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task switching

Susan Malkiel, Ashley N Barlev, Yemil Atisha-Fregoso, Jolien Suurmond, Betty Diamond
Plasma cells (PCs) are responsible for the production of protective antibodies against infectious agents but they also produce pathogenic antibodies in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Traditionally, high affinity IgG autoantibodies are thought to arise through germinal center (GC) responses. However, class switching and somatic hypermutation can occur in extrafollicular (EF) locations, and this pathway has also been implicated in SLE. The pathway from which PCs originate may determine several characteristics, such as PC lifespan and sensitivity to therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez, John K Tsotsos
Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST) proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih) to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michael Freund, Nazbanou Nozari
Recent work using the Picture Word Interference (PWI) paradigm has revealed that language production, similar to non-verbal tasks, shows a robust Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE), defined as a decreased congruency effect following incongruent trials. Although CSE is considered an index of adaptive control, its mechanism is debated. In two experiments, we tested the predictions of a learning model of adaptive control in production, using a task-switching paradigm fully balanced to evaluate CSE on a PWI trial as a function of the congruency of a 2-back PWI trial (within-task CSE), as well as a 1-back trial belonging to a different task (cross-task CSE)...
March 15, 2018: Cognition
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Markus Aichhorn, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
In a constantly changing environment we must adapt to both abrupt and gradual changes to incoming information. Previously, we demonstrated that a distributed network (including the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex) was active when participants updated their initial representations (e.g., it's a cat) in a gradually morphing picture task (e.g., now it's a rabbit; Stöttinger et al., 2015). To shed light on whether these activations reflect the proactive decisions to update or perceptual uncertainty, we introduced two additional conditions...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Amara Gul, Sadia Zafar
The objective of the current study was to compare cognitive flexibility and emotion regulation between childhood survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) and healthy control subjects. Twenty-five childhood survivors of ALL treated with intrathecal chemotherapy between 2013 to 2016 from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Children Hospital and Jinnah Hospital Lahore and twenty-five healthy demographically matched children (control group) participated in the study. Participants performed task switching experiment as a measure of cognitive flexibility and emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Shahaf Weiss, Dori Derdikman
Since their discovery, mammalian head-direction (HD) cells have been extensively researched in terms of sensory origins, external cue control and circuitry. However, the relationship of HD cells to behavior is not yet fully understood. In the current review, we examine the anatomical clues for information flow in the HD circuit, and an emerging body of evidence that links between neural activity of HD cells and spatial orientation. We hypothesize from results obtained in spatial orientation tasks involving HD cells, that when properly aligned with available external cues, the HD signal could be used for guiding rats to a goal location...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Marcos Daou, Julia Montagner Sassi, Matthew W Miller, Adam M Gonzalez
This study assessed whether a multi-ingredient energy supplement (MIES) could enhance cerebral-cortical activation and cognitive performance during an attention-switching task. Cerebral-cortical activation was recorded in 24 young adults (12 males, 12 females; 22.8 ± 3.8 yrs) via electroencephalography (EEG) both at rest and during the attention-switching task before (pretest) and 30 min after (posttest) consumption of a single serving of a MIES (MIES-1), two servings of a MIES (MIES-2), or a placebo (PL) in a double-blinded, randomized crossover experimental design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Mary K Moore, Thea E Smith, Daniel A Crafton, Kelly L Marden
The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Victor Mittelstädt, Jeff Miller, Andrea Kiesel
In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay...
March 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope, Benedetto Romoli, Esther Schrurs, Aniek Joosen, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Richard F Sharp, Davide Dulcis
Developing novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder (BD) has been hampered by limited mechanistic knowledge how sufferers switch between mania and depression-how the same brain can switch between extreme states-described as the "holy grail" of BD research. Strong evidence implicates seasonally-induced switching between states, with mania associated with summer-onset, depression with winter-onset. Determining mechanisms of and sensitivity to such switching is required. C57BL/6J and dopamine transporter hypomorphic (DAT-HY 50% expression) mice performed a battery of psychiatry-relevant behavioral tasks following 2-week housing in chambers under seasonally relevant photoperiod extremes...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Iring Koch, Edita Poljac, Hermann Müller, Andrea Kiesel
Numerous studies showed decreased performance in situations that require multiple tasks or actions relative to appropriate control conditions. Because humans often engage in such multitasking activities, it is important to understand how multitasking affects performance. In the present article, we argue that research on dual-task interference and sequential task switching has proceeded largely separately using different experimental paradigms and methodology. In our article we aim at organizing this complex set of research in terms of three complementary research perspectives on human multitasking...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Kerri Elsabrout, Eleanor Orbacz, Leigh Anne McMahon, Susan Apold
BACKGROUND: Identifying strategies to protect patients most at risk for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) is essential. HAPUs have significant impact on patients and their families and have profound cost and reimbursement implications. AIMS: This article describes the successful implementation of a hospital-wide mattress switch-out program using a Multidisciplinary Task Force, which resulted in a decrease in HAPUs and significant cost savings. RESULTS: As a result of this quality improvement project supported by evidence, the hospital realized a 66...
March 8, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Buxin Chen, Zheng Zhang, Dan Xia, Emil Y Sidky, Xiaochuan Pan
PURPOSE: We seek to investigate an optimization-based one-step method for image reconstruction that explicitly compensates for non-linear spectral response (i.e., the beam-hardening effect) in dual-energy CT, to investigate the feasibility of the one-step method for enabling two dual-energy partial-angular-scan configurations, referred to as the short- and half-scan configurations, on standard CT scanners without involving additional hardware, and to investigate the potential of the short- and half-scan configurations in reducing imaging dose and scan time in a single-kVp-switch full-scan configuration in which two full rotations are made for collection of dual-energy data...
March 8, 2018: Medical Physics
Christopher R Brydges, Francisco Barceló
Cognitive control warrants efficient task performance in dynamic and changing environments through adjustments in executive attention, stimulus and response selection. The well-known P300 component of the human event-related potential (ERP) has long been proposed to index "context-updating"-critical for cognitive control-in simple target detection tasks. However, task switching ERP studies have revealed both target P3 (300-350 ms) and later sustained P3-like potentials (400-1,200 ms) to first targets ensuing transition cues, although it remains unclear whether these target P3-like potentials also reflect context updating operations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiaokang Shu, Shugeng Chen, Lin Yao, Xinjun Sheng, Dingguo Zhang, Ning Jiang, Jie Jia, Xiangyang Zhu
Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10-50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI) and cortical activation strength (CAS), to predict MI-BCI performance...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Saki Yanagihara, Wataru Suehiro, Yuki Mitaka, Kenji Matsuura
Who should take on risky tasks in an age-heterogeneous society? Life-history theory predicts that, in social insects, riskier tasks should be undertaken by sterile individuals with a shorter life expectancy. The loss of individuals with shorter life expectancy is less costly for colony reproductive success than the loss of individuals with longer life expectancy. Termite colonies have a sterile soldier caste, specialized defenders engaged in the most risky tasks. Here we show that termite soldiers exhibit age-dependent polyethism, as old soldiers are engaged in front-line defence more than young soldiers...
March 2018: Biology Letters
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