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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212654/i-thought-i-wasn-t-thin-enough-to-be-anorexic
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207134/novel-herbal-medicine-la16001-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-anorexia
#2
Sang-Mi Woo, Kang Min Lee, Gyu Ri Lee, Ji Youn Park, Hee Jae Lee, Hyo-Jung Bahn, Hyun Seok Yoon, Jem Yung Kim, Young Cheol Shin, Sung-Gook Cho, Seong-Gyu Ko
Chemotherapy frequently causes anorexia in cancer patients, which has been associated with poor disease prognosis. Several therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chemotherapy‑induced anorexia are available; however, their adverse effects limit their clinical use. Herbal medicines have a long history of use for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, and recent research has demonstrated their safety and efficacy. In the present study, combinations of herbal medicines were designed based on traditional Korean medicine, and their effects were investigated on chemotherapy‑induced anorexia...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204239/wilkie-s-syndrome
#3
Renato Farina, Pietro Valerio Foti, Giuseppe Cocuzza, Valeria Costanzo, Giuliana Costanzo, Alessandro Conti, Alfredo Torcitto, Monica Pennisi
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, is a rare vascular disease caused by the anomalous course of the superior mesenteric artery arising from the abdominal aorta with a smaller angle than the norm (<22°). The reduced angle compresses the structures situated between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, such as the duodenum and left renal vein; this can determine painful crises, intestinal subocclusions, and left varicocele. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179911/growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-secretions-in-eating-disorders-correlations-with-psychopathological-aspects-of-the-disorders
#4
Francesca Brambilla, Paolo Santonastaso, Lorenza Caregaro, Angela Favaro
Hormonal alterations in Eating Disorders (ED) may result from the biochemical stress of malnutrition/starvation. The correlations between some hormonal impairments, particularly of the somatotropic axis, and the psychopathological aspects of ED are still undefined. We measured the plasma concentrations of the somatotropic hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in 136 patients with various forms of ED, 65 with restricted Anorexia Nervosa (ANR), 19 with bingeing-purging Anorexia Nervosa (ANBP), 12 with purging-non binging Anorexia Nervosa (ANP), 26 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 8 with ED not otherwise specified-anorexic type (EDNOS-AN), 7 with ED not otherwise specified-bulimic type (EDNOS-BN) and in 30 healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#5
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121414/stress-induced-suppression-of-neuropeptide-y-induced-hunger-in-anorexic-chicks-involves-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-and-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#6
Jinxin Wang, Jiaqing Yi, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The Virginia lines of chickens have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight and have different severities of anorexia and obesity, respectively. The LWS that are exposed to stressors at hatch are refractory to neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced food intake and the objective was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Chicks were exposed to a stressor (-20°C for 6 minutes, and 22°C and delayed access to food for 24 hours) after hatch and hypothalamic nuclei, including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and arcuate nucleus (ARC), were collected 5 days later...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120270/explaining-body-size-beliefs-in-anorexia
#7
Stephen Gadsby
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. METHODS: In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia...
November 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113807/cyanate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-normal-and-high-fat-fed-mice-anorexic-and-antioxidative-effects
#8
Seong Sik Kang, Kyo-Cheol Mun, Ji Hae Seo, Misun Choe, Eunyoung Ha
Obesity is an important contributing factor to progression of chronic kidney disease. Cyanate, known as uremic toxin, is an electrophile produced spontaneously from urea or by myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate. Herein, we explored metabolic effects of cyanate in normal chow diet (NCD)- and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were treated with cyanate (1 mg/mL in drinking water) and fed NCD or HFD. Peritoneal glucose tolerance test (PGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations were determined...
November 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102367/-the-psychiatric-comorbidity-of-anorexia-nervosa-a-comparative-study-in-a-population-of-french-and-greek-anorexic-patients
#9
M Kountza, G Garyfallos, D Ploumpidis, E Varsou, I Gkiouzepas
OBJECTIVE: The current study had two objectives: (1) to access the psychiatric comorbidity in axis I and axis II (according to DSM-IV) of anorexia nervosa in a sample of 60 anorexic patients; (2) to compare the features of the psychiatric comorbidity between the two groups of French and Greek anorexic patients who participated in the study, as well as to compare some psychological and behavioral aspects of their anorectic psychopathology. METHOD: Sixty anorexic patients, thirty French and thirty Greek, aged between 18 and 60 years, referred for evaluation and therapy at the unit of eating disorders at the "Institut national Marcel-Rivière of the MGEN" (hôpital de La Verrière, France) and at the unit of eating disorders of the First Department of Psychiatry of EGINITIO University Psychiatric Hospital in Athens (Greece), were accessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT26), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL90R), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Version 5...
November 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077956/butyrate-presence-in-distinct-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-modifies-differentially-digestive-processes-and-amino-acid-bioavailability-in-young-broiler-chickens
#10
P C A Moquet, S A Salami, L Onrust, W H Hendriks, R P Kwakkel
The hypothesis was tested that butyrate presence in the digesta of distinct gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments of broilers leads to differential effects on digesta retention time, gut morphology, and proteolytic enzymatic activities, ultimately resulting in differences in protein digestibility. A total of 320 male day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (no butyrate), 2) unprotected butyrate (main activity in the crop and gastric regions), 3) tributyrin (main activity in the small intestine), 4) fat-coated butyrate (activity in the whole GIT) and 5) unprotected butyrate combined with tributyrin, each replicated 8 times...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987595/acylated-apelin-13-amide-analogues-exhibit-enzyme-resistance-and-prolonged-insulin-releasing-glucose-lowering-and-anorexic-properties
#11
Finbarr P M O'Harte, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Christopher Hogg, Peter R Flatt
The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys(8)GluPAL(Tyr(13))apelin-13 and Lys(8)GluPAL(Val(13))apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984394/impaired-hypothalamic-cart-expression-in-lha-and-pvn-nuclei-of-dehydration-induced-anorexic-rats
#12
C García-Luna, P Soberanes-Chávez, P de Gortari
Negative energy balance promotes physiological adaptations that ensure the survival of animals. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis regulates basal energy expenditure and its down-regulating adaptation to negative energy balance is well described: in fasting, serum content of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones (TH) decreases, enhancing survival odds of individuals. In contrast, dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) rats present an impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis adaptation despite their negative energy balance: increased circulating TSH levels...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965207/phoenixin-14-detection-and-novel-physiological-implications-in-cardiac-modulation-and-cardioprotection
#13
C Rocca, F Scavello, M C Granieri, T Pasqua, N Amodio, S Imbrogno, A Gattuso, R Mazza, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tommaso Angelone
Phoenixin-14 (PNX) is a newly identified peptide co-expressed in the hypothalamus with the anorexic and cardioactive Nesfatin-1. Like Nesfatin-1, PNX is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and this suggests a role in peripheral modulation. Preliminary mass spectrography data indicate that, in addition to the hypothalamus, PNX is present in the mammalian heart. This study aimed to quantify PNX expression in the rat heart, and to evaluate whether the peptide influences the myocardial function under basal condition and in the presence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831684/distinct-and-untamed-articulating-bulimic-identities
#14
Karin Eli
Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are inextricably linked, with substantial clinical and epidemiological overlaps. Yet, while anorexia has been analyzed extensively in medical anthropology, bulimia remains under-theorized. This is, perhaps, because, compared to self-starvation, binge eating presents a logic of practice that is difficult to reconcile with culturally reified notions of self-control, transcendence, and hard work. Thus, although anthropologists have analyzed anorexic subjectivities as imbued with a sense of cleanliness and purity, moral superiority, and heroics, similar analyses have not been extended to bulimic subjectivities; instead, bulimia has been subsumed, as a tangential disorder, into analyses of anorexia...
August 22, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#15
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801760/the-need-for-authenticity-based-autonomy-in-medical-ethics
#16
Lucie White
The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts...
August 11, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801262/the-physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-of-taurine-in-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Shigeru Murakami
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects...
October 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795600/the-weight-of-the-matter-a-new-material-feminist-account-of-thin-and-fat-oppressions
#18
Moss Edward Norman, Fiona J Moola
Critical feminist approaches to eating disorders and "obesity" have recently come under criticism for relying too heavily on textual- and image-based analyses of health, identity and body weight, shape, and size. In this article, we examine qualitative interviews with self-identified anorexic and "obese" women using a new material feminist lens-particularly the work of Karen Barad-to see what this perspective contributes to conceptualizations of weight-based oppressions. In addition to outlining how the material world actively participates in ongoing processes of oppression, we also highlight how the body presses back, offering up potentially less oppressive processes of materialization...
August 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#19
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645611/activation-of-central-nesfatin-1-nucb2-after-intraperitoneally-administered-cisplatin-in-rats
#20
Yasuki Akiyama, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Haruki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Mitojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Yuki Nonaka, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yasuhito Uezono, Keiji Hirata, Yoichi Ueta
Cisplatin, known as an anticancer drug, has been widely used; however, diverse disadvantageous side effects, including appetite loss, afflict patients. Nesfatin-1/NucB2, discovered as an anorexic neuropeptide, is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organ. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered cisplatin on central nesfatin-1/NucB2. Saline, as control, or cisplatin (6 mg/kg dissolved in saline) was i.p. administered in adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g)...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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