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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#1
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
August 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#2
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814979/executive-functioning-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-domain-asynchrony-and-age-related-performance
#3
Donna Reid, Jo Moss, Lisa Nelson, Laura Groves, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813995/a-novel-human-effort-estimation-method-for-knee-assistive-exoskeletons
#4
Lorenzo Saccares, Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Nikos G Tsagarakis
In this work we present a novel method to estimate online the torques at the knee joints with the goal to generate reference signals for knee assistive devices. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is its reduced sensing requirements, which leads to an ergonomic setup with minimal instrumentation, especially above the knee and of the upper body. Indeed, only the measurement of the forces and torques exchanged between the ground and the user's feet, the posture of the shanks, and the model of the user's shank itself are needed for the estimation of the knee torque...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#5
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806899/executive-functioning-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-domain-asynchrony-and-age-related-performance
#6
Donna Reid, Jo Moss, Lisa Nelson, Laura Groves, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#7
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797600/the-rat-retrosplenial-cortex-as-a-link-for-frontal-functions-a-lesion-analysis
#8
Anna L Powell, Andrew Nelson, Emma Hindley, Moira Davies, John P Aggleton, Seralynne D Vann
Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning...
August 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795236/a-novel-continuous-inhibitory-control-task-variation-in-individual-performance-by-young-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus
#9
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
August 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794192/neural-correlates-for-task-switching-in-the-macaque-superior-colliculus
#10
Jason Lloyd Chan, Michael J Koval, Kevin Johnston, Stefan Everling
Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782680/bilinguals-have-more-complex-eeg-brain-signals-in-occipital-regions-than-monolinguals
#11
John G Grundy, John A E Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
Brain signal complexity increases with development and is associated with better cognitive outcomes in older age. Research has also shown that bilinguals are able to stave off cognitive decline for longer periods of time than monolinguals, but no studies to date have examined whether bilinguals have more complex brain signals than monolinguals. Here we explored the hypothesis that bilingualism leads to greater brain signal complexity by examining multiscale entropy (MSE) in monolingual and bilingual young adults while EEG was recorded during a task-switching paradigm...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#12
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776698/intertrial-rt-variability-affects-level-of-target-related-interference-in-cued-task-switching
#13
Alexander Provost, Sharna Jamadar, Andrew Heathcote, Scott D Brown, Frini Karayanidis
In cued task switching, performance relies on proactive and reactive control processes. Proactive control is evident in the reduction in switch cost under conditions that promote advance preparation. However, the residual switch cost that remains under conditions of optimal proactive control indicates that, on switch trials, the target continues to elicit interference that is resolved using reactive control. We examined whether posttarget interference varies as a function of trial-by-trial variability in preparation...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771087/when-comprehension-elicits-incomprehension-deterioration-of-semantic-categorisation-in-the-absence-of-stimulus-repetition
#14
Upasana Nathaniel, Hannah E Thompson, Emma Davies, Dominic Arnold, Glyn Hallam, Sara Stampacchia, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Repetition improves retrieval from memory; however, under some circumstances, it can also impair performance. Separate literatures have investigated this phenomenon, including studies showing subjective loss of meaning following "semantic satiation", slowed naming and categorisation when semantically-related items are repeated, and semantic "access deficits" in aphasia. Such effects have been variously explained in terms of habituation of repeatedly-accessed representations, increased interference from strongly activated competitors, and longer-term weight changes reflecting the suppression of non-targets on earlier trials (i...
August 3, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762894/how-patients-navigate-the-diagnostic-ecosystem-in-a-fragmented-health-system-a-qualitative-study-from-india
#15
Vijayashree Yellapa, Narayanan Devadasan, Anja Krumeich, Nitika Pant Pai, Caroline Vadnais, Madhukar Pai, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Depending on a country's diagnostic infrastructure, patients and providers play different roles in ensuring that correct and timely diagnosis is made. However, little is known about the work done by patients in accessing diagnostic services and completing the 'test and treat' loop. OBJECTIVE: To address this knowledge gap, we traced the diagnostic journeys of patients with tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and typhoid, and examined the work they had to do to arrive at a diagnosis...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761553/scale-freeness-of-dominant-and-piecemeal-perceptions-during-binocular-rivalry
#16
Fatemeh Bakouie, Morteza Pishnamazi, Roxana Zeraati, Shahriar Gharibzadeh
When two eyes are simultaneously stimulated by two inconsistent images, the observer's perception switches between the two images every few seconds such that only one image is perceived at a time. This phenomenon is named binocular rivalry (BR). However, sometimes the perceived image is a piecemeal mixed of two stimuli known as piecemeal perceptions. In this study, a BR task was designed in which orthogonal gratings are presented to the two eyes. The subjects were trained to report 3 states: dominant perceptions (two state matching to perceived grating orientation) and the piecemeal perceptions (third state)...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757773/vascular-burden-and-brain-aging-in-a-senior-volunteer-cohort-a-pilot-study
#17
Raymond Y Lo, Yen-Chieh Lo, Shu-Cin Chen, Yu-Ying Li, Ya-Ling Yang, Yu-Ling Chang, Huei-Chuan Sung, Tina H T Chiu, Joshua O S Goh
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of establishing a senior volunteer cohort and describe vascular risks, cognitive function, and brain aging indices in a pilot study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 40 senior volunteers from the Tzu Chi Foundation and other organizations in Hualien in 2014-2015. We conducted in-person interviews to collect information on demographic features, physical fitness, dietary habits, comorbidities, and narratives of aging. Vascular risks including blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum glucose level, and lipid profile were examined...
April 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755458/tonic-noradrenergic-activity-modulates-explorative-behavior-and-attentional-set-shifting-evidence-from-pupillometry-and-gaze-pattern-analysis
#18
Péter Pajkossy, Ágnes Szőllősi, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány
A constant task for every living organism is to decide whether to exploit rewards associated with current behavior or to explore the environment for more rewarding options. Current empirical evidence indicates that exploitation is related to phasic whereas exploration is related to tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In humans, this exploration-exploitation trade-off is subserved by the ability to flexibly switch attention between task-related and task-irrelevant information. Here, we investigated whether this function, called attentional set shifting, is related to exploration and tonic noradrenergic discharge...
July 29, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754901/scheduled-feeding-restores-memory-and-modulates-c-fos-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-septohippocampal-complex
#19
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752317/shifting-the-set-of-stimulus-selection-when-switching-between-tasks
#20
Mike Wendt, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Thomas Jacobsen
Switching between tasks associated with different requirements of stimulus selection may suffer interference from persisting attentional settings or processes of reconfiguration, possibly constituting a source of task switch costs (i.e., impaired performance in task switch trials compared to task repetition trials). To explore the processes involved in task switching with and without a switch in stimulus selection requirements, we administered a task-switching paradigm that involved task-unique sets of hierarchical (Navon) stimuli, preventing stimulus-related proactive interference (i...
July 27, 2017: Psychological Research
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