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Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Götz Berberich, Michael Zaudig, Till Krauseneck, Manos Tsakiris
Background: Interoceptive abilities are known to be affected in anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies could show that private self-focus can enhance interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) in healthy participants. As body dissatisfaction is high in AN, confrontation with bodily features such as the own face might have a directly opposed effect in AN. Whether patients with AN can benefit from self-focus in their IAcc and whether this pattern changes over the time-course of cognitive behavioral therapy was investigated in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marie K Holt, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) within the brain is a potent regulator of food intake and most studies have investigated the anorexic effects of central GLP-1. A range of brain regions have now been found to be involved in GLP-1 mediated anorexia, including some which are not traditionally associated with appetite regulation. However, a change in food intake can be indicative of not only reduced energy demand, but also changes in the organism's motivation to eat following stressful stimuli. In fact, acute stress is well-known to reduce food intake...
December 31, 2016: Cogent Biology
Maria Licursi, Christian O Alberto, Alex Dias, Kensuke Hirasawa, Michiru Hirasawa
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce low-grade hypothalamic inflammation. Whether inflammation occurs in other brain areas remains unknown. This study tested the effect of short-term HFD on cytokine gene expression and identified leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a responsive cytokine in the brain stem. Thus, functional and cellular effects of LIF in the brain stem were investigated. METHODS: Male rats were fed chow or HFD for 3 days, and then gene expression was analyzed in different brain regions for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and LIF...
September 24, 2016: Obesity
Małgorzata Starzomska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz
One of the most serious problems faced by researchers studying eating disorders is denial of illness in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Importantly, the term "denial" not only has different meanings, but in the case of anorexia nervosa its very nature still remains obscure. It is not even known whether it is deliberate or unintentional. Denial of illness in anorexic patients has serious consequences for evaluation of the reliability of information obtained from those individuals. Indeed, the most frequently used screening questionnaires, such as the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (Garner & Garfinkel 1979) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) (Garner et al...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Khalil Guzmán, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Ramsés Jiménez-Moreno, Oscar Arias-Carrión
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has been suggested as a modulator of several physiological functions. The PPARα recognizes as an endogenous ligand the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which displays wake-inducing properties. Despite that recent evidence indicates that activation of PPARα by synthetic agonists such as Wy14643 enhances waking as well as the extracellular contents of wake-related neurotransmitters, the role of PPARα in sleep recovery after prolonged waking has not been fully described...
September 16, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Carolyn Plunkett Neuhaus
On seeing promising results in a small number of patients, some researchers are conducting trials to determine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). This article asks whether we should open enrollment in trials of DBS for AN to adolescents. Despite concerns about informed consent, parental consent, and unforeseeable psychological sequelae, the article concludes that the risks to anorexic adolescents associated with participation in trials of DBS are reasonable considering the substantial risks of not enrolling teens with AN in research on DBS...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Shiu-Ming Kuo
Inflammation-related anorexic response has been observed in systemic diseases as well as in localized infection and is an important issue in patient care. We tested the hypothesis that upon the same endotoxin exposure, males have more severe inflammatory responses and thus suffer from more negative effect on appetite. Ten-week old male and female mice were compared in their plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines after a body weight-based i.p. injection of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. Male mice consistently showed significantly higher levels of IL6 and TNFα than female mice...
2016: PloS One
Katarzyna Kucharska, Julia Jeschke, Reza Mafi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess social cognition in community patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy controls. METHODS: 25 women diagnosed with AN and 25 women matched for education level and age were involved in the study. Both subject groups were assessed using a set of validated experimental tasks, such as the facial expression recognition test, short recognition memory test for faces, 'Reading the mind in the eyes' test...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Katsunori Nonogaki, Takao Kaji
The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, did not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript activities in mice, although decrease in functional hypothalamic orexin activity might be involved in the acute anorexic effect of liraglutide.
October 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Asma Abu-Abed Abdin, Muhammad Hamza, Muhammad S Khan, Awab Ahmed
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, and elevated ketones in urine and blood. Hyperglycemia is a key component of DKA; however, a subset of DKA patients can present with near-normal blood glucose, an entity described as "euglycemic DKA." This rare phenomenon is thought to be due to starvation and food restriction in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Cocaine abuse is considered a trigger for development of DKA. Cocaine also has anorexic effects...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Daniel Reyes-Haro, Francisco Emmanuel Labrada-Moncada, Durairaj Ragu Varman, Janina Krüger, Teresa Morales, Ricardo Miledi, Ataúlfo Martínez-Torres
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder observed primarily in young women. The neurobiology of the disorder is unknown but recently magnetic resonance imaging showed a volume reduction of the hippocampus in anorexic patients. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) is a murine model that mimics core features of this disorder, including severe weight loss due to voluntary reduction in food intake. The energy supply to the brain is mediated by astrocytes, but whether their density is compromised by anorexia is unknown...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Melissa R Nau, David W Gardiner, Erika Nilson, Todd L Schmitt, Hendrik H Nollens, Judy St Leger
Multiple black raised nodular masses were noted on the dorsal surface of an adult male Haller's round ray Urobatis halleri. Biopsy of 2 masses was performed, and histopathology revealed proliferative sheets of melanocytes exhibiting mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, supporting a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Approximately 2 mo following the biopsy procedure, the round ray became acutely anorexic and was found dead in its enclosure. A full necropsy was performed, and tissues were submitted for histopathology...
August 9, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Alice Diedrich, Sandra Schlegl, Martin Greetfeld, Markus Fumi, Ulrich Voderholzer
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the statistical and clinical significance of symptom changes during an intensive inpatient treatment program with a strong psychotherapeutic focus for individuals with severe bulimia nervosa. METHOD: 295 consecutively admitted bulimic patients were administered the Structured Interview for Anorexic and Bulimic Syndromes-Self-Rating (SIAB-S), the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at treatment intake and discharge...
July 25, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Carlos A Almenara, Hana Machackova, David Smahel
This study explores the individual differences associated with adolescents' exposure to "ana-mia" websites (i.e., websites where people discuss ways to be very thin, such as being anorexic). Participants were adolescents from a large cross-national survey in 25 European countries (N = 18,709, aged 11-16, 50% girls). Sociodemographic and individual factors (i.e., variables related to Internet use and personality traits) were included in a logistic regression performed separately for girls and boys. The results showed that sensation seeking and online disinhibition were both associated with an increased risk of exposure to "ana-mia" websites in girls as well as in boys, although some gender differences were apparent...
August 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Matthew Pugh, Glenn Waller
: In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences...
July 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Patrick Gilon
Type 2 diabetes is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia and its incidence is highly increased by exaggerated food consumption. It results from a lack of insulin action/production, but growing evidence suggests that it might also involve hyperglucagonaemia and impaired control of glucose homeostasis by the brain. In recent years, the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have generated a lot of interest in the battle against obesity because, via the brain, they exert anorexic effects and they increase energy expenditure...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Anna Nilsson, Louise Elander, Martin Hallbeck, Unn Örtegren Kugelberg, David Engblom, Anders Blomqvist
From experiments in mice in which the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesizing enzyme mPGES-1 was genetically deleted, as well as from experiments in which PGE2 was injected directly into the brain, PGE2 has been implicated as a mediator of inflammatory induced anorexia. Here we aimed at examining which PGE2 receptor (EP1-4) that was critical for the anorexic response to peripherally injected interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, deletion of neither EP receptor in mice, either globally (for EP1, EP2, and EP3) or selectively in the nervous system (EP4), had any effect on the IL-1β induced anorexia...
June 29, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Anca Sfärlea, Ellen Greimel, Belinda Platt, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Alica C Dieler
The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls...
September 2016: Biological Psychology
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