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task switching

Stefanie Schuch, Angelika Sommer, Sarah Lukas
Ideomotor theory posits that actions are controlled by the anticipation of their effects. In line with this theoretical framework, response-contingent action effects have been shown to influence performance in choice-reaction time tasks, both in single-task and task-switching context. Using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated whether task-contingent action effects influenced N - 2 repetition costs in task switching. N - 2 repetition costs are thought to be related to task-switch costs, and reflect inhibitory control in task switching...
November 17, 2017: Psychological Research
Suzanne C A Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen
How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study on language switching during auditory perception, early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (N=18) who mastered English with high proficiency after childhood were presented with spoken words in each of the three languages, while performing a simple semantic categorisation task...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Zoltán Janka
Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
Kaori Tamura, Morgan Kocher, Liana Finer, Nathan Murata, Christopher Stickley
Dual-Task testing has been reported to have a higher sensitivity to deficits associated with concussion; however, the feasibility as a clinical or field test is questionable due to the requirements of laboratory-based equipment. With an overarching goal of exploration of clinically feasible Dual-Task testing options, the specific aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the reliability of Dual-Task testing methods using the Expanded Timed Get-Up-and-Go (ETGUG) paired with Backward Digit Recall (BDR), Serial Seven (SS), and Auditory Pure Switch Task (APST), and 2) to determine the effects of Dual-Task testing on motor and cognitive performance in healthy college-aged individuals...
November 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
John D Medaglia, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Apoorva Kelkar, Rastko Ciric, Tyler M Moore, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Danielle S Bassett
Adolescence is marked by rapid development of executive function. Mounting evidence suggests that executive function in adults may be driven by dynamic control of neurophysiological processes. Yet, how these dynamics evolve over adolescence and contribute to cognitive development is unknown. In a sample of 780 youth aged 8-22 yr (42.7% male) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopment Cohort, we use a dynamic graph approach to extract activation states in BOLD fMRI data from 264 brain regions. We construct a graph in which each observation in time is a node and the similarity in brain states at two different times is an edge...
November 7, 2017: NeuroImage
Gema Díaz-Blancat, Juan García-Prieto, Fernando Maestú, Francisco Barceló
One common assumption has been that prefrontal executive control is mostly required for target detection (Posner and Petersen in Ann Rev Neurosci 13:25-42, 1990). Alternatively, cognitive control has also been related to anticipatory updating of task-set (contextual) information, a view that highlights proactive control processes. Frontoparietal cortical networks contribute to both proactive control and reactive target detection, although their fast dynamics are still largely unexplored. To examine this, we analyzed rapid magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source activations elicited by task cues and target cards in a task-cueing analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
Kana Okada, Kayo Nishizawa, Susumu Setogawa, Kouichi Hashimoto, Kazuto Kobayashi
Flexible switching of behaviours depends on integrative functioning through the neural circuit connecting the prefrontal cortex and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). Although cholinergic interneurons modulate striatal outputs by diverse synaptic mechanisms, the roles of cholinergic interneurons in the DMS appear to vary among different models used to validate behavioural flexibility. Here, we conducted immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting of DMS cholinergic interneurons and examined the functions of these interneurons in behavioural flexibility, with the learning conditions differing in trial spacing and discrimination type in a modified T maze...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Thomas L Edwards, Charles L Cottriall, Kanmin Xue, Matthew P Simunovic, James D Ramsden, Eberhart Zrenner, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: To report the initial efficacy results of the Retina Implant Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) for partial restoration of vision in end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Prospective, single-arm, investigator-sponsored interventional clinical trial. Within-participant control comprising residual vision with the retinal implant switched ON versus OFF in the implanted eye. PARTICIPANTS: The Retina Implant Alpha AMS was implanted into the worse-seeing eye of 6 participants with end-stage RP and no useful perception of light vision...
October 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
Daniela Pacella, Michela Ponticorvo, Onofrio Gigliotta, Orazio Miglino
The core principles of the evolutionary theories of emotions declare that affective states represent crucial drives for action selection in the environment and regulated the behavior and adaptation of natural agents in ancestrally recurrent situations. While many different studies used autonomous artificial agents to simulate emotional responses and the way these patterns can affect decision-making, few are the approaches that tried to analyze the evolutionary emergence of affective behaviors directly from the specific adaptive problems posed by the ancestral environment...
2017: PloS One
Dmitrii Paniukov, Tyler Davis
Category learning is a critical neurobiological function that allows organisms to simplify a complex world. Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) is often active in neurobiological studies of category learning; however, the specific role this region serves in category learning remains uncertain. Previous category learning studies have hypothesized that the rlPFC is involved in switching between rules, whereas others have emphasized rule abstraction and evaluation. We aimed to clarify the role of rlPFC in category learning and dissociate switching and evaluation accounts using two common types of category learning tasks: matching and classification...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
Virginia W Berninger, Todd L Richards, Robert D Abbott
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions...
November 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
Yu Lin, Kar Tong Tan, Jing Liu, Xu Kong, Zhengrong Huang, Xiu Qin Xu
RNA binding proteins serve as critical molecular switches in a multitude of post-transcriptional regulatory processes. In the heart and muscles, the tissue specific RNA binding protein, Rbm24, is known to play important developmental roles via driving different post-transcriptional processes. Nonetheless, the currently identified molecular targets and regulatory pathways seem inadequate to completely explain the observed developmental effects upon Rbm24 knockdown/knockout. Here, by performing RNA Immunoprecipitation and coupling it to microarrays (RIP-Chip), we have generated an atlas of the mRNA binding repertoire of Rbm24...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chun Yun Chang, Matthew Gardner, Maria Gonzalez Di Tillio, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Prediction errors are critical for associative learning [1, 2]. Transient changes in dopamine neuron activity correlate with positive and negative reward prediction errors and can mimic their effects [3-15]. However, although causal studies show that dopamine transients of 1-2 s are sufficient to drive learning about reward, these studies do not address whether they are necessary (but see [11]). Further, the precise nature of this signal is not yet fully established. Although it has been equated with the cached-value error signal proposed to support model-free reinforcement learning, cached-value errors are typically confounded with errors in the prediction of reward features [16]...
October 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sean D Hood, Annabel Broyd, Hayley Robinson, Jessica Lee, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Dana A Hince
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yiquan Shi, Uta Wolfensteller, Torsten Schubert, Hannes Ruge
Cognitive flexibility is essential to cope with changing task demands and often it is necessary to adapt to combined changes in a coordinated manner. The present fMRI study examined how the brain implements such multi-level adaptation processes. Specifically, on a "local," hierarchically lower level, switching between two tasks was required across trials while the rules of each task remained unchanged for blocks of trials. On a "global" level regarding blocks of twelve trials, the task rules could reverse or remain the same...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Tilmann Betsch, Kirsten Wünsche, Armin Großkopf, Klara Schröder, Rachel Stenmans
Prior evidence has suggested that preschoolers and elementary schoolers search information largely with no systematic plan when making decisions in probabilistic environments. However, this finding might be due to the insensitivity of standard classification methods that assume a lack of variance in decision strategies for tasks of the same kind. Using a novel approach, we explore strategy variability in existing data that documented unsystematic searches in children (Betsch, Lehmann, Lindow, Lang, & Schoemann, 2016)...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Camilo Juan Mininni, B Silvano Zanutto
Animals are proposed to learn the latent rules governing their environment in order to maximize their chances of survival. However, rules may change without notice, forcing animals to keep a memory of which one is currently at work. Rule switching can lead to situations in which the same stimulus/response pairing is positively and negatively rewarded in the long run, depending on variables that are not accessible to the animal. This fact raises questions on how neural systems are capable of reinforcement learning in environments where the reinforcement is inconsistent...
2017: PloS One
Maayan Katzir, Bnaya Ori, Nachshon Meiran
Switching between tasks necessitates maintaining tasks in high readiness, yet readiness creates paradoxical interference from these tasks when they are not currently required. "Optimal suppression", which targets just the interfering information, provides a partial solution to this paradox. By examining the carryover of suppression of a competitor stimulus-response (S-R) set from Trial N - 1 to Trial N, Meiran, Hsieh  and colleagues (Meiran  et al., J Exp Psychol Learn mem cognit 36:992-1002, 2010; Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 11:292-308, 2011, and Hsieh et al...
October 27, 2017: Psychological Research
Shawn E Christ, Janine P Stichter, Karen V O'Connor, Kimberly Bodner, Amanda J Moffitt, Melissa J Herzog
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication. It has been postulated that such difficulties are related to disruptions in underlying cognitive processes such as executive function. The present study examined potential changes in executive function performance associated with participation in the Social Competence Intervention (SCI) program, a short-term intervention designed to improve social competence in adolescents with ASD. Laboratory behavioral performance measures were used to separately evaluate potential intervention-related changes in individual executive function component processes (i...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
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