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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636883/the-effects-of-monocular-training-on-binocular-functions-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#1
Wuli Jia, Fangfang Lan, Zhao Xin, Zhong-Lin Lu, Chang-Bing Huang, Wuxiao Zhao, Min Li
PURPOSE: It's been shown that intensive monocular perceptual learning can improve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and vernier acuity in the amblyopic eye in adults with amblyopia. It is however not clear how much monocular training can enhance binocular visual functions. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate effects of monocular training on a variety of binocular functions. METHODS: Nineteen anisometropic amblyopes (18.5±1.26 yrs) were trained in a grating contrast detection task near each individual's cutoff spatial frequency for 6 to 10 days (630 trials/day)...
June 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635378/people-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-make-more-consistent-decisions
#2
George D Farmer, Simon Baron-Cohen, William J Skylark
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show reduced sensitivity to contextual stimuli in many perceptual and cognitive tasks. We investigated whether this also applies to decision making by examining adult participants' choices between pairs of consumer products that were presented with a third, less desirable "decoy" option. Participants' preferences between the items in a given pair frequently switched when the third item in the set was changed, but this tendency was reduced among individuals with ASC, which indicated that their choices were more consistent and conventionally rational than those of control participants...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#3
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631734/learning-relative-values-in-the-striatum-induces-violations-of-normative-decision-making
#4
Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Gerhard Jocham
To decide optimally between available options, organisms need to learn the values associated with these options. Reinforcement learning models offer a powerful explanation of how these values are learnt from experience. However, human choices often violate normative principles. We suggest that seemingly counterintuitive decisions may arise as a natural consequence of the learning mechanisms deployed by humans. Here, using fMRI and a novel behavioural task, we show that, when suddenly switched to novel choice contexts, participants' choices are incongruent with values learnt by standard learning algorithms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626884/empirical-tests-of-a-brain-based-model-of-executive-function-development
#5
Sammy Perone, Daniel J Plebanek, Megan G Lorenz, John P Spencer, Larissa K Samuelson
Executive function (EF) plays a foundational role in development. A brain-based model of EF development is probed for the experiences that strengthen EF in the dimensional change card sort task in which children sort cards by one rule and then are asked to switch to another. Three-year-olds perseverate on the first rule, failing the task, whereas 4-year-olds pass. Three predictions of the model are tested to help 3-year-olds (N = 54) pass. Experiment 1 shows that experience with shapes and the label "shape" helps children...
June 19, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624971/excelautomat-a-tool-for-systematic-processing-of-files-as-applied-to-quantum-chemical-calculations
#6
Jalal Z A Laloo, Nassirah Laloo, Lydia Rhyman, Ponnadurai Ramasami
The processing of the input and output files of quantum chemical calculations often necessitates a spreadsheet as a key component of the workflow. Spreadsheet packages with a built-in programming language editor can automate the steps involved and thus provide a direct link between processing files and the spreadsheet. This helps to reduce user-interventions as well as the need to switch between different programs to carry out each step. The ExcelAutomat tool is the implementation of this method in Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) using the default Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming language...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624969/movement-timing-and-cognitive-control-adult-age-differences-in-multi-tasking
#7
Anne-Merel Meijer, Ralf T Krampe
Over the course of six sessions, 24 young (M = 19.40 years, SD 1.61) and 24 older participants (M = 71.48 years, SD 3.86) performed simple, repetitive tapping tasks at 300 and 600 ms target durations concurrently with two cognitive tasks under non-switch or switch conditions. Despite substantial improvements, over sessions, reliable switch costs remained, which were pronounced in older adults. Young and older adults alike showed increased drift in the tapping tasks under dual-task conditions. Under dual-task non-switch conditions, older adults maintained the same timing accuracy (variability) as in the single-task condition...
June 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624827/qualitative-assessment-of-verbal-fluency-performance-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#8
Esther van den Berg, Lize C Jiskoot, Mariëlle J H Grosveld, John C van Swieten, Janne M Papma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Verbal fluency is impaired in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This study explored qualitative differences in verbal fluency (clustering of words, switching between strategies) between FTD and PPA variants. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 50 with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic, 14 semantic, and 23 logopenic) performed a semantic and letter fluency task. Clustering (number of multiword strings) and switching (number of transitions between clustered and nonclustered words) were recorded by two independent raters...
June 17, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613191/collective-behaviors-of-mobile-robots-beyond-the-nearest-neighbor-rules-with-switching-topology
#9
Boda Ning, Qing-Long Han, Zongyu Zuo, Jiong Jin, Jinchuan Zheng
This paper is concerned with the collective behaviors of robots beyond the nearest neighbor rules, i.e., dispersion and flocking, when robots interact with others by applying an acute angle test (AAT)-based interaction rule. Different from a conventional nearest neighbor rule or its variations, the AAT-based interaction rule allows interactions with some far-neighbors and excludes unnecessary nearest neighbors. The resulting dispersion and flocking hold the advantages of scalability, connectivity, robustness, and effective area coverage...
June 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611942/variability-among-tsh-measurements-can-be-reduced-by-combining-a-glycoengineered-calibrator-to-epitope-defined-immunoassays
#10
Sandrine Donadio-Andréi, Karim Chikh, Christine Heuclin, Elisabetta Kuczewski, Anne Charrié, Anne-Sophie Gauchez, Catherine Ronin
OBJECTIVES: Measuring protein markers with variable glycosylation, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), with high accuracy is not an easy task. Despite highly sensitive third-generation tests, discrepancies among TSH assays still remain unsolved and are the focus of important standardization efforts. Earlier work from our group showed that a lack of similarity in epitope expression between standards and samples may account for discordant hormone measurements. In this study, we aimed at producing a glycoengineered TSH with serum-type glycosylation and compared its immunological behavior to that of the international standards...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#11
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604043/in-your-shoes-or-mine-shifting-from-other-to-self-perspective-is-vital-for-emotional-empathy
#12
Chui-De Chiu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Emotional empathy-feeling another person's affective states-entails simulating how one would feel in the same circumstance. Prior research has implicated the role of executive controls and shown a link between visuospatial perspective taking and personal disposition of empathy. No study has investigated how executive control processes involved in perspective shifting relate to emotional empathy. Incorporating a spatial perspective-taking task in a set switch paradigm, we investigated whether swiftly switching from the altercentric to the egocentric perspective is associated with heightened emotional empathy but not with accurate classification of low-level perceptual affective cues...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601696/anticipatory-processing-in-social-anxiety-investigation-using-attentional-control-theory
#13
Rachel A Sluis, Mark J Boschen, David L Neumann, Karen Murphy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize anticipatory processing as a prominent maintaining factor occurring before social-evaluative events. While anticipatory processing is a maladaptive process, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie ineffective control of attention are still unclear. The present study tested predictions derived from attentional control theory in a sample of undergraduate students high and low on social anxiety symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599609/effects-of-integrated-designs-of-alarm-and-process-information-on-diagnosis-performance-in-digital-nuclear-power-plants
#14
Xiaojun Wu, Manrong She, Zhizhong Li, Fei Song, Wei Sang
In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators frequently switch between alarm displays and system-information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we investigated two integrated designs of alarm and process information - integrating alarm information into process displays (denoted as Alarm2Process integration) and integrating process information into alarm displays (denoted as Process2Alarm integration). To analyse the effects of the two integration approaches and time pressure on the diagnosis performance, a laboratory experiment was conducted with ninety-six students...
June 9, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599134/self-monitoring-of-driving-speed
#15
Shelly Etzioni, Ido Erev, Robert Ishaq, Wafa Elias, Yoram Shiftan
In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the "Big Brother" concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The "Big Brother" concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding...
June 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597331/inhibition-efficiency-in-highly-proficient-bilinguals-and-simultaneous-interpreters-evidence-from-language-switching-and-stroop-tasks
#16
Xavier Aparicio, Karin Heidlmayr, Frédéric Isel
The present behavioral study aimed to examine the impact of language control expertise on two domain-general control processes, i.e. active inhibition of competing representations and overcoming of inhibition. We compared how Simultaneous Interpreters (SI) and Highly Proficient Bilinguals-two groups assumed to differ in language control capacity-performed executive tasks involving specific inhibition processes. In Experiment 1 (language decision task), both active and overcoming of inhibition processes are involved, while in Experiment 2 (bilingual Stroop task) only interference suppression is supposed to be required...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595140/conditioning-task-switching-behavior
#17
Senne Braem
Most reward studies focus on the reinforcement of simple tasks or stimulus-response rules. However, recent theories (re)emphasized that cognitive control representations should adhere to the same reinforcement learning principles as do more basic stimulus and response representations. This study focused on the act of switching between different tasks, and investigated the effects of disproportionally rewarding task alternations or repetitions in a cued task switching paradigm on subsequent voluntary task switching behavior (i...
June 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594285/cognitive-event-related-potentials-during-the-sub-acute-phase-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-relationship-to-outcome
#18
Solveig L Hauger, Kjell Olafsen, Caroline Schnakers, Nada Andelic, Kristian Bernhard Nilsen, Eirik Helseth, Ingrid Funderud, Stein Andersson, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Marianne Løvstad
Predicting outcome in the early phase after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major clinical challenge, particularly identifying patients with potential of good cognitive outcome. The current single center prospective study aimed to explore presence and normalization of electroencephalography (EEG)-based event related potentials (ERPs) in the early phase following sTBI, and their relationship to functional and cognitive outcome 6 months post-injury. Fourteen adult patients with sTBI were recruited from the neurointensive care unit (mean age=38...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594189/shifting-between-mental-sets-an-individual-differences-approach-to-commonalities-and-differences-of-task-switching-components
#19
Claudia C von Bastian, Michel D Druey
Switching between mental sets has been extensively investigated in both experimental and individual differences research using a wide range of task-switch paradigms. However, it is yet unclear whether these different tasks measure a unitary shifting ability or reflect different facets thereof. In this study, 20 task pairs were administered to 119 young adults to assess 5 proposed components of mental set shifting: switching between judgments, stimulus dimensions, stimulus-response mappings, response sets, and stimulus sets...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593105/photobiomodulation-with-near-infrared-light-helmet-in-a-pilot-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-in-dementia-patients-testing-memory-and-cognition
#20
Marvin H Berman, James P Halper, Trent W Nichols, H Jarrett, Alan Lundy, Jason H Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common, chronic expensive debilitating neurodegenerative disease with no current treatments to prevent the physical deterioration of the brain and the consequent cognitive deficits. The current pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques. Antibody therapy of Tau and Amyloid beta, vaccines and other methods to decrease Tau and or Amyloid have not been successful after considerable pharmaceutical and biotech efforts...
2017: Journal of neurology and neuroscience
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