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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535468/action-effect-sharing-induces-task-set-sharing-in-joint-task-switching
#1
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
A central issue in the study of joint task performance has been one of whether co-acting individuals perform their partner's part of the task as if it were their own. The present study addressed this issue by using joint task switching. A pair of actors shared two tasks that were presented in a random order, whereby the relevant task and actor were cued on each trial. Responses produced action effects that were either shared or separate between co-actors. When co-actors produced separate action effects, switch costs were obtained within the same actor (i...
May 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530089/use-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-reduce-context-dependent-learning-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Compared with age-matched non-disabled adults, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrated greater context-dependent learning, a phenomenon in which an individual shows inferior motor performance when the testing environmental context is different from the original practice context. Additionally, enhanced context- dependency has been shown to be associated with an increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). AIM: This study aimed to determine whether context-dependent learning in people with PD could be reduced by decreasing DLPFC activation with low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513104/novelty-seeking-and-reward-dependence-related-large-scale-brain-networks-functional-connectivity-variation-during-salience-expectancy
#5
Shijia Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anna Linda Krause, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
A salience network (SN) anchored in the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a key role in switching between brain networks during salience detection and attention regulation. Previous fMRI studies have associated expectancy behaviors and SN activation with novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) personality traits. To address the question of how functional connectivity (FC) in the SN is modulated by internal (expectancy-related) salience assignment and different personality traits, 68 healthy participants performed a salience expectancy task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) was conducted to determine salience-related connectivity changes during these anticipation periods...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512442/posterior-anterior-brain-maturation-reflected-in-perceptual-motor-and-cognitive-performance
#6
Patrícia Gerván, Péter Soltész, Orsolya Filep, Andrea Berencsi, Ilona Kovács
Based on several postmortem morphometric and in vivo imaging studies it has been postulated that brain maturation roughly follows a caudal to rostral direction. In this study, we linked this maturational pattern to psychological function employing a series of well-established behavioral tasks. We addressed three distinct functions and brain regions with a perceptual (contour integration, CI), motor (finger tapping, FT), and executive control (Navon global-local) task. Our purpose was to investigate basic visual integration functions relying on primary visual cortex (V1) in CI; motor coordination function related to primary motor cortex (M1) in FT, and the executive control component, switching, related to the dorsolateral prefrontal region of the brain in the Navon task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496983/correlated-velocity-models-as-a-fundamental-unit-of-animal-movement-synthesis-and-applications
#7
Eliezer Gurarie, Christen H Fleming, William F Fagan, Kristin L Laidre, Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Otso Ovaskainen
BACKGROUND: Continuous time movement models resolve many of the problems with scaling, sampling, and interpretation that affect discrete movement models. They can, however, be challenging to estimate, have been presented in inconsistent ways, and are not widely used. METHODS: We review the literature on integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck velocity models and propose four fundamental correlated velocity movement models (CVM's): random, advective, rotational, and rotational-advective...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494999/modeling-and-control-of-operator-functional-state-in-a-unified-framework-of-fuzzy-inference-petri-nets
#8
Jian-Hua Zhang, Jia-Jun Xia, Jonathan M Garibaldi, Petros P Groumpos, Ru-Bin Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In human-machine (HM) hybrid control systems, human operator and machine cooperate to achieve the control objectives. To enhance the overall HM system performance, the discrete manual control task-load by the operator must be dynamically allocated in accordance with continuous-time fluctuation of psychophysiological functional status of the operator, so-called operator functional state (OFS). The behavior of the HM system is hybrid in nature due to the co-existence of discrete task-load (control) variable and continuous operator performance (system output) variable...
June 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493359/verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-phonological-processing-or-executive-control-problems
#9
James H Smith-Spark, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Adam P Zięcik
The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties...
May 11, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479403/normal-aging-slows-spontaneous-switching-in-auditory-and-visual-bistability
#10
Hirohito M Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama
Age-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20-60years) were instructed to indicate by a button press whenever their perception changed from one stable state to the other...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470552/neural-mechanisms-and-functional-neuroanatomical-networks-during-memory-and-cue-based-task-switching-as-revealed-by-residue-iteration-decomposition-ride-based-source-localization
#11
Nicole Wolff, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Task switching processes reflect a faculty of cognitive flexibility. The underlying neural mechanisms and functional cortical networks have frequently been investigated using neurophysiological (EEG) or functional imaging methods. However, task switching processes are subject to strong intra-individual variability, especially when tested under varying levels of working memory demands. This intra-individual variability compromises the reliable estimation of neurophysiological processes and related functional neuroanatomical networks...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470121/shift-work-and-cognitive-flexibility-decomposing-task-performance
#12
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Thomas John Bender, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Christopher L Drake
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464660/pupillometry-shows-the-effort-of-auditory-attention-switching
#13
Daniel R McCloy, Bonnie K Lau, Eric Larson, Katherine A I Pratt, Adrian K C Lee
Successful speech communication often requires selective attention to a target stream amidst competing sounds, as well as the ability to switch attention among multiple interlocutors. However, auditory attention switching negatively affects both target detection accuracy and reaction time, suggesting that attention switches carry a cognitive cost. Pupillometry is one method of assessing mental effort or cognitive load. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the effort associated with attention switches is detectable in the pupillary response...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464437/relationship-between-sports-experience-and-executive-function-in-6-12-year-old-children-independence-from-physical-fitness-and-moderation-by-gender
#14
Toru Ishihara, Shigemi Sugasawa, Yusuke Matsuda, Masao Mizuno
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sports experience (i.e., tennis experience) and executive function in children while controlling for physical activity and physical fitness. Sixty-eight participants (6-12 years old, 34 males and 34 females) were enrolled in regular tennis lessons (mean = 2.4 years, range = 0.1-7.3 years) prior to the study. Executive functions, including inhibitory control (the Stroop Color-Word Test), working memory (the 2-back Task), and cognitive flexibility (the Local-global Task) were evaluated...
May 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463206/spiking-bursting-and-population-dynamics-in-a-network-of-growth-transform-neurons
#15
Ahana Gangopadhyay, Shantanu Chakrabartty
This paper investigates the dynamical properties of a network of neurons, each of which implements an asynchronous mapping based on polynomial growth transforms. In the first part of this paper, we present a geometric approach for visualizing the dynamics of the network where each of the neurons traverses a trajectory in a dual optimization space, whereas the network itself traverses a trajectory in an equivalent primal optimization space. We show that as the network learns to solve basic classification tasks, different choices of primal-dual mapping produce unique but interpretable neural dynamics like noise shaping, spiking, and bursting...
April 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462907/electron-holography-on-hfo2-hfo2-x-bilayer-structures-with-multilevel-resistive-switching-properties
#16
G Niu, M A Schubert, S U Sharath, P Zaumseil, S Vogel, C Wenger, E Hildebrandt, S Bhupathi, E Perez, L Alff, M Lehmann, T Schroeder, T Niermann
Unveiling the physical nature of the oxygen-deficient conductive filaments (CFs) that are responsible for the resistive switching of the HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices represents a challenging task due to the oxygen vacancy related defect nature and nanometer size of the CFs. As a first important step to this goal, we demonstrate in this work direct visualization and a study of physico-chemical properties of oxygen-deficient amorphous HfO2-x by carrying out transmission electron microscopy electron holography as well as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer heterostructures, which are realized by reactive molecular beam epitaxy...
May 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462609/the-effects-of-double-gloving-on-microsurgical-skills
#17
Scott A Hardison, Grace Pyon, Audrey Le, Wen Wan, Daniel H Coelho
Objective To determine whether double gloving would negatively affect participants' ability to perform a simulated microsurgical task. Study Design Randomized single-blinded controlled crossover trial. Setting Temporal bone laboratory of an academic otolaryngology department. Subjects and Methods This study involved the simulated insertion of a stapes prosthesis into a model of the ossicular chain under microscopy. Forty-one participants were recruited from our medical and dental school and randomized into 2 groups...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458090/is-susceptibility-to-cross-language-interference-domain-specific
#18
Anat Prior, Tamar Degani, Sehrab Awawdy, Rana Yassin, Nachshon Korem
The ability to overcome interference from the first-language (L1) is a source of variability in second language (L2) achievement, which has to date been explored mainly in same-script bilinguals. Such interference management, and bilingual language control more generally, have recently been linked to domain general executive functions (EF). In the current study, we examined L2 proficiency and executive functions as possible predictors of susceptibility to L1 interference during L2 processing, in bilinguals whose languages do not share an orthographic system...
April 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457882/novel-reinforcement-learning-paradigm-based-on-response-patterning-under-interval-schedules-of-reinforcement
#19
Christin Schifani, Ilya Sukhanov, Mariia Dorofeikova, Anton Bespalov
There is a need to develop cognitive tasks that address valid neuropsychological constructs implicated in disease mechanisms and can be used in animals and humans to guide novel drug discovery. Present experiments aimed to characterize a novel reinforcement learning task based on a classical operant behavioral phenomenon observed in multiple species - differences in response patterning under variable (VI) vs fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. Wistar rats were trained to press a lever for food under VI30sec and later weekly test sessions were introduced with reinforcement schedule switched to FI30sec...
April 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456157/detecting-switching-and-intermittent-causalities-in-time-series
#20
Massimiliano Zanin, David Papo
During the last decade, complex network representations have emerged as a powerful instrument for describing the cross-talk between different brain regions both at rest and as subjects are carrying out cognitive tasks, in healthy brains and neurological pathologies. The transient nature of such cross-talk has nevertheless by and large been neglected, mainly due to the inherent limitations of some metrics, e.g., causality ones, which require a long time series in order to yield statistically significant results...
April 2017: Chaos
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