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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093305/role-of-leptin-in-conditioned-place-preference-to-high-fat-diet-in-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice
#1
Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Cheol Son, Daisuke Aotani, Hidenari Nomura, Takatoshi Hikida, Kiminori Hosoda, Kazuwa Nakao
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived anorexic hormone that exerts its effects via the hypothalamus and other brain regions, including the reward system. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice that present morbid obesity, hyperphagia, insulin resistance, and infertility are one of the most investigated mouse models of obesity. Conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm is a standard behavioral model to evaluate the rewarding value of substrates. While leptin is reported to decrease the CPP of lean mice for high fat diet (HFD), it is unknown how CPP toward HFD is affected by leptin replacement in the pathophysiological condition of ob/ob mice...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087222/revisiting-the-refeeding-syndrome-results-of-a-systematic-review
#2
Natalie Friedli, Zeno Stanga, Lubos Sobotka, Alison Culkin, Jens Kondrup, Alessandro Laviano, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: Although described >70 y ago, the refeeding syndrome (RFS) remains understudied with lack of standardized definition and treatment recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to gather evidence regarding standardized definition, incidence rate and time course of occurrence, association with adverse clinical outcomes, risk factors, and therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat this condition. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for interventional and observational clinical trials focusing on RFS, excluding case reports and reviews...
June 8, 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051332/activation-of-the-central-melanocortin-system-chronically-reduces-body-mass-without-the-necessity-of-long-term-caloric-restriction
#3
I Côté, Y Sakarya, N Kirichenko, D Morgan, C S Carter, N Tümer, P J Scarpace
Melanotan II (MTII) is a potent appetite suppressor that rapidly reduces body mass. Given the rapid loss of anorexic response upon chronic MTII treatment, most investigations have focused on the initial physiological adaptations. However, other evidence supports MTII as a long-term modulator of energy balance that remains to be established. Therefore, we examined the chronic effects of MTII on energy homeostasis. MTII (high or low dose) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) was infused into the lateral ventricle of the brain of 6-month-old F344BN rats (6-7/group) over 40 days...
October 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040488/systemic-administration-of-anorexic-gut-peptide-hormones-impairs-hedonic-driven-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#4
Erina Yamaguchi, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Tsuyoshi Shimura
A number of reports suggest that gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY3-36), which are released postprandially, suppress homeostatic food intake and result in satiety and the termination of feeding. However, it remains unclear whether these peptide hormones also suppress non-homeostatic consumption of palatable foods or fluids. To examine whether gut hormones reduce hedonically motivated sugar consumption, we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal administration of these gut hormones on the consumption of a highly palatable sucrose solution, using a mouse model we previously established for binge-like sucrose overconsumption (Yasoshima and Shimura, 2015)...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027941/analysis-of-pharmaceutical-adulterants-in-plant-food-supplements-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#5
Paula Paíga, Manuela J E Rodrigues, Manuela Correia, Joana S Amaral, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Cristina Delerue-Matos
A method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was successfully developed and validated for the analysis of 26 pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes (anorexics, stimulants, anxiolytics, antidepressants and laxatives), which are all prone to be illegally added into weight-loss plant food supplements (PFS) for their pharmacological activity...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterization-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#6
Shimpei Higo, Norio Iijima, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction, and acts by stimulating neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridization (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurons in the rat brain which were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurons is prominent...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934625/ultrasonographic-findings-in-two-sheep-with-enzootic-calcinosis
#7
U Braun, K Mitchell, S Schramm, S Nogler, J Hatt, A Malbon
This report describes 2 sheep with enzootic calcinosis characterized by abnormal cardiovascular and respiratory findings and ascites causing abdominal distension. Both sheep were anorexic and listless and had increased heart and respiratory rates. Auscultation of the heart revealed a gallop rhythm in sheep 1 and a loud systolic heart murmur in sheep 2. The activities of liver enzymes were severely increased in both sheep. Abdominal ultrasonography showed severe ascites and congestion of the liver and caudal vena cava...
December 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924962/attenuation-of-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-induced-deficits-in-rats-by-apomorphine
#8
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of repeated doses of apomorphine in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress. METHODS: The experimental case-control study was conducted in March 2011 at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, and comprised albino-wistar rats. The experimental animals were exposed to a schedule of unpredictable chronic mild stress, while control animals were left in the cages. Animals of stressed and unstressed group were administrated with apomorphine at dose of 1...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910716/persistent-amenorrhea-and-decreased-dheas-to-cortisol-ratio-after-recovery-from-anorexia-nervosa
#9
Alessandra Andrisani, Chiara Sabbadin, Silvia Minardi, Angela Favaro, Gabriella Donà, Luciana Bordin, Guido Ambrosini, Decio Armanini
Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897393/cancer-anorexia-hypothalamic-activity-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-appetite-regulating-peptides-in-lung-cancer
#10
Alessio Molfino, Alessandro Iannace, Maria Chiara Colaiacomo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandra Emiliani, Gianfranco Gualdi, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus, whose inflammation-induced functional derangements contribute to the onset of anorexia in cancer. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined the patterns of hypothalamic activation after oral intake in anorexic (A), non-anorexic (NA) cancer patients, and in controls (C). METHODS: Lung cancer patients were considered. Hypothalamic activation was recorded in A and NA patients and in C by fMRI, before (T0), immediately after (T1) the administration of an oral nutritional supplement, and after 15 min (T2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890267/-the-silence-of-a-body-and-speech-set-free
#11
Maurice Corcos
Anorexia is a reflection of issues with the body in all its states. The social body and the representation of a model's body, mistreated in order to meet certain standards, the medical body shaken by the mystery of anorexia, and the subjective body and the reality of the flesh. The anorexic body is a testament to a past full of pain and neglect, a sign of emotional deficiency. Caring for the body of a person with anorexia, whatever the approach, means also and above all working with the future of a human being...
November 2016: Soins. Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#12
Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Huan Yang, Yvonne F Brünner, Jessica Freiherr
Intranasal insulin had been in the spotlight not only for enhancing memory processes but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. Here, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesized that intranasal insulin, as it mediates satiety, alters gustatory sensitivity whereas placebo application and control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834148/the-role-of-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle-modulation-a-tentative-approach-for-treatment-of-sleep-disorders
#13
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
There is a general consensus that sleep-wake cycle is controlled by neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular systems as well as by homeostatic and circadian complex networks. The research has shown that a molecular element that could be displaying a relevant role in the modulation of sleep is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptor ligand-activated transcription factors that includes PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that PPARα is activated by natural ligands such as the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or synthetic compounds including Wy14643 whereas antagonists like MK-886 block the neurobiological outcomes of PPARα...
November 9, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807376/the-use-of-serum-beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-determine-whether-nursery-pigs-selected-on-the-basis-of-clinical-signs-are-anorexic
#14
Amanda M Perri, Terri L O'Sullivan, John C S Harding, Robert M Friendship
The process of weaning pigs alters intestinal structures and influences piglet behavior, which can result in anorexia. When housed in large groups, affected pigs can be difficult to identify at an early stage. The clinical signs of anorexia include loss in body condition (thinness) and repetitive oral behavior (chomping). The objective of this study was to determine if pigs identified at 4 to 7 days post-weaning on the basis of clinical signs were anorexic based on elevated serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels (ketosis)...
November 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778196/orthorexic-eating-behaviour-as-a-coping-strategy-in-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Friederike Barthels, Frank Meyer, Thomas Huber, Reinhard Pietrowsky
PURPOSE: Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic eating behaviour. METHOD: Female anorexic patients with low (n = 29) and pronounced (n = 13) orthorexic eating behaviour as well as a matched control group composed of healthy females (n = 30) were compared with regard to several aspects of disordered eating, hypochondriacal traits, food consumption frequency and fulfilment of basic psychological needs in terms of eating...
October 24, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761691/-hunger-hurts-but-starving-works-the-moral-conversion-to-eating-disorders
#16
Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739190/an-integrative-bio-psycho-social-theory-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729855/atypical-self-focus-effect-on-interoceptive-accuracy-in-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Götz Berberich, Michael Zaudig, Till Krauseneck, Manos Tsakiris
Background: Interoceptive abilities are known to be affected in anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies could show that private self-focus can enhance interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) in healthy participants. As body dissatisfaction is high in AN, confrontation with bodily features such as the own face might have a directly opposed effect in AN. Whether patients with AN can benefit from self-focus in their IAcc and whether this pattern changes over the time-course of cognitive behavioral therapy was investigated in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722184/the-physiological-role-of-the-brain-glp-1-system-in-stress
#19
REVIEW
Marie K Holt, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) within the brain is a potent regulator of food intake and most studies have investigated the anorexic effects of central GLP-1. A range of brain regions have now been found to be involved in GLP-1 mediated anorexia, including some which are not traditionally associated with appetite regulation. However, a change in food intake can be indicative of not only reduced energy demand, but also changes in the organism's motivation to eat following stressful stimuli. In fact, acute stress is well-known to reduce food intake...
December 31, 2016: Cogent Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663886/high-fat-diet-induced-downregulation-of-anorexic-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-in-the-brain-stem
#20
Maria Licursi, Christian O Alberto, Alex Dias, Kensuke Hirasawa, Michiru Hirasawa
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce low-grade hypothalamic inflammation. Whether inflammation occurs in other brain areas remains unknown. This study tested the effect of short-term HFD on cytokine gene expression and identified leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a responsive cytokine in the brain stem. Thus, functional and cellular effects of LIF in the brain stem were investigated. METHODS: Male rats were fed chow or HFD for 3 days, and then gene expression was analyzed in different brain regions for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and LIF...
September 24, 2016: Obesity
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