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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448559/hexa-is-a-versatile-regulator-involved-in-the-control-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-of-photorhabdus-luminescens
#1
Angela Langer, Adriana Moldovan, Christian Harmath, Susan A Joyce, David J Clarke, Ralf Heermann
Phenotypic heterogeneity in microbial communities enables genetically identical organisms to behave differently even under the same environmental conditions. Photorhabdus luminescens, a bioluminescent Gram-negative bacterium, contains a complex life cycle, which involves a symbiotic interaction with nematodes as well as a pathogenic association with insect larvae. P. luminescens exists in two distinct phenotypic cell types, designated as the primary (1°) and secondary (2°) cells. The 1° cells are bioluminescent, pigmented and can support nematode growth and development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446870/a-randomized-controlled-erp-study-on-the-effects-of-multi-domain-cognitive-training-and-task-difficulty-on-task-switching-performance-in-older-adults
#2
Kristina Küper, Patrick D Gajewski, Claudia Frieg, Michael Falkenstein
Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446864/neural-entrainment-to-polyrhythms-a-comparison-of-musicians-and-non-musicians
#3
Jan Stupacher, Guilherme Wood, Matthias Witte
Music can be thought of as a dynamic path over time. In most cases, the rhythmic structure of this path, such as specific sequences of strong and weak beats or recurring patterns, allows us to predict what and particularly when sounds are going to happen. Without this ability we would not be able to entrain body movements to music, like we do when we dance. By combining EEG and behavioral measures, the current study provides evidence illustrating the importance of ongoing neural oscillations at beat-related frequencies-i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439249/cross-modal-action-complexity-action-and-rule-related-memory-retrieval-in-dual-response-control
#4
Aleks Pieczykolan, Lynn Huestegge
Normally, we do not act within a single effector system only, but rather coordinate actions across several output modules (cross-modal action). Such cross-modal action demands can vary substantially with respect to their complexity in terms of the number of task-relevant response combinations and to-be-retrieved stimulus-response (S-R) mapping rules. In the present study, we study the impact of these two types of cross-modal action complexity on dual-response costs (i.e., performance differences between single- and dual-action demands)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439231/informing-the-structure-of-executive-function-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-data
#5
Róisín McKenna, T Rushe, Kate A Woodcock
The structure of executive function (EF) has been the focus of much debate for decades. What is more, the complexity and diversity provided by the developmental period only adds to this contention. The development of executive function plays an integral part in the expression of children's behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional capabilities. Understanding how these processes are constructed during development allows for effective measurement of EF in this population. This meta-analysis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the structure of executive function in children...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436833/proactive-control-in-early-and-middle-childhood-an-erp-study
#6
Sarah Elke, Sandra A Wiebe
Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4-5-year-olds' (n=17) and 7-8-year-olds' (n=22) ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435126/impulsivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-within-subjects-comparison-of-sensitivity-to-delay-and-to-amount-of-reinforcement
#7
Vladimir Orduña, Eduardo Mercado
Previous research has shown that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) display higher levels of impulsive choice behavior, which is accompanied by a higher sensitivity to the delay of reinforcement, and by a normal sensitivity to the amount of reinforcement. Because those results were based on three different samples of subjects, in the present report we evaluated these three processes in the same individuals. SHR and WIS rats were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules in which the terminal links were manipulated to assess impulsivity, sensitivity to delay, and sensitivity to amount...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431279/cognitive-control-in-action-tracking-the-dynamics-of-rule-switching-in-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults
#8
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song, David M Sobel
Recent studies have suggested that dissociable processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support cognitive control in tasks requiring participants to override a prepotent response with a control-demanding alternative response. An open question concerns how these processes support cognitive flexibility in rule-switching tasks. We used a technique known as reach tracking to investigate how 5- to 8-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) select, maintain, and switch between incompatible rule sets in a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417533/split-tasks-of-asymmetric-nucleotide-binding-sites-in-the-heterodimeric-abc-exporter-efrcd
#9
Lea M Hürlimann, Michael Hohl, Markus A Seeger
Many heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters evolved asymmetric ATP-binding sites containing a degenerate site incapable of ATP hydrolysis due to noncanonical substitutions in conserved sequence motifs. Recent studies revealed that nucleotide binding to the degenerate site stabilizes contacts between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the inward-facing transporter and regulates ATP hydrolysis at the consensus site via allosteric coupling mediated by the D-loops. However, it is unclear whether nucleotide binding to the degenerate site is strictly required for substrate transport...
April 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406687/investigating-the-relationship-between-media-multitasking-and-processes-involved-in-task-switching
#10
Reem Alzahabi, Mark W Becker, David Z Hambrick
Although multitasking with media has increased dramatically in recent years (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010), the association between media multitasking and cognitive performance is poorly understood. In addition, the literature on the relationship between media multitasking and task-switching, one measure of cognitive control, has produced mixed results (Alzahabi & Becker, 2013; Minear et al., 2013; Ophir, Nass, & Wagner, 2009). Here we use an individual differences approach to investigate the relationship between media multitasking and task-switching performance by first examining the structure of task-switching and identifying the latent factors that contribute to switch costs...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406686/cueing-cognitive-flexibility-item-specific-learning-of-switch-readiness
#11
Yu-Chin Chiu, Tobias Egner
The rich behavioral repertoire of the human species derives from our ability to flexibly reconfigure processing strategies (task sets) in response to changing requirements. This updating of task sets is effortful, as reflected by longer response times when switching a task than repeating it (switch costs). However, some recent data suggest that switch costs can be reduced by cueing switch readiness bottom-up, by associating particular stimuli with frequent switch requirements. This type of "stimulus-control (S-C) learning" would be highly adaptive, as it combines the speed of automatic (bottom-up) processing with the flexibility and generalizability of controlled (top-down) processing...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406332/development-of-an-eye-tracking-method-to-assess-mental-set-switching-in-people-with-aphasia
#12
Sabine Heuer, Melissa Lu Pinke
BACKGROUND: Deficits in cognitive flexibility contribute to impaired functional communication in people with aphasia. Understanding the relationship between functional communication and cognitive flexibility in people with neurologic communication disorders is important. However, traditional methods to assess mental set switching pose significant linguistic, cognitive and motoric response confounds. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address these challenges. AIMS: The goal of this study was to develop and validate an eye-tracking method to index mental set switching in individuals without neurological impairment based upon performance on a nonlinguistic switching task...
April 13, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405377/modulation-of-leg-joint-function-to-produce-emulated-acceleration-during-walking-and-running-in-humans
#13
Dominic James Farris, Brent J Raiteri
Understanding how humans adapt gait mechanics for a wide variety of locomotor tasks is important for inspiring the design of robotic, prosthetic and wearable assistive devices. We aimed to elicit the mechanical adjustments made to leg joint functions that are required to generate accelerative walking and running, using metrics with direct relevance to device design. Twelve healthy male participants completed constant speed (CS) walking and running and emulated acceleration (ACC) trials on an instrumented treadmill...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394178/a-role-of-metastable-regions-and-their-connectivity-in-the-inactivation-of-a-redox-regulated-chaperone-and-its-inter-chaperone-crosstalk
#14
Oded Rimon, Ohad Suss, Mor Goldenberg, Rosi Fassler, Ohad Yogev, Hadar Amartely, Guy Propper, Assaf Friedler, Dana Reichmann
AIMS: A recently discovered group of conditionally disordered chaperones share a very unique feature; they need to lose structure to become active as chaperones. This activation mechanism makes these chaperones particularly suited to respond to protein-unfolding stress conditions, such as oxidative unfolding. However, the role of this disorder in stress-related activation, chaperone function, and the crosstalk with other chaperone systems is not yet clear. Here, we focus on one of the members of the conditionally disordered chaperones, a thiol-redox switch of the bacterial proteostasis system, Hsp33...
April 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392625/neuropsychological-assessments-of-cognitive-aging-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-older-adults
#15
John A E Anderson, Somayya Saleemi, Ellen Bialystok
Standardized neuropsychological tests are routinely used as diagnostic criteria in aging populations and are an important piece of evidence for the identification of clinical pathology and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Tests include such measures as the Mini Mental Status Exam, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and others. These tests cover a range of functions including working memory, verbal fluency, prospective memory, and task switching. Interpretation of test results is based on comparison of the participant's score to standard scores that have been normed on a population database...
August 2017: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391366/defining-stimulus-representation-in-stimulus-response-associations-formed-on-the-basis-of-task-execution-and-verbal-codes
#16
Christina U Pfeuffer, Theresa Hosp, Eva Kimmig, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Responding to stimuli leads to the formation of stimulus-response (S-R) associations that allow stimuli to subsequently automatically trigger associated responses. A recent study has shown that S-R associations are established not only by active task execution, but also by the simultaneous presentation of stimuli and verbal codes denoting responses in the absence of own action [Pfeuffer et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 43:328-347, 2017)]. Here, we used an item-specific priming paradigm to investigate whether the stimulus part of S-R associations formed based on task execution and verbal codes is represented in abstract or specific format by examining whether S-R associations are retrieved for perceptually different forms of the same stimulus or not...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388035/dynamic-spacer-installation-for-multirole-metal-organic-frameworks-a-new-direction-toward-multifunctional-mofs-achieving-ultrahigh-methane-storage-working-capacity
#17
Cheng-Xia Chen, Zhang-Wen Wei, Ji-Jun Jiang, Shao-Ping Zheng, Hai-Ping Wang, Qian-Feng Qiu, Chen-Chen Cao, Dieter Fenske, Cheng-Yong Su
A robust Zr-MOF (LIFM-28) containing replaceable coordination sites for additional spacer installation has been employed to demonstrate a swing- or multirole strategy for multifunctional MOFs. Through reversible installation/uninstallation of two types of spacers with different lengths and variable functional groups, different tasks can be accomplished using the same parent MOF. An orthogonal optimizing method is applied with seven shorter (L(1-7)) and six longer (L(8-13)) spacers to tune the functionalities, achieving multipurpose switches among gas separation, catalysis, click reaction, luminescence, and particularly, ultrahigh methane storage working capacity at 5-80 bar and 298 K...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387585/parsing-the-roles-of-the-frontal-lobes-and-bg-in-task-control-using-multivoxel-pattern-analysis
#18
Angie A Kehagia, Rong Ye, Dan W Joyce, Orla M Doyle, James B Rowe, Trevor W Robbins
Cognitive control has traditionally been associated with pFC based on observations of deficits in patients with frontal lesions. However, evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease indicates that subcortical regions also contribute to control under certain conditions. We scanned 17 healthy volunteers while they performed a task-switching paradigm that previously dissociated performance deficits arising from frontal lesions in comparison with Parkinson's disease, as a function of the abstraction of the rules that are switched...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386882/working-memory-representations-persist-in-the-face-of-unexpected-task-alterations
#19
Garrett Swan, Brad Wyble, Hui Chen
It is well known that information can be held in memory while performing other tasks concurrently, such as remembering a color or number during a separate visual search task. However, it is not clear what happens to stored information in the face of unexpected tasks, such as the surprise questions that are often used in experiments related to inattentional and change blindness. Does the unpredicted shift in task context cause memory representations to be cleared in anticipation of new information? To answer this question, we ran two experiments where the task unexpectedly switched partway through the experiment with a surprise question...
April 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384495/two-degrees-of-freedom-quasi-static-emg-force-at-the-wrist-using-a-minimum-number-of-electrodes
#20
Edward A Clancy, Carlos Martinez-Luna, Marek Wartenberg, Chenyun Dai, Todd R Farrell
Surface electromyogram-controlled powered hand/wrist prostheses return partial upper-limb function to limb-absent persons. Typically, one degree of freedom (DoF) is controlled at a time, with mode switching between DoFs. Recent research has explored using large-channel EMG systems to provide simultaneous, independent and proportional (SIP) control of two joints-but such systems are not practical in current commercial prostheses. Thus, we investigated site selection of a minimum number of conventional EMG electrodes in an EMG-force task, targeting four sites for a two DoF controller...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
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