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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166594/individual-differences-in-processing-emotional-images-after-reading-disgusting-and-neutral-sentences
#1
Alex Hartigan, Anne Richards
The present study examined the extent to which Event Related Potentials (ERPs) evoked by disgusting, threatening and neutral photographic images were influenced by disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity and attentional control following exposure to disgusting information. Emotional cognition was manipulated by instructing participants to remember either disgusting or neutral sentences; participants in both groups then viewed emotional images while ERPs were recorded. Disgust propensity was associated with a reduced Late Positive Potential (LPP) gap between threatening and neutral stimuli (an effect driven by a rise in the LPP for neutral images) but only amongst individuals who were exposed to disgusting sentences...
November 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166187/cognitive-behavioral-and-family-psychoeducational-therapies-for-adolescent-inmates-experiencing-anxiety-in-a-narcotics-correctional-facility
#2
Madepan Mulia, Budi Anna Keliat, Ice Yulia Wardani
Illicit substance use is becoming a major global issue. In Indonesia, inmates imprisoned for illicit substance offences accounted for 40% of the total inmate population. This study aimed to identify the effects of cognitive behavioral and family psychoeducational therapies on inmates' anxiety in the narcotics correctional facility. Quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test with control group was employed in this study. Intervention Group 1 received a general nursing intervention whereas Intervention Group 2 received a combination of general nursing intervention with cognitive behavioral and family psychoeducational therapies...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165784/interventions-for-managing-skeletal-muscle-spasticity-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Anneliese Synnot, Marisa Chau, Veronica Pitt, Denise O'Connor, Russell L Gruen, Jason Wasiak, Ornella Clavisi, Loyal Pattuwage, Kate Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165623/effects-of-pharmacologic-and-nonpharmacologic-interventions-on-insomnia-symptoms-and-subjective-sleep-quality-in-women-with-hot-flashes-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-from-4-msflash-trials
#4
Katherine A Guthrie, Joseph C Larson, Kristine E Ensrud, Garnet L Anderson, Janet S Carpenter, Ellen W Freeman, Hadine Joffe, Andrea Z LaCroix, JoAnn E Manson, Charles M Morin, Katherine M Newton, Julie Otte, Susan D Reed, Susan M McCurry
Study Objectives: The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network conducted three randomized clinical trials (RCT) testing six interventions treating vasomotor symptoms (VMS), and also collected self-reported sleep outcomes. A fourth RCT assessed an intervention for insomnia symptoms among women with VMS. We describe these seven interventions' effects relative to control in women with comparably severe insomnia symptoms and VMS. Methods: We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 546 peri- and postmenopausal women with Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) >12, and ≥14 bothersome VMS/week across the four RCTs...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165577/quantitative-mri-brain-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-cognitive-and-structural-impact-of-steroid-hormones
#5
Emma A Webb, Lucy Elliott, Dominic Carlin, Martin Wilson, Kirsty Hall, Jennifer Netherton, Julie Reed, Tim G Barrett, Vijay Salwani, Jon D Clayden, Wiebke Arlt, Nils Krone, Andrew C Peet, Amanda G Wood
Context: Brain white matter hyper-intensities are seen on routine clinical imaging in 46% of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The extent and functional relevance of these abnormalities have not been studied using quantitative MRI analysis. Objective: To examine white matter microstructure, neural volumes and CNS metabolites in CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to determine whether identified abnormalities are associated with cognition, glucocorticoid and androgen exposure...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165354/the-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-in-type-3-diabetes-glp-1-controls-insulin-resistance-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis-in-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Choon Sang Bae, Juhyun Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called "type 3 diabetes", based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165142/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-memory-in-adolescents
#7
Yong Kyun Jeon, Chang Ho Ha
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to serve as an important regulatory mechanism in the growth and development of neurons in many areas of the brain.Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is related to neurogenesis and regulation of the BDNF gene and is involved in the growth and differentiation of neurons.Cortisol is released in response to stimuli such as psychological oppression, anxiety, and fear. Stress also induces changes in BDNF. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the effects of varying intensities of aerobic exercise on resting serum BDNF, IGF-1 concentrations, cortisol, and memory of adolescents...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165104/simple-reaction-time-and-obesity-in-children-whether-there-is-a-relationship
#8
Akbar Moradi, Samad Esmaeilzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Reaction time (RT) testing is one of the oldest diagnostic methods used in modern psychology, and is known as simple and sensitive cognitive test. It has been recently reported that RT is related to obesity in young, adult and elderly individuals. However, most of the studies included small sample of participants, used just body mass index (BMI) as body obesity index, and did not consider some potential confounders such as age, socioeconomic status and physical activity in their studies...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165085/a-speech-recognition-based-solution-for-the-automatic-detection-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-spontaneous-speech
#9
Laszlo Toth, Ildiko Hoffmann, Gabor Gosztolya, Veronika Vincze, Greta Szatloczki, Zoltan Banreti, Magdolna Pakaski, Janos Kalman
BACKGROUND: Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165083/subjective-spatial-navigation-complaints-a-frequent-symptom-reported-by-patients-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Cerman Jiri, Andel Ross, Laczo Jan, Vyhnalek Martin, Nedelska Zuzana, Mokrisova Ivana, Sheardova Katerina, Hort Jakub
BACKGROUND: Great effort has been put into developing simple and feasible tools capable to detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its early clinical stage. Spatial navigation impairment occurs very early in AD and is detectable even in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the frequency of self-reported spatial navigation complaints in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), amnestic and non-amnestic MCI (aMCI, naMCI) and AD dementia and to assess whether a simple questionnaire based on these complaints may be used to detect early AD...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165082/easy-screening-for-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-elderly-speech
#11
Shohei Kato, Akira Homma, Takuto Sakuma
OBJECTIVE: This study presents a novel approach for early detection of cognitive impairment in the elderly. The approach incorporates the use of speech sound analysis, multivariate statistics, and data-mining techniques. We have developed a speech prosody-based cognitive impairment rating (SPCIR) that can distinguish between cognitively normal controls and elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using prosodic signals extracted from elderly speech while administering a questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165011/motor-imagery-of-walking-and-walking-while-talking-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol-for-older-adults
#12
Helena M Blumen, Joe Verghese
Over a third of community-residing elderly have clinical gait abnormalities, and gait impairment is associated with morbidity, mortality and dementia. Motor imagery - envisioning motor actions without actual execution - has been used to improve gait in Parkinson's disease and poststroke, but the efficacy of motor imagery in healthy elderly is unknown. This single-blind pilot randomized-controlled trial aims to establish feasibility and explore the efficacy of a 3-month, telephone-based motor imagery intervention - that involves imagined walking, imagined talking and imagined walking while talking for improving gait in 48 healthy elderly...
November 22, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164970/a-feasibility-study-of-trauma-sensitive-obstetric-care-for-low-income-ethno-racial-minority-pregnant-abuse-survivors
#13
N R Stevens, T A Lillis, L Wagner, V Tirone, S E Hobfoll
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated (psychological and obstetric) intervention for pregnant abuse survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) from low-income, ethno-racial minority backgrounds. METHODS: Trauma-sensitive obstetrics to promote control, anxiety-reduction and empowerment (TO-CARE) offers cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) coping skills delivered over six sessions by therapists, coupled with trauma-sensitive obstetric care from specially-trained obstetric physicians...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164774/task-related-changes-in-degree-centrality-and-local-coherence-of-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-after-major-cardiac-surgery-in-older-adults
#14
Jeffrey N Browndyke, Miles Berger, Patrick J Smith, Todd B Harshbarger, Zachary A Monge, Viral Panchal, Tiffany L Bisanar, Donald D Glower, John H Alexander, Roberto Cabeza, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Mark F Newman, Joseph P Mathew
OBJECTIVES: Older adults often display postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) after surgery, yet it is unclear to what extent functional connectivity (FC) alterations may underlie these deficits. We examined for postoperative voxel-wise FC changes in response to increased working memory load demands in cardiac surgery patients and nonsurgical controls. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Older cardiac surgery patients (n = 25) completed a verbal N-back working memory task during MRI scanning and cognitive testing before and 6 weeks after surgery; nonsurgical controls with cardiac disease (n = 26) underwent these assessments at identical time intervals...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164609/who-benefits-from-adolescent-sleep-interventions-moderators-of-treatment-efficacy-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-and-mindfulness-based-group-sleep-intervention-for-at-risk-adolescents
#15
Matthew J Blake, Laura M Blake, Orli Schwartz, Monika Raniti, Joanna M Waloszek, Greg Murray, Julian G Simmons, Elizabeth Landau, Ronald E Dahl, Dana L McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test moderators of therapeutic improvement in an adolescent cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention. Specifically, we examined whether the effects of the program on postintervention sleep outcomes were dependent on participant gender and/or measures of sleep duration, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy prior to the interventions. METHOD: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 59...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164561/study-of-prevalence-and-influencing-factors-of-depression-in-tumor-patients-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-fluoxetine
#16
J Dai, N Liao, J Shi, J-Q Tao
OBJECTIVE: To observe the depression in patients with malignant tumor and influencing factors of the disease, as well as to investigate the effects of fluoxetine on depressive symptoms in cancer patients and the immune function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 262 patients with malignant tumors, confirmed by pathological and radiological diagnosis as malignant tumor were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group with chemotherapy; the treatment group with chemotherapy and 20 mg/d fluoxetine for six weeks...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164499/cognitive-disparities-the-impact-of-the-great-depression-and-cumulative-inequality-on-later-life-cognitive-function
#18
Jo Mhairi Hale
Population aging has driven a spate of recent research on later-life cognitive function. Greater longevity increases the lifetime risk of memory diseases that compromise the cognitive abilities vital to well-being. Alzheimer's disease, thought to be the most common underlying pathology for elders' cognitive dysfunction (Willis and Hakim 2013), is already the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer's Association 2016). Understanding social determinants of pathological cognitive decline is key to crafting interventions, but evidence is inconclusive for how social factors interact over the life course to affect cognitive function...
November 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164332/individual-trajectories-of-cognitive-performance-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#19
A M Sánchez-Torres, L Moreno-Izco, R Lorente-Omeñaca, B Cabrera, A Lobo, A M González-Pinto, J Merchán-Naranjo, I Corripio, E Vieta, E de la Serna, A Butjosa, F Contreras, S Sarró, G Mezquida, M Ribeiro, M Bernardo, M J Cuesta
Individual changes over time in cognition in patients with psychotic disorders have been studied very little, especially in the case of first episode psychosis (FEP). We aimed to establish whether change in individual trajectories in cognition over 2 years of a sample of 159 FEP patients was reliable and clinically significant, using the reliable change index (RCI) and clinically significant change (CSC) methods. We also studied a sample of 151 matched healthy controls. Patients and controls were assessed with a set of neuropsychological tests, as well as premorbid, clinical and functionality measures...
November 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164286/effect-of-a-cognitive-task-and-light-finger-touch-on-standing-balance-in-healthy-adults
#20
Yunju Lee, Nikita Goyal, Alexander S Aruin
The purpose of the study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of applying light finger touch and performing a cognitive task on postural sway. Fourteen healthy young individuals stood on the force platform with light finger touch contact applied to an external stable structure and without finger touch. Both tasks were performed with and without a cognitive task (counting backward from a randomly chosen three-digit number). The center of pressure excursion and velocity as well as sway area were calculated...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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