sensitive to the availability of oxygen. Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing, memory, and cognitive ability. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been clearly elucidated. In recent years, several pieces of evidence have highlighted the effect of hypoxic injury on neuronal plasticity in the pathogenesis and treatment of mood disorder. Therefore, the present study reviewed the relevant articles regarding hypoxic injury and neuronal plasticity and discussed the pathological changes and physiological functions of neurons in hypoxemia in order to provide a translational perspective to the relevance of hypoxic injury and mood disorder...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#13
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#14
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716727/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-links-autism-and-toxic-metals-and-highlights-the-impact-of-country-development-status-higher-blood-and-erythrocyte-levels-for-mercury-and-lead-and-higher-hair-antimony-cadmium-lead-and-mercury
#15
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals...
July 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#16
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716532/multivariate-analyses-of-peripheral-blood-leukocyte-transcripts-distinguish-alzheimer-s-parkinson-s-control-and-those-at-risk-for-developing-alzheimer-s
#17
Elaine Delvaux, Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Nienwen Chow, Marwan Sabbagh, Richard J Caselli, Eric M Reiman, Frederick J Marshall, Paul D Coleman
The need for a reliable, simple, and inexpensive blood test for Alzheimer's disease (AD) suitable for use in a primary care setting is widely recognized. This has led to a large number of publications describing blood tests for AD, which have, for the most part, not been replicable. We have chosen to examine transcripts expressed by the cellular, leukocyte compartment of blood. We have used hypothesis-based cDNA arrays and quantitative PCR to quantify the expression of selected sets of genes followed by multivariate analyses in multiple independent samples...
June 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716165/frontal-assessment-battery-in-parkinson-s-disease-validity-and-morphological-correlates
#18
Ondrej Bezdicek, Filip Růžička, Adela Fendrych Mazancova, Jan Roth, Pavel Dušek, Karsten Mueller, Evžen Růžička, Robert Jech
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunction is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a lack of brief validated instruments for executive dysfunction in PD. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores to age and education, to verify the utility of FAB in the evaluation of executive dysfunction in PD and to differentiate between controls (n=41), PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC; n=41; Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3) and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n=32; Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716141/the-german-day-care-study-multicomponent-non-drug-therapy-for-people-with-cognitive-impairment-in-day-care-centres-supplemented-with-caregiver-counselling-detamaks-study-protocol-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Elisa-Marie Behrndt, Melanie Straubmeier, Hildegard Seidl, Stephanie Book, Elmar Graessel, Katharina Luttenberger
BACKGROUND: It is the wish of both people with cognitive impairment and their informal caregivers for the impaired person to live at home for as long as possible. This is also in line with economic arguments about health. The existing structure of day-care services for the elderly can be used to achieve this. Due to the current lack of empirical evidence in this field, most day-care centres do not offer a scientifically evaluated, structured intervention, but instead offer a mixture of individual activities whose efficacy has not yet been established...
July 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715880/effects-of-acute-high-intensity-resistance-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-oxygenation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Hyukki Chang, Kyungae Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Morimasa Kato
PURPOSE: Moderate-intensity exercise is known to be the best effective intensity to enhance cognitive function, including memory and learning. However, the effects of high-intensity exercise in comparison with moderate- intensity exercise on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise on cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy female college students volunteered to participate in this study...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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