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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775858/when-is-the-right-hemisphere-holistic-and-when-is-it-not-the-case-of-chinese-character-recognition
#1
Harry K S Chung, Jacklyn C Y Leung, Vienne M Y Wong, Janet H Hsiao
Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively...
May 15, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774809/robotic-partial-nephrectomy-for-a-peripheral-renal-tumor
#2
Caleb A Cooper, Cheuk Fan Shum, Chandru P Sundaram
Partial nephrectomy (PN) is the preferred surgical treatment for T1 renal tumors whenever technically feasible. When properly performed, it allows preservation of nephron mass without compromising oncologic outcomes. This reduces the postoperative risk of renal insufficiency, which translates into better overall survival for the patients. PN can be technically challenging, because it requires the surgeon to complete the tasks of tumor excision, hemostasis and renorrhaphy, all within an ischemic time of preferably below 30 minutes...
May 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772220/cue-awareness-in-avoiding-effortful-control
#3
Timothy L Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F Risko
Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lines of action that, unbeknownst to individuals, varied in the probability of a task switch...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764611/regenerative-braking-failures-in-battery-electric-vehicles-and-their-impact-on-the-driver
#4
Peter Cocron, Isabel Neumann, Maria Kreußlein, Daniel Wanner, Maxim Bierbach, Josef F Krems
A unique feature of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is their regenerative braking system (RBS) to recapture kinetic energy in deceleration maneuvers. If such a system is triggered via gas pedal, most deceleration maneuvers can be executed by just using this pedal. This impacts the driving task as different deceleration strategies can be applied. Previous research has indicated that a RBS failure leading to a sudden reduced deceleration represents an adverse event for BEV drivers. In the present study, we investigated such a failure's impact on the driver's evaluation and behavior...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757113/performance-effects-of-reward-related-feedback-on-the-dimensional-change-card-sort-task
#5
Amanda R Tarullo, Srishti Nayak, Ashley M St John, Stacey N Doan
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is one of the most widely used measures of preschool executive function, yet relatively little is known about how altering emotional demands of the task affects DCCS performance. This study examined the effects of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback on preschool children's performance on the DCCS in a sample of 105 children aged 3.5-4.5 years. In a within-subjects design, children completed the standard DCCS and a modified version of the DCCS in which sticker rewards were gained or lost after each trial...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753480/characterizing-social-behavior-activity-and-associations-between-cognition-and-behavior-upon-social-grouping-of-weaned-dairy-calves
#6
K C Horvath, E K Miller-Cushon
Weaned dairy calves are commonly exposed to changing physical and social environments, and ability to adapt to novel management is likely to have performance and welfare implications. We characterized how behavioral responses of weaned heifer calves develop over time after introduction to a social group. Previously individually reared Holstein heifer calves (n = 15; 60 ± 5 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) were introduced in weekly cohorts (5 ± 3 new calves/wk) to an existing group on pasture (8 ± 2 calves/group)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753108/response-of-the-multiple-demand-network-during-simple-stimulus-discriminations
#7
Tanya Wen, Daniel J Mitchell, John Duncan
The multiple-demand (MD) network is sensitive to many aspects of task difficulty, including such factors as rule complexity, memory load, attentional switching and inhibition. Many accounts link MD activity to top-down task control, raising the question of response when performance is limited by the quality of sensory input, and indeed, some prior results suggest little effect of sensory manipulations. Here we examined judgments of motion direction, manipulating difficulty by either motion coherence or salience of irrelevant dots...
May 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750987/the-opportunity-cost-of-time-modulates-cognitive-effort
#8
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750501/a-synthetic-toolkit-for-complex-genetic-circuit-engineering-in-s-cerevisiae
#9
Anssi Rantasalo, Joosu Kuivanen, Merja Penttilä, Jussi Jäntti, Dominik Mojzita
Sustainable production of chemicals, materials and pharmaceuticals is increasingly performed by genetically engineered cell factories. Engineering of complex metabolic routes or cell behaviour control systems requires robust and predictable gene expression tools. In this challenging task, orthogonality is a fundamental prerequisite for such tools. In this study, we developed and characterized in depth a comprehensive gene expression toolkit that allows accurate control of gene expression in S. cerevisiae without marked interference with native cellular regulation...
May 11, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747672/two-ways-to-improve-myoelectric-control-for-a-transhumeral-amputee-after-targeted-muscle-reinnervation-a-case-study
#10
Yang Xu, Dingguo Zhang, Yang Wang, Juntao Feng, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: Myoelectric control of multifunctional prostheses is challenging for individuals with high-level amputations due to insufficient surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. A surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) has achieved impressive improvements in myoelectric control by providing more sEMG control signals. In this case, some channels of sEMG signals are coupled after TMR, which limits the performance of conventional amplitude-based control for upper-limb prostheses...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740303/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-alpha-oscillations-stabilize-perception-of-ambiguous-visual-stimuli
#11
Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Arthur-Ervin Avramiea, Mona Irrmischer, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Ongoing brain dynamics have been proposed as a type of "neuronal noise" that can trigger perceptual switches when viewing an ambiguous, bistable stimulus. However, no prior study has directly quantified how such neuronal noise relates to the rate of percept reversals. Specifically, it has remained unknown whether individual differences in complexity of resting-state oscillations-as reflected in long-range temporal correlations (LRTC)-are associated with perceptual stability. We hypothesized that participants with stronger resting-state LRTC in the alpha band experience more stable percepts, and thereby fewer perceptual switches...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740086/similar-but-separate-systems-underlie-perceptual-bistability-in-vision-and-audition
#12
Susan L Denham, Dávid Farkas, Raymond van Ee, Mihaela Taranu, Zsuzsanna Kocsis, Marina Wimmer, David Carmel, István Winkler
The dynamics of perceptual bistability, the phenomenon in which perception switches between different interpretations of an unchanging stimulus, are characterised by very similar properties across a wide range of qualitatively different paradigms. This suggests that perceptual switching may be triggered by some common source. However, it is also possible that perceptual switching may arise from a distributed system, whose components vary according to the specifics of the perceptual experiences involved. Here we used a visual and an auditory task to determine whether individuals show cross-modal commonalities in perceptual switching...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736784/simplified-estimation-and-testing-in-unbalanced-repeated-measures-designs
#13
Martin Spiess, Pascal Jordan, Mike Wendt
In this paper we propose a simple estimator for unbalanced repeated measures design models where each unit is observed at least once in each cell of the experimental design. The estimator does not require a model of the error covariance structure. Thus, circularity of the error covariance matrix and estimation of correlation parameters and variances are not necessary. Together with a weak assumption about the reason for the varying number of observations, the proposed estimator and its variance estimator are unbiased...
May 7, 2018: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735735/molecular-switch-like-regulation-in-motor-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Sara Tafoya, Carlos Bustamante
Motor proteins are powered by nucleotide hydrolysis and exert mechanical work to carry out many fundamental biological tasks. To ensure their correct and efficient performance, the motors' activities are allosterically regulated by additional factors that enhance or suppress their NTPase activity. Here, we review two highly conserved mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis activation and repression operating in motor proteins-the glutamate switch and the arginine finger-and their associated regulatory factors. We examine the implications of these regulatory mechanisms in proteins that are formed by multiple ATPase subunits...
June 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735678/dopamine-receptors-mediate-strategy-abandoning-via-modulation-of-a-specific-prelimbic-cortex-nucleus-accumbens-pathway-in-mice
#15
Qiaoling Cui, Qian Li, Hongyan Geng, Lei Chen, Nancy Y Ip, Ya Ke, Wing-Ho Yung
The ability to abandon old strategies and adopt new ones is essential for survival in a constantly changing environment. While previous studies suggest the importance of the prefrontal cortex and some subcortical areas in the generation of strategy-switching flexibility, the fine neural circuitry and receptor mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we showed that optogenetic excitation and inhibition of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway in the mouse respectively enhances and suppresses strategy-switching ability in a cross-modal spatial-egocentric task...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734137/do-distinct-mind-wandering-differently-disrupt-drivers-interpretation-of-physiological-and-behavioral-pattern-with-a-data-triangulation-method
#16
Guillaume Pepin, Séverine Malin, Christophe Jallais, Fabien Moreau, Alexandra Fort, Jordan Navarro, Daniel Ndiaye, Catherine Gabaude
MW is damaging for tasks requiring sustained and divided attention, for example driving. Recent findings seem to be indicating that off-task thoughts differently disrupt drivers. The present paper delved into characteristics of off-task thoughts to assess their respective detrimental impact on driving. Twenty volunteers had to declare their MW thoughts and get intentionally involved in Problem-Solving Thoughts (PST) according to instructions. Heart rate and oculometric behavior were collected during the two sessions...
May 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730573/language-balance-and-switching-ability-in-children-acquiring-english-as-a-second-language
#17
Claire Goriot, Mirjam Broersma, James M McQueen, Sharon Unsworth, Roeland van Hout
This study investigated whether relative lexical proficiency in Dutch and English in child second language (L2) learners is related to executive functioning. Participants were Dutch primary school pupils of three different age groups (4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 years) who either were enrolled in an early-English schooling program or were age-matched controls not on that early-English program. Participants performed tasks that measured switching, inhibition, and working memory. Early-English program pupils had greater knowledge of English vocabulary and more balanced Dutch-English lexicons...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728223/effects-of-various-generations-of-iterative-ct-reconstruction-algorithms-on-low-contrast-detectability-as-a-function-of-the-effective-abdominal-diameter-a-quantitative-task-based-phantom-study
#18
Anais Viry, Christoph Aberle, Damien Racine, Jean-François Knebel, Sebastian T Schindera, Sabine Schmidt, Fabio Becce, Francis R Verdun
PURPOSE: To investigate how various generations of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms impact low-contrast detectability (LCD) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) for different patient effective diameters, using a quantitative task-based approach. METHODS: Investigations were performed using an anthropomorphic abdominal phantom with two optional additional rings to simulate varying patient effective diameters (25, 30, and 35 cm), and containing multiple spherical targets (5, 6, and 8 mm in diameter) with a 20-HU contrast difference...
April 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723870/functional-disconnectivity-during-inter-task-resting-state-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#19
Eléna Chabran, Daniel Roquet, Daniel Gounot, Marion Sourty, Jean-Paul Armspach, Frédéric Blanc
AIMS: Limited research has been done on the functional connectivity in visuoperceptual regions in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients. This study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity differences between a task condition and an inter-task resting state condition within a visuoperceptual paradigm, in DLB patients compared with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and healthy elderly control subjects. METHODS: Twenty-six DLB, 29 AD, and 22 healthy subjects underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination along with a functional MRI during the different conditions of a visuoperceptual paradigm...
May 3, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723599/adaptive-control-and-the-avoidance-of-cognitive-control-demands-across-development
#20
Jesse C Niebaum, Nicolas Chevalier, Ryan M Guild, Yuko Munakata
Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6-7- and 11-12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task, as well as a metacognitive signal guiding adaptive demand avoidance behavior across a variety of behavioral and self-report assessments...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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