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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227647/a-feasibility-study-of-depth-image-based-intent-recognition-for-lower-limb-prostheses
#1
Huseyin Atakan Varol, Yerzhan Massalin, Huseyin Atakan Varol, Yerzhan Massalin, Huseyin Atakan Varol, Yerzhan Massalin
This paper presents our preliminary work on a depth camera based intent recognition system intended for future use in robotic prosthetic legs. The approach infers the activity mode of the subject for standing, walking, running, stair ascent and stair descent modes only using data from the depth camera. Depth difference images are also used to increase the performance of the approach by discriminating between static and dynamic instances. After confidence map based filtering, simple features such as mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation are extracted from rectangular regions of the frames...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227091/hybrid-bci-approach-to-control-an-artificial-tibio-femoral-joint
#2
Luis Mercado, Angel Rodriguez-Linan, Luis M Torres-Trevino, G Quiroz, Luis Mercado, Angel Rodriguez-Linan, Luis M Torres-Trevino, G Quiroz, Luis Mercado, Angel Rodriguez-Linan, Luis M Torres-Trevino, G Quiroz
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for disabled people should allow them to use their remaining functionalities as control possibilities. BCIs connect the brain with external devices to perform the volition or intent of movement, regardless if that individual is unable to perform the task due to body impairments. In this work we fuse electromyographic (EMG) with electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in a framework called "Hybrid-BCI" (hBCI) approach to control the movement of a simulated tibio-femoral joint...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226952/a-unified-parameterization-of-human-gait-across-ambulation-modes
#3
Kyle R Embry, Dario J Villarreal, Robert D Gregg, Kyle R Embry, Dario J Villarreal, Robert D Gregg, Kyle R Embry, Robert D Gregg, Dario J Villarreal
This paper introduces a novel gait parameterization method that models gait kinematics as a continuous function of gait cycle phase, walking speed, and ground slope. Kinematic data was recorded from seven able-bodied subjects walking on a treadmill at twenty-seven combinations of walking speed and ground slope. Convex optimization was used to determine the parameters of a function of three variables that fits this experimental data. This function may be able to provide desired trajectories to a virtual constraint controller over a continuum of gait phases and ambulation modes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226840/effects-of-input-frequency-content-and-signal-to-noise-ratio-on-the-parametric-estimation-of-surface-emg-torque-dynamics
#4
Mahsa A Golkar, Robert E Kearney, Mahsa A Golkar, Robert E Kearney, Mahsa A Golkar, Robert E Kearney
The dynamic relationship between surface EMG (sEMG) and torque can be estimated from data acquired while subjects voluntarily modulate joint torque. We have shown that for such data, the input (EMG) contains a feedback component from the output (torque) and so accurate estimates of the dynamics require the use of closed-loop identification algorithms. Moreover, this approach has several other limitations since the input is controlled indirectly and so the frequency content and signal-to-noise ratio cannot be controlled...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223681/effect-of-smoking-on-cognitive-functioning-in-young-saudi-adults
#5
Shahid Bashir, Faisal Alghamd, Ahmed Alhussien, Meshal Alohali, Abdullah Alatawi, Tariq Almusned, Syed Shahid Habib
BACKGROUND Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18-29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223408/inducing-circular-rna-formation-using-the-crispr-endoribonuclease-csy4
#6
Erin K Borchardt, Rita M Meganck, Heather A Vincent, Christopher B Ball, Silvia B V Ramos, Nathaniel J Moorman, William F Marzluff, Aravind Asokan
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly stable, covalently closed RNAs that are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and whose functions are largely unknown. These molecules have the potential to be incorporated into engineered systems with broad technological implications. Here we describe a switch for inducing backsplicing of an engineered circRNA that relies on the CRISPR endoribonuclease, Csy4, as an activator of circularization. The endoribonuclease activity and 3' end-stabilizing properties of Csy4 are particularly suited for this task...
February 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222164/comt-and-drd2-ankk-1-gene-gene-interaction-account-for-resetting-of-gamma-neural-oscillations-to-auditory-stimulus-driven-attention
#7
Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Marc Via, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Iria SanMiguel, Carles Escera, Immaculada C Clemente
Attention capture by potentially relevant environmental stimuli is critical for human survival, yet it varies considerably among individuals. A large series of studies has suggested that attention capture may depend on the cognitive balance between maintenance and manipulation of mental representations and the flexible switch between goal-directed representations and potentially relevant stimuli outside the focus of attention; a balance that seems modulated by a prefrontostriatal dopamine pathway. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in the cognitive control of attention through studying the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms regulating dopamine at the prefrontal cortex and the striatum (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221082/partial-lesion-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-pathway-in-rats-impairs-egocentric-learning-but-not-spatial-learning-or-behavioral-flexibility
#8
Katharine M Seip-Cammack, James J Young, Megan E Young, Matthew L Shapiro
Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, but the etiology of the cognitive deficits remains unclear. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway. Rats received bilateral infusions of either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle into the dorsolateral striatum and were tested in spatial and procedural learning tasks. Compared with intact rats, DA-depleted rats were impaired when the first task they learned required egocentric responses...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220091/effort-in-multitasking-local-and-global-assessment-of-effort
#9
Andrea Kiesel, David Dignath
When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219260/automatic-retrieval-of-newly-instructed-cue-task-associations-seen-in-task-conflict-effects-in-the-first-trial-after-cue-task-instructions
#10
Nachshon Meiran, Maayan Pereg
Novel stimulus-response associations are retrieved automatically even without prior practice. Is this true for novel cue-task associations? The experiment involved miniblocks comprising three phases and task switching. In the INSTRUCTION phase, two new stimuli (or familiar cues) were arbitrarily assigned as cues for up-down/right-left tasks performed on placeholder locations. In the UNIVALENT phase, there was no task cue since placeholder's location afforded one task but the placeholders were the stimuli that we assigned as task cues for the following BIVALENT phase (involving target locations affording both tasks)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219259/the-role-of-cognitive-load-in-intentional-forgetting-using-the-think-no-think-task
#11
Saima Noreen, Jan W de Fockert
We investigated the role of cognitive control in intentional forgetting by manipulating working memory load during the think/no-think task. In two experiments, participants learned a series of cue-target word pairs and were asked to recall the target words associated with some cues or to avoid thinking about the target associated with other cues. In addition to this, participants also performed a modified version of the n-back task which required them to respond to the identity of a single target letter present in the currently presented cue word (n = 0 condition, low working memory load), and in either the previous cue word (n = 1 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 1) or the cue word presented two trials previously (n = 2 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 2)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218224/relationship-between-neuropsychological-functioning-behavioral-inhibition-and-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-findings-from-task-switching-study
#12
Amara Gul, Memoona Sehar, Usman Jawad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215697/directed-network-discovery-with-dynamic-network-modeling
#13
Stefano Anzellotti, Dorit Kliemann, Nir Jacoby, Rebecca Saxe
Cognitive tasks recruit multiple brain regions. Understanding how these regions influence each other (the network structure) is an important step to characterize the neural basis of cognitive processes. Often, limited evidence is available to restrict the range of hypotheses a priori, and techniques that sift efficiently through a large number of possible network structures are needed (network discovery). This article introduces a novel modeling technique for network discovery (Dynamic Network Modeling or DNM) that builds on ideas from Granger Causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling introducing three key changes: (1) efficient network discovery is implemented with statistical tests on the consistency of model parameters across participants, (2) the tests take into account the magnitude and sign of each influence, and (3) variance explained in independent data is used as an absolute (rather than relative) measure of the quality of the network model...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215233/task-switching-in-older-adults-with-and-without-insomnia
#14
Kristine A Wilckens, Martica H Hall, Kirk I Erickson, Anne Germain, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Timothy H Monk, Daniel J Buysse
BACKGROUND: Task-switching deficits are common in older adults and in those with insomnia. Such deficits may be driven by difficulties with sleep continuity and dampened homeostatic sleep drive. OBJECTIVE: To identify the aspects of task switching affected by insomnia and its treatment, and to determine whether such effects are associated with sleep continuity and homeostatic sleep drive. METHODS: Polysomnographic sleep and task switching were tested in healthy older adults aged 60-93 years with insomnia (n = 48) and normal sleeping controls (n = 51)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#15
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210819/evidence-for-instructions-based-updating-of-task-set-representations-the-informed-fadeout-effect
#16
Maayan Pereg, Nachshon Meiran
The cognitive system can be updated rapidly and efficiently to maximize performance in cognitive tasks. This paper used a task-switching task to explore updating at the level of the plausible task-sets held for future performance. Previous research suggested a "fadeout effect", performance improvement when moving from task-switching context to single-task context, yet this effect could reflect passive learning rather than intentional control. In a novel "informed fadeout paradigm", one of two tasks was canceled for a certain number of trials and participants were informed or uninformed regarding task cancelation...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207350/shifting-attention-between-visual-dimensions-as-a-source-of-switch-costs
#17
Heike Elchlepp, Maisy Best, Aureliu Lavric, Stephen Monsell
Task-switching experiments have documented a puzzling phenomenon: Advance warning of the switch reduces but does not eliminate the switch cost. Theoretical accounts have posited that the residual switch cost arises when one selects the relevant stimulus-response mapping, leaving earlier perceptual processes unaffected. We put this assumption to the test by seeking electrophysiological markers of encoding a perceptual dimension. Participants categorized a colored letter as a vowel or consonant or its color as "warm" or "cold...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206789/modulation-of-language-switching-by-cue-timing-implications-for-models-of-bilingual-language-control
#18
Asaid Khateb, Rana Shamshoum, Anat Prior
The current study examines the interplay between global and local processes in bilingual language control. We investigated language-switching performance of unbalanced Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals in cued picture naming, using 5 different cuing parameters. The language cue could precede the picture, follow it, or appear simultaneously with it. Naming latencies were reduced with precuing, demonstrating bilinguals' ability to globally modulate language activation, and more strongly reduced with postcuing, demonstrating bilinguals' ability to locally activate lemmas in both languages...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205053/intentional-switching-of-auditory-attention-between-long-and-short-sequential-tone-patterns
#19
Sophie Nolden, Iring Koch
The current study focuses on auditory task switching, more precisely on switching attention between different temporal patterns of the same auditory stimulus. Tone sequences consisting of nine different pitch tones were presented aurally. Three repetitive short 3-tone patterns (local focus) were combined to a long pattern (global focus), and each could be either rising or falling, resulting in congruent or incongruent combinations. Participants were informed by a cue if they had to attend to the short or to the long pattern, and they indicated if the target pattern was rising or falling by pressing one of two keys...
February 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201833/language-specific-attention-treatment-for-aphasia-description-and-preliminary-findings
#20
Richard K Peach, Meghana R Nathan, Katherine M Beck
The need for a specific, language-based treatment approach to aphasic impairments associated with attentional deficits is well documented. We describe language-specific attention treatment, a specific skill-based approach for aphasia that exploits increasingly complex linguistic tasks that focus attention. The program consists of eight tasks, some with multiple phases, to assess and treat lexical and sentence processing. Validation results demonstrate that these tasks load on six attentional domains: (1) executive attention; (2) attentional switching; (3) visual selective attention/processing speed; (4) sustained attention; (5) auditory-verbal working memory; and (6) auditory processing speed...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
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