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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911805/functional-split-brain-in-a-driving-listening-paradigm
#1
Shuntaro Sasai, Melanie Boly, Armand Mensen, Giulio Tononi
We often engage in two concurrent but unrelated activities, such as driving on a quiet road while listening to the radio. When we do so, does our brain split into functionally distinct entities? To address this question, we imaged brain activity with fMRI in experienced drivers engaged in a driving simulator while listening either to global positioning system instructions (integrated task) or to a radio show (split task). We found that, compared with the integrated task, the split task was characterized by reduced multivariate functional connectivity between the driving and listening networks...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909981/the-effect-of-working-memory-load-on-the-snarc-effect-maybe-tasks-have-a-word-to-say
#2
Zhijun Deng, Yinghe Chen, Xiaoshuang Zhu, Yanjun Li
We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load)...
December 1, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#3
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908759/cathepsin-nanofiber-substrates-as-potential-agent-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#4
Yael Ben-Nun, Galit Fichman, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Boris Turk, Ehud Gazit, Galia Blum
The development of reactive drug carriers that could actively respond to biological signals is a challenging task. Different peptides can self-assemble into biocompatible nanostructures of various functionalities, including drugs carriers. Minimal building blocks, such as diphenylalanine, readily form ordered nanostructures. Here we present development of self-assembled tetra-peptides that include the diphenylalanine motif, serving as substrates of the cathepsin proteases. This is of great clinical importance as cathepsins, whose activity and expression are highly elevated in cancer and other pathologies, have been shown to serve as efficient enzymes for therapeutic release...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907075/erp-correlates-of-encoding-success-and-encoding-selectivity-in-attention-switching
#5
Franziska R Richter, Nick Yeung
Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures-memory selectivity and global memory-to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903731/memory-transformation-enhances-reinforcement-learning-in-dynamic-environments
#6
Adam Santoro, Paul W Frankland, Blake A Richards
: Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#7
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900481/trial-by-trial-switching-between-procedural-and-declarative-categorization-systems
#8
Matthew J Crossley, Jessica L Roeder, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby
Considerable evidence suggests that human category learning recruits multiple memory systems. A popular assumption is that procedural memory is used to form stimulus-to-response mappings, whereas declarative memory is used to form and test explicit rules about category membership. The multiple systems framework has been successful in motivating and accounting for a broad array of empirical observations over the past 20 years. Even so, only a couple of studies have examined how the different categorization systems interact...
November 30, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895599/task-inhibition-and-response-inhibition-in-older-vs-younger-adults-a-diffusion-model-analysis
#9
Stefanie Schuch
Differences in inhibitory ability between older (64-79 years, N = 24) and younger adults (18-26 years, N = 24) were investigated using a diffusion model analysis. Participants performed a task-switching paradigm that allows assessing n-2 task repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of tasks, as well as n-1 response-repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of responses. N-2 task repetition costs were of similar size in both age groups. Diffusion model analysis revealed that for both younger and older adults, drift rate parameters were smaller in the inhibition condition relative to the control condition, consistent with the idea that persisting task inhibition slows down response selection...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893272/action-effects-are-coded-as-transitions-from-current-to-future-stimulation-evidence-from-compatibility-effects-in-tracking
#10
Wilfried Kunde, Constantin Schmidts, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort
There is ample evidence that motor actions are stored in terms of, and controlled by, the sensory effects that these actions produce. At present it is unclear, though, whether action control is governed by intended sensory changes (e.g., the transition from darkness to brightness when switching on a light) or only by intended sensory end states (e.g., the light being on). The present study explored the role of sensory changes for action control. To address this issue, participants engaged in a spatial tracking task...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893236/training-in-the-adolescent-brain-an-fmri-training-study-on-divergent-thinking
#11
Sietske W Kleibeuker, Claire E Stevenson, Laura van der Aar, Sandy Overgaauw, Anna C van Duijvenvoorde, Eveline A Crone
Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent thinking, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images were acquired before and after a training program. In between the 2 scanning sessions the experimental group completed 2 weeks of divergent thinking training (8 sessions) and the control group completed 2 weeks of rule switching training (8 session)...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882526/reconciling-change-blindness-with-long-term-memory-for-objects
#12
Katherine Wood, Daniel J Simons
How can we reconcile remarkably precise long-term memory for thousands of images with failures to detect changes to similar images? We explored whether people can use detailed, long-term memory to improve change detection performance. Subjects studied a set of images of objects and then performed recognition and change detection tasks with those images. Recognition memory performance exceeded change detection performance, even when a single familiar object in the postchange display consistently indicated the change location...
November 23, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879030/age-related-decline-in-task-switching-is-linked-to-both-global-and-tract-specific-changes-in-white-matter-microstructure
#13
Todd A D Jolly, Patrick S Cooper, Jaime L Rennie, Christopher R Levi, Rhoshel Lenroot, Mark W Parsons, Patricia T Michie, Frini Karayanidis
Task-switching performance relies on a broadly distributed frontoparietal network and declines in older adults. In this study, they investigated whether this age-related decline in task switching performance was mediated by variability in global or regional white matter microstructural health. Seventy cognitively intact adults (43-87 years) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm. Microstructural white matter measures were derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence...
November 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877147/driving-and-multitasking-the-good-the-bad-and-the-dangerous
#14
Menno Nijboer, Jelmer P Borst, Hedderik van Rijn, Niels A Taatgen
Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876143/a-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-using-a-switchable-polarity-dispersive-solvent-automated-hplc-fld-determination-of-ofloxacin-in-chicken-meat
#15
Irina Timofeeva, Semen Timofeev, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
In this article, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), based on the use of so-called switchable polarity dispersive solvent (SPDS) for microextraction, is presented for the first time. The new extraction technique makes use of a mixture of extraction solvent (dichloromethane) and the SPDS (acrylic acid). This mixture is injected into the aqueous sample solution, which was previously fortified with the alkaline agent (NaOH). The SPDS is dissolved in aqueous phase and a cloudy solution consisting of fine droplets of extraction solvent fully dispersed in the aqueous phase is observed...
January 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875937/operator-adaptation-to-changes-in-system-reliability-under-adaptable-automation
#16
Alain Chavaillaz, Juergen Sauer
This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. 40 participants were trained for 3h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA...
November 23, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875536/capturing-dynamics-of-biased-attention-are-new-attention-variability-measures-the-way-forward
#17
Anne-Wil Kruijt, Andy P Field, Elaine Fox
BACKGROUND: New indices, calculated on data from the widely used Dot Probe Task, were recently proposed to capture variability in biased attention allocation. We observed that it remains unclear which data pattern is meant to be indicative of dynamic bias and thus to be captured by these indices. Moreover, we hypothesized that the new indices are sensitive to SD differences at the response time (RT) level in the absence of bias. METHOD: Randomly generated datasets were analyzed to assess properties of the Attention Bias Variability (ABV) and Trial Level Bias Score (TL-BS) indices...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873017/erratum-to-no-evidence-for-shared-representations-of-task-sets-in-joint-task-switching
#18
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861743/sex-differences-in-confidence-influence-patterns-of-conformity
#19
Catharine P Cross, Gillian R Brown, Thomas J H Morgan, Kevin N Laland
Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860025/low-level-alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-control-development
#20
Sarah Jurk, Eva Mennigen, Thomas Goschke, Michael N Smolka
Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18...
November 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
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