keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

task switching

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#1
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326947/change-deafness-dual-task-performance-and-domain-specific-expertise
#2
John G Neuhoff, Katharina S Bochtler
In a change deafness manipulation using radio broadcasts of sporting events, we show that change deafness to a switch in talker increases when listeners are asked to monitor both lexical and indexical information for change. We held semantic content constant and demonstrated a change deafness rate of 85% when participants listened to the home team broadcast of a hockey game that switched midway to the away team broadcast with a different announcer. In Study 2 participants were asked to monitor either the indexical characteristics (listen for a change in announcer) or both the indexical and semantic components (listen for a change in announcer or a goal scored)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325648/role-of-bromocriptine-in-multi-spectral-manifestations-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Sunil Munakomi, Binod Bhattarai, Bijoy Mohan Kumar
PURPOSE: Despite the prevalence and cost of traumatic brain injury related disabilities, there is paucity in the literature on modern approaches to pharmacotherapy. Medications may promote recovery by enhancing some neurological functions without impacting others. Herein we discussed the role of bromocriptine in neurorehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A cohort comprising of 36 selective nonsurgical cases of traumatic brain injury in minimally conscious state were enrolled in the study...
February 21, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323332/shedding-light-on-gray-ing-areas-connectivity-and-task-switching-dynamics-in-aging
#4
Pauline L Baniqued, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Control-demanding tasks rely on communication among regions of the frontoparietal network, areas that undergo significant age-related decline. Here, we integrate data from brain anatomy, electrophysiology (ERPs), and optical imaging (event-related optical signals, EROS) to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of preparatory control processes in middle to old age. Older adults participated in an experiment that required switching between a position and a meaning task (spatial Stroop), a paradigm that has been shown to primarily recruit prefrontal cortex in opposite hemispheres and is thought to involve the corpus callosum (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322886/high-gamma-oscillations-in-the-motor-cortex-during-visuo-motor-coordination-a-tacs-interferential-study
#5
E Santarnecchi, A Biasella, E Tatti, A Rossi, D Prattichizzo, S Rossi
BACKGROUND: While the role of beta (∼20Hz), theta (∼5Hz) and alpha (∼10Hz) oscillations in the motor areas have been repeatedly associated with defined properties of motor performance, the investigation of gamma (∼40-90Hz) oscillatory activity is a more recent and still not fully understood component of motor control physiology, despite its potential clinical relevance for motor disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We have implemented an online neuromodulation paradigm based on transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the dominant motor cortex during a visuo-motor coordination task...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322310/hormone-therapy-at-early-post-menopause-increases-cognitive-control-related-prefrontal-activity
#6
Romuald Girard, Elise Météreau, Julie Thomas, Michel Pugeat, Chen Qu, Jean-Claude Dreher
Clinical data have been equivocal and controversial as to the benefits to the brain and cognition of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. Recent reevaluation of the role of estrogens proposed that HT may effectively prevent the deleterious effects of aging on cognition, and reduces the risks of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, if initiated early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the effects of HT on brain activation related to cognitive control, the ability to make flexible decisions in relation to internal goals...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321188/explicit-action-switching-interferes-with-the-context-specificity-of-motor-memories-in-older-adults
#7
Carly J Sombric, Harrison M Harker, Patrick J Sparto, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Healthy aging impairs the ability to adapt movements to novel situations and to switch choices according to the context in cognitive tasks, indicating resistance to changes in motor and cognitive behaviors. Here we examined if this lack of "flexibility" in old subjects observed in motor and cognitive domains were related. To this end, we evaluated subjects' performance in a motor task that required switching walking patterns and its relation to performance in a cognitive switching task. Specifically, a group of old (>73 years old) and young subjects learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill, which drives the legs at different speeds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321187/steps-to-health-in-cognitive-aging-effects-of-physical-activity-on-spatial-attention-and-executive-control-in-the-elderly
#8
Giancarlo Condello, Roberta Forte, Simone Falbo, John B Shea, Angela Di Baldassarre, Laura Capranica, Caterina Pesce
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) habits may positively impact performance of the orienting and executive control networks in community-dwelling aging individuals and diabetics, who are at risk of cognitive dysfunction. To this aim, we tested cross-sectionally whether age, ranging from late middle-age to old adulthood, and PA level independently or interactively predict different facets of the attentional performance. Hundred and thirty female and male individuals and 22 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 55-84 years were recruited and their daily PA (steps) was objectively measured by means of armband monitors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315589/the-multidimensional-card-selection-task-a-new-way-to-measure-concurrent-cognitive-flexibility-in-preschoolers
#9
Gal Podjarny, Deepthi Kamawar, Katherine Andrews
Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301186/the-role-of-error-processing-in-the-contextual-interference-effect-during-the-training-of-perceptual-cognitive-skills
#10
David P Broadbent, Joe Causer, A Mark Williams, Paul R Ford
The contextual interference (CI) effect refers to the learning benefits that occur from a random compared with blocked practice order. In this article, the cognitive effort explanation for the CI effect was examined by investigating the role of error processing. In 2 experiments, a perceptual-cognitive task was used in which participants anticipated 3 different tennis skills across a pretest, 3 practice sessions, and retention test. During practice, the skills were presented in either a random or blocked practice order...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299954/working-memory-load-affects-repetitive-behaviour-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-adolescent-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Nicole Wolff, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste, Veit Roessner
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with repetitive and stereotyped behaviour, suggesting that cognitive flexibility may be deficient in ASD. A central, yet not examined aspect to understand possible deficits in flexible behaviour in ASD relates (i) to the role of working memory and (ii) to neurophysiological mechanisms underlying behavioural modulations. METHODS: We analysed behavioural and neurophysiological (EEG) correlates of cognitive flexibility using a task-switching paradigm with and without working memory load in adolescents with ASD and typically developing controls (TD)...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295342/an-information-theory-account-of-late-frontoparietal-erp-positivities-in-cognitive-control
#12
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295082/polarization-basis-tracking-scheme-for-quantum-key-distribution-using-revealed-sifted-key-bits
#13
Yu-Yang Ding, Wei Chen, Hua Chen, Chao Wang, Ya-Ping Li, Shuang Wang, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
The calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution. A continuously working polarization-basis tracking scheme (PBTS) will effectively promote the efficiency of the system and reduce the potential security risk when switching between the transmission and calibration modes. Here, we proposed a single-photon level continuously working PBTS using only sifted key bits revealed during an error correction procedure, without introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293210/integration-of-advance-information-about-a-forthcoming-task-switch-evidence-from-eye-blink-rates
#14
Thomas Kleinsorge, Juliane Scheil
We investigated task switching among four tasks by means of a modified cuing procedure with two types of cues. One type of cue consisted of a standard task cue indicating the next task. In half of the trials, this task cue was preceded by another type of cue that reduced the set of candidate tasks from four to two tasks. In addition, we measured participants' spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs) at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the experiment. Whereas interindividual differences in mean EBR had no pronounced effect on task switching performance, changes in EBRs during the first half of the experiment significantly modulated the interaction of the effects of the two types of cues...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292904/optimal-run-and-tumble-based-transportation-of-a-janus-particle-with-active-steering
#15
Tomoyuki Mano, Jean-Baptiste Delfau, Junichiro Iwasawa, Masaki Sano
Although making artificial micrometric swimmers has been made possible by using various propulsion mechanisms, guiding their motion in the presence of thermal fluctuations still remains a great challenge. Such a task is essential in biological systems, which present a number of intriguing solutions that are robust against noisy environmental conditions as well as variability in individual genetic makeup. Using synthetic Janus particles driven by an electric field, we present a feedback-based particle-guiding method quite analogous to the "run-and-tumbling" behavior of Escherichia coli but with a deterministic steering in the tumbling phase: the particle is set to the run state when its orientation vector aligns with the target, whereas the transition to the "steering" state is triggered when it exceeds a tolerance angle [Formula: see text] The active and deterministic reorientation of the particle is achieved by a characteristic rotational motion that can be switched on and off by modulating the ac frequency of the electric field, which is reported in this work...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291524/more-than-just-channeling-the-role-of-subcortical-mechanisms-in-executive-functions-evidence-from-the-stroop-task
#16
William Saban, Shai Gabay, Eyal Kalanthroff
The literature has long emphasized the role of the cerebral cortex in executive functions. Recently, however, several researchers have suggested that subcortical areas might also be involved in executive functions. The current study explored the possibility that subcortical mechanisms have a functional role in adaptive resolution of Stroop interference. We asked 20 participants to complete a cued task-switching Stroop task with variable cue-target intervals (CTI). Using a stereoscope, we manipulated which eye was shown the relevant dimension and which was shown the irrelevant dimension...
March 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289278/cafeteria-diet-and-probiotic-therapy-cross-talk-among-memory-neuroplasticity-serotonin-receptors-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-rat
#17
J E Beilharz, N O Kaakoush, J Maniam, M J Morris
The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. Here, we examined whether a probiotic could prevent diet-induced memory deficits. Rats were pre-exposed to vehicle, low or high doses of VSL#3 for 2 weeks before half were switched from chow to a cafeteria diet (Caf) for 25 days; VSL#3 treatment continued until death. High-dose VSL#3 prevented the diet-induced memory deficits on the hippocampal-dependent place task, but the probiotic caused deficits on the perirhinal-dependent object task, irrespective of diet or dose...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288824/switching-markov-decoders-for-asynchronous-trajectory-reconstruction-from-ecog-signals-in-monkeys-for-bci-applications
#18
Marie-Caroline Schaeffer, Tetiana Aksenova
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems which translate brain neural activity into commands for external devices. BCI users generally alternate between No-Control (NC) and Intentional Control (IC) periods. NC/IC discrimination is crucial for clinical BCIs, particularly when they provide neural control over complex effectors such as exoskeletons. Numerous BCI decoders focus on the estimation of continuously-valued limb trajectories from neural signals. The integration of NC support into continuous decoders is investigated in the present article...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286905/explaining-response-repetition-effects-in-task-switching-evidence-from-switching-cue-modality-suggests-episodic-binding-and-response-inhibition
#19
Iring Koch, Christian Frings, Stefanie Schuch
Task switching studies revealed that the usual response-repetition benefit is abolished and often reversed if the task switches. According to episodic binding accounts, performing responses strengthens task-specific bindings, leading to response-repetition benefits in task repetitions, whereas such bindings can lead to interference (i.e., costs of "unbinding") in task switches. An alternative account assumes that responses are generally inhibited after execution but that the assumed sequential carryover of response inhibition is overcompensated by positive priming of stimulus category in task repetitions (resulting in a positive net effect in response-repetition conditions)...
March 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285364/hierarchical-task-organization-in-dual-tasks-evidence-for-higher-level-task-representations
#20
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Andrea M Philipp, Iring Koch
To examine whether hierarchical higher level task representations comprising the task sets of Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2) are activated within each trial in dual-task situations, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with the task-pair switching logic (Hirsch et al. 2017). In Experiment 1, in which subjects switched between task-pairs including a varying T1 and a constant T2, we found a PRP effect (i.e., worse performance with short stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] than with long SOA) and task-pair switch costs in T1 and T2 (impaired performance in task-pair switches compared to task-pair repetitions)...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
keyword
keyword
59415
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"