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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934605/individual-differences-in-switching-and-inhibition-predict-perspective-taking-across-the-lifespan
#1
Madeleine R Long, William S Horton, Hannah Rohde, Antonella Sorace
Studies exploring the influence of executive functions (EF) on perspective-taking have focused on inhibition and working memory in young adults or clinical populations. Less consideration has been given to more complex capacities that also involve switching attention between perspectives, or to changes in EF and concomitant effects on perspective-taking across the lifespan. To address this, we assessed whether individual differences in inhibition and attentional switching in healthy adults (ages 17-84) predict performance on a task in which speakers identified targets for a listener with size-contrasting competitors in common or privileged ground...
September 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#2
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933436/stereodivergent-synthesis-with-a-programmable-molecular-machine
#3
Salma Kassem, Alan T L Lee, David A Leigh, Vanesa Marcos, Leoni I Palmer, Simone Pisano
It has been convincingly argued that molecular machines that manipulate individual atoms, or highly reactive clusters of atoms, with Ångström precision are unlikely to be realized. However, biological molecular machines routinely position rather less reactive substrates in order to direct chemical reaction sequences, from sequence-specific synthesis by the ribosome to polyketide synthases, where tethered molecules are passed from active site to active site in multi-enzyme complexes. Artificial molecular machines have been developed for tasks that include sequence-specific oligomer synthesis and the switching of product chirality, a photo-responsive host molecule has been described that is able to mechanically twist a bound molecular guest, and molecular fragments have been selectively transported in either direction between sites on a molecular platform through a ratchet mechanism...
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932858/self-assembled-clusters-of-patchy-rod-like-molecules
#4
Miroslav Jurásek, Robert Vácha
The design of complex self-assembled structures remains a challenging task due to the intricate relationship between the properties of the building blocks and the final morphology of the aggregates. Here, we report such a relationship for rod-like particles with one or two attractive patches based on a combination of computer simulations and analytical theory. We investigated the formation of finite aggregates under various conditions and constructed structure diagrams, which can be used to determine and extrapolate the system composition...
September 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928096/burnout-is-associated-with-changes-in-error-and-feedback-processing
#5
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a pattern of complaints in individuals with emotionally demanding jobs that is often seen as a precursor of depression. One often reported symptom of burnout is cognitive decline. To analyze cognitive control and to differentiate between subclinical burnout and mild-to-moderate depression a double-blinded study was conducted that investigates changes in the processing of performance errors and feedback in a task switching paradigm. Fifty-one of 76 employees from emotionally demanding jobs showed a sufficient number of errors to be included in the analysis...
September 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926732/multifunctional-mesoporous-zro2-encapsulated-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-mild-nir-light-activated-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#6
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924667/correlative-in-resin-super-resolution-fluorescence-and-electron-microscopy-of-cultured-cells
#7
Errin Johnson, Rainer Kaufmann
Correlative super-resolution light and electron microscopy (super-resolution CLEM) is a powerful and emerging tool in biological research. The practical realization of these two very different microscopy techniques with their individual requirements remains a challenging task. There is a broad range of approaches to choose from, each with their own advantages and limitations. Here, we present a detailed protocol for in-resin super-resolution CLEM of high-pressure frozen and freeze substituted cultured cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923518/motor-skill-experience-modulates-executive-control-for-task-switching
#8
Qiuhua Yu, Chetwyn C H Chan, Bolton Chau, Amy S N Fu
This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid...
September 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923361/frontoparietal-theta-oscillations-during-proactive-control-are-associated-with-goal-updating-and-reduced-behavioral-variability
#9
Patrick S Cooper, Aaron S W Wong, Montana McKewen, Patricia T Michie, Frini Karayanidis
Low frequency oscillations in the theta range (4-8Hz) are increasingly recognized as having a crucial role in flexible cognition. Such evidence is typically derived from studies in the context of reactive (stimulus-driven) control processes. However, little research has explored the role of theta oscillations in preparatory control processes. In the current study, we explored the extent of theta oscillations during proactive cognitive control and determined if these oscillations were associated with behavior...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919408/neural-oscillations-reflect-latent-learning-states-underlying-dual-context-sensorimotor-adaptation
#10
Justin M Fine, Dalton Moore, Marco Santello
Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913859/changes-in-frontal-and-posterior-cortical-activity-underlie-the-early-emergence-of-executive-function
#11
Aaron T Buss, John P Spencer
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive ability? Traditionally, frontal cortex growth is thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (Bunge & Zelazo, 2006; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2009). However, more recent data highlight the importance of long-range cortical interactions between frontal and posterior brain regions...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912256/mitochondrial-capacity-oxidative-damage-and-hypoxia-gene-expression-are-associated-with-age-related-division-of-labor-in-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-workers
#12
Mário S Cervoni, Carlos A M Cardoso-Júnior, Giovana Craveiro, Anderson de O Souza, Luciane C Alberici, Klaus Hartfelder
During adult life, honeybee workers undergo a succession of behavioral states. Nurses bees perform tasks inside the nest, and when they are about 2-3 weeks old they initiate foraging. This switch is associated with alterations in diet, and with the levels of juvenile hormone and vitellogenin circulating in hemolymph. Less clear is whether this behavioral maturation involves major changes at the cellular level, such as mitochondrial activity and the redox environment in the head, thorax and abdomen. Using high-resolution respirometry, biochemical assays and RT-qPCR, we evaluated the association of these parameters with this behavioral change...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900903/the-cost-of-switching-between-taxonomic-and-thematic-semantics
#13
Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Daniel Mirman
Current models and theories of semantic knowledge primarily capture taxonomic relationships (DOG and WOLF) and largely do not address the role of thematic relationships in semantic knowledge (DOG and LEASH). Recent evidence suggests that processing or representation of thematic relationships may be distinct from taxonomic relationships. If taxonomic and thematic relations are distinct, then there should be a cost associated with switching between them even when the task remains constant. This hypothesis was tested using two different semantic-relatedness judgment tasks: Experiment 1 used a triads task and Experiment 2 used an oddball task...
September 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900892/increased-locus-coeruleus-tonic-activity-causes-disengagement-from-a-patch-foraging-task
#14
Gary A Kane, Elena M Vazey, Robert C Wilson, Amitai Shenhav, Nathaniel D Daw, Gary Aston-Jones, Jonathan D Cohen
High levels of locus coeruleus (LC) tonic activity are associated with distraction and poor performance within a task. Adaptive gain theory (AGT; Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that this may reflect an adaptive function of the LC, encouraging search for more remunerative opportunities in times of low utility. Here, we examine whether stimulating LC tonic activity using designer receptors (DREADDs) promotes searching for better opportunities in a patch-foraging task as the value of a patch diminishes. The task required rats to decide repeatedly whether to exploit an immediate but depleting reward within a patch or to incur the cost of a time delay to travel to a new, fuller patch...
September 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891520/neurons-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex-represent-the-switching-of-intended-hand-path-in-a-delayed-reaching-task
#15
Xuan Ma, Chaolin Ma, Peng Zhang, Tao Kang, Jiping He
Dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is considered to play a crucial role in motor preparation, yet how the variation of neuronal activity affects the generation of different circumstances dependent movements remains unclear. Here we trained two monkeys to perform a delayed reaching task instructed by two sets of cues, one for indicating the target locations and another for indicating a conditionally presented virtual obstacle in the reaching path, which required the monkey to make a bypassing instead of straight reaching...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888042/effect-of-a-multinutrient-intervention-after-ischemic-stroke-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Maximilian Wiesmann, Nienke M Timmer, Bastian Zinnhardt, Dirk Reinhard, Sarah Eligehausen, Anja Königs, Hasnae Ben Jeddi, Pieter J Dederen, Andreas H Jacobs, Amanda J Kiliaan
Stroke can affect females very differently from males, and therefore preclinical research on underlying mechanisms and the effects of interventions should not be restricted to male subjects, and treatment strategies for stroke should be tailored to benefit both sexes. Previously, we demonstrated that a multinutrient intervention (Fortasyn) improved impairments after ischemic stroke induction in male C57Bl/6 mice, but the therapeutic potential of this dietary treatment remained to be investigated in females...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887055/how-to-control-an-intracellular-proteolytic-system-coordinated-regulatory-switches-in-the-mycobacterial-pup-proteasome-system
#17
REVIEW
Eyal Gur, Maayan Korman, Nir Hecht, Ofir Regev, Shai Schlussel, Nimrod Silberberg, Yifat Elharar
Intracellular proteolysis is critical for the proper functioning of all cells, owing to its involvement in a wide range of processes. Because of the destructive nature of protein degradation, intracellular proteolysis is restricted by control mechanisms at almost every step of the proteolytic process. Understanding the coordination of such mechanisms is a challenging task, especially in systems as complex as the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In comparison, the bacterial analog of the UPS, the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) is much simpler and, therefore, allows for insight into the control of a proteolytic system...
September 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878715/commentary-task-switching-in-pigeons-associative-learning-or-executive-control
#18
COMMENT
Xiangqian Li, Bingxin Li, Martin Lages, Gijsbert Stoet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873772/home-testing-of-a-digital-prompter-for-people-with-dementia
#19
Hazel Boyd, Nina Evans, Richard Cheston, Krist Noonan, Nigel Harris
This technology evaluation study assessed a personalised digital prompter designed for people with dementia, by trialling its use in the home by people with dementia and their carers. Technology based prompting may be used to support people with dementia to complete multi-step tasks in the home, provided that suitable tasks can be chosen and that a carer is able to load appropriate task steps onto the prompter. A prompter was developed specifically for this purpose, along with a detailed guidance manual. Twelve participants with mild or moderate dementia carried out cognitive tests and their carers completed carer burden and carer competence scales...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871331/exploring-the-repetition-bias-in-voluntary-task-switching
#20
Victor Mittelstädt, David Dignath, Magdalena Schmidt-Ott, Andrea Kiesel
In the voluntary task-switching paradigm, participants are required to randomly select tasks. We reasoned that the consistent finding of a repetition bias (i.e., participants repeat tasks more often than expected by chance) reflects reasonable adaptive task selection behavior to balance the goal of random task selection with the goals to minimize the time and effort for task performance. We conducted two experiments in which participants were provided with variable amount of preview for the non-chosen task stimuli (i...
September 4, 2017: Psychological Research
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