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task switching

Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
Vasileios Papaliagkas, G Papantoniou, Magda Tsolaki, Despina Moraitou
BACKGROUND: The term "Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI)" is the most widely accepted term for cognitive complaints of otherwise apparently healthy older adults. It is presently clear that SCI might be a risk factor for the development of Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia. As regards SCI measurement and potential diagnosis, several studies showed that SCI is a condition in which people score in the normal range on common tests but believe they experience cognitive decline. Hence, to assess the characteristic of the SCI subtle cognitive decline, self-report measures were developed to estimate "self-experience" of minimal decline in cognition seem the most appropriate tools...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Chimno Ihuoma Nnadi, Meredith L Jenkins, Daniel R Gentile, Leslie A Bateman, Daniel Zaidman, Trent E Balius, Daniel K Nomura, John E Burke, Kevan M Shokat, Nir London
The success of targeted covalent inhibitors in the global pharmaceutical industry has led to a resurgence of covalent drug discovery. However, covalent inhibitor design for flexible binding sites remains a difficult task due to lack of methodological development. Here, we compared covalent docking to empirical electrophile screening, against the highly dynamic target K-RasG12C. While the overall hit-rate of both methods was comparable, we were able to rapidly progress a docking hit to a potent irreversible covalent inhibitor that modifies the inactive, GDP-bound state of K-RasG12C...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Yusuke Moriguchi, Ikuko Shinohara
Low executive function (EF) during early childhood is a major risk factor for developmental delay, academic failure, and social withdrawal. Susceptible genes may affect the molecular and biological mechanisms underpinning EF. More specifically, genes associated with the regulation of prefrontal dopamine may modulate the response of prefrontal neurons during executive control. Several studies with adults and older children have shown that variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with behavioral performance and prefrontal activations in EF tasks...
January 4, 2018: Developmental Science
Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Emily E Barkley-Levenson, Benjamin J Smith, Gui Xue, Lynn C Miller, Antoine Bechara, Zhong-Lin Lu, Stephen J Read
The insula plays an important role in response inhibition. Most relevant here, it has been proposed that the dorsal anterior insular cortex (dAIC) plays a central role in a salience network that is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the executive control network. However, the insula's role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been studied. In this study, eighty-five 18- to 30-year-old sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) performed an erotic Go/NoGo task while in an MRI scanner...
January 3, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Kristin French, Michael J Beran, Kimberly Andrews Espy, David A Washburn
Executive functions (EF) have been studied extensively in children and adults. However, EF tasks for young children can be difficult to administer and interpret. Espy (1997, Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 495-499) designed the Shape School task to measure inhibition and switching in preschool-aged children. Shape School presents cartoon-like characters that children must flexibly name by their color, their shape, or both, depending on cues that indicate the appropriate rule. Shape School has been found to be age sensitive as well as predictive of performance on other EF tasks...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Charlotte O Brand, Gillian R Brown, Catharine P Cross
Social learning provides an effective route to gaining up-to-date information, particularly when information is costly to obtain asocially. Theoretical work predicts that the willingness to switch between using asocial and social sources of information will vary between individuals according to their risk tolerance. We tested the prediction that, where there are sex differences in risk tolerance, altering the variance of the payoffs of using asocial and social information differentially influences the probability of social information use by sex...
2018: PeerJ
R Battini, D Chieffo, S Bulgheroni, G Piccini, C Pecini, S Lucibello, S Lenzi, F Moriconi, M Pane, G Astrea, G Baranello, P Alfieri, S Vicari, D Riva, G Cioni, E Mercuri
The aim of our prospective observational study was to assess profiles of cognitive function and a possible impairment of executive functions in a cohort of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy without intellectual and behavior disability. Forty Duchenne boys (range of age: 6 years to 11 years and 6 months) were assessed by Wechsler Intelligence scale and battery of tests including tasks assessing working memory and executive functions (inhibition and switching, problem solving and planning). In our cohort some aspects of cognitive function were often impaired...
December 6, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
December 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Steeve Laquitaine, Justin L Gardner
Human perceptual inference has been fruitfully characterized as a normative Bayesian process in which sensory evidence and priors are multiplicatively combined to form posteriors from which sensory estimates can be optimally read out. We tested whether this basic Bayesian framework could explain human subjects' behavior in two estimation tasks in which we varied the strength of sensory evidence (motion coherence or contrast) and priors (set of directions or orientations). We found that despite excellent agreement of estimates mean and variability with a Basic Bayesian observer model, the estimate distributions were bimodal with unpredicted modes near the prior and the likelihood...
December 27, 2017: Neuron
Thomas Kleinsorge, Juliane Scheil
We replicated and extended previous evidence regarding functional differences between guessing versus choosing an upcoming task. Participants switched among four tasks and were asked to predict the upcoming task on each trial. These predictions were instructed to participants as either 'guessing' or 'choosing'. Furthermore, we varied the proportion of trials in which the presented task conformed to participants' predictions on three levels. Whereas with choosing instructions unexpectedness affected task switches and repetitions similarly, leaving switch costs unchanged, with guessing instructions switch costs were reduced, that is, task switches were affected less than repetitions...
December 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Nicky van Melick, Bart M Meddeler, Thomas J Hoogeboom, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Robert E H van Cingel
CONTEXT: Since decades leg dominance is suggested to be important in rehabilitation and return to play in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, an ideal method to determine leg dominance in relation to task performance is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To test the agreement between self-reported and observed leg dominance in bilateral mobilizing and unilateral stabilizing tasks, and to assess whether the dominant leg switches between bilateral mobilizing tasks and unilateral stabilizing tasks...
2017: PloS One
Gordon D Logan
Cognitive control is often viewed as an ability or as an interaction between higher and lower level systems. This article takes an instance perspective, articulating the view that cognitive control is accomplished by a multiplicity of specific acts of control tailored to accomplish specific adjustments to the cognitive system in specific circumstances. Acts of control take states of the cognitive system and states of the world as inputs, perform computations, and produce changes in the state of the cognitive system as output...
December 2017: American Psychologist
Hongbing Fu, Lu Xiao, Yishi Wu, Zhenyi Yu, Zhenzhen Xu, Jinbiao Li, Yanping Liu, Jiannian Yao
Organic room-temperature phosphorescence (ORTP), when combined with external stimuli-responsive capability, is very attractive for sensors and bio-imaging devices, but remains a challengeable task. Herein, by doping two β-iminoenamine-BF2 derivatives (S-2CN and S-2I) into 4-iodoaniline (I-ph-NH2) crystalline matrix, the formation of S-2CN···I-ph-NH2 and S-2I···NH2-ph-I halogen bonds leads to bright red RTP emissions from these two host/guest doped crystals (hgDCs) with quantum efficiencies up to 13.43% and 15...
December 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Recep A Ozdemir, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, William H Paloski
This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions...
December 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Kenko Fujii, Gauthier Gras, Antonino Salerno, Guang-Zhong Yang
While minimally invasive surgery offers great benefits in terms of reduced patient trauma, bleeding, as well as faster recovery time, it still presents surgeons with major ergonomic challenges. Laparoscopic surgery requires the surgeon to bimanually control surgical instruments during the operation. A dedicated assistant is thus required to manoeuvre the camera, which is often difficult to synchronise with the surgeon's movements. This article introduces a robotic system in which a rigid endoscope held by a robotic arm is controlled via the surgeon's eye movement, thus forgoing the need for a camera assistant...
November 28, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Tómas Kristjánsson, Árni Kristjánsson
A key assumption in the literature on visual attention is that templates, actively maintained in visual working memory (VWM), guide visual attention. An important question therefore involves the nature and capacity of VWM. According to load theories, more than one search template can be active at the same time and capacity is determined by the total load rather than a precise number of templates. By an alternative account only one search template can be active within visual working memory at any given time, while other templates are in an accessory state - but do not affect visual selection...
December 21, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Darryl W Schneider
Conflict during response selection in task switching is indicated by the response congruency effect: worse performance for incongruent targets (requiring different responses across tasks) than for congruent targets (requiring the same response). The effect can be explained by dual-task processing in a mediated route for response selection, whereby targets are categorized with respect to both tasks. In the present study, the author tested predictions for the modulation of response congruency effects by categorization difficulty derived from a relative-speed-of-processing hypothesis...
December 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hwamee Oh, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
OBJECTIVE: To examine neural correlates of intellectual activity underlying multiple pathways imparting reserve by testing that higher intellectual activity is associated with lower brain amyloid pathology, greater gray matter (GM) volume, and differential task-evoked brain activation levels as a function of amyloid positivity status among clinically intact older adults. METHODS: Eighty-two cognitively normal older adults and 46 healthy young participants underwent fMRI during task switching...
December 22, 2017: Neurology
Kimberly J Schlesinger, Benjamin O Turner, Scott T Grafton, Michael B Miller, Jean M Carlson
Current approaches to dynamic community detection in complex networks can fail to identify multi-scale community structure, or to resolve key features of community dynamics. We propose a targeted node removal technique to improve the resolution of community detection. Using synthetic oscillator networks with well-defined "ground truth" communities, we quantify the community detection performance of a common modularity maximization algorithm. We show that the performance of the algorithm on communities of a given size deteriorates when these communities are embedded in multi-scale networks with communities of different sizes, compared to the performance in a single-scale network...
2017: PloS One
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