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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528713/sociodemographics-and-the-impact-of-a-colostomy-to-indigent-families-and-children-with-colorectal-disorders-in-honduras
#1
W Krois, A J M Dingemans, P X Hernández, M L Metzelder, J Craniotis Rios, C A Reck-Burneo
INTRODUCTION: To describe the social impact of a colostomy on indigent families and affected children with anorectal malformations (ARM) or Hirschsprung's disease (HD) in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, we specifically targeted very low-income households that attended an international medical brigade for ARM and HD in 2016. METHODS: The impact of a colostomy on the families and children's daily life was analyzed by personal interviews with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty families with children were included in the study...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528588/anorectal-swabs-as-a-marker-of-male-to-male-sexual-exposure-in-sti-surveillance-systems
#2
F H Ampt, C El Hayek, P A Agius, A L Bowring, N Bartnik, C VAN Gemert, C K Fairley, E P F Chow, C S Bradshaw, N Stephens, M S C Lim, M E Hellard
Identification of priority populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) is important in surveillance systems to monitor trends of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We explored using routinely collected non-behavioural data as a means to establish MSM status in surveillance by assessing anorectal swab as a marker of male-to-male sexual exposure. We used chlamydia testing data from a sexual health clinic, 2007-2012. Men reporting any male sexual partner(s) in the previous 12 months were considered MSM...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523401/functional-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-following-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-oasi-does-the-grade-of-injury-affect-outcomes
#3
Lisa Ramage, Clarence Yen, Shengyang Qiu, Constantinos Simillis, Christos Kontovounisios, Paris Tekkis, Emile Tan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare functional and quality of life data in patients with increasing grades of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) presenting to a tertiary colorectal pelvic floor clinic within 24 months of delivery. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from the patients for the period 2009-2016 and included data on functional outcomes and motor anorectal manometry parameters. The instruments used for the evaluation of functional outcomes were the Birmingham Bowel and Urinary Symptoms Questionnaire, the Wexner Incontinence Score, Short Form 36, and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire...
May 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516189/improving-the-rigour-of-vacterl-screening-for-neonates-with-anorectal-malformations
#4
Richard John England, Bala Eradi, Govind V Murthi, Jonathan Sutcliffe
PURPOSE: Screening investigations for the vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheo-oesophageal, renal and limb (VACTERL) association form an important part of the management of neonates with anorectal malformations (ARMs). We developed a proforma to define investigations and indications for referral. The aim of the current study was to determine if the proforma could improve screening rigour. METHODS: Four centres performed a 3-year retrospective audit of neonates with ARM...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#5
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505117/hiv-enhancing-and-hiv-inhibiting-properties-of-cationic-peptides-and-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Cole, Amy L Cole
Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. In the context of sexually transmitted HIV-1, we take an unconventional approach that questions this paradigm. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the cationic polypeptides present in the human genital or anorectal mucosa, or human semen, are capable of enhancing HIV-1 infection, often in addition to other reported roles as viral inhibitors...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501111/laparoscopic-dissection-and-division-of-distal-fistula-in-boys-with-rectourethral-fistula
#7
Chen Wang, Mei Diao, Long Li, Shuli Liu, Zheng Chen, Xu Li, Wei Cheng
BACKGROUND: Congenital rectourethral fistula (RUF) is the most common form of anorectal malformations found in boys. The aim of this study is to review our experience with dissection and division of distal fistula using laparoscopic surgery in the management of RUF, especially rectourethral bulbar fistula. METHODS: One hundred and two consecutive boys with congenital RUF who underwent conventional or single-incision laparoscopic surgery between July 2008 and June 2015 were enrolled in the study...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494458/improvement-of-anal-function-by-adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheets
#8
Yusuke Inoue, Fumihiko Fujita, Izumi Yamaguchi, Hiroko Kinoe, Daisuke Kawahara, Yusuke Sakai, Tamotsu Kuroki, Susumu Eguchi
AIM: One of the most troublesome complications of anal preserving surgery is anal sphincter dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional recovery after implantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) sheets, novel biotechnology, for an anal sphincter resection animal model. METHODS: Eighteen female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent removal of the nearest half of the internal and external anal sphincter muscle. Nine rats received transplantation with ADSC sheets to the resected area while the remaining rats received no transplantation...
May 12, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493393/final-results-of-a-european-multi-centre-prospective-observational-study-of-permacol-%C3%A2-collagen-paste-injection-for-the-treatment-of-anal-fistula
#9
Pasquale Giordano, Pierpaolo Sileri, Steen Buntzen, Angelo Stuto, Joseph Nunoo-Mensah, Leonardo Lenisa, Baljit Singh, Ole Thorlacius-Ussing, Ben Griffiths, Dorin Ziyaie
AIM: Permacol(™) collagen paste (Permacol(™) paste) is an acellular cross-linked porcine dermal collagen matrix suspension for use in soft tissue repair. The use of Permacol(™) paste in the filling of anorectal fistula tract is a new sphincter-preserving method for fistula repair. The MASERATI100 study was a prospective, observational clinical study with the objective to assess the efficacy of Permacol(™) collagen paste for anal fistula repair in 100 patients. METHOD: Patients (N=100) with anal fistula were treated at ten European surgical sites with a sphincter-preserving technique using Permacol(™) paste...
May 11, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485050/y5-receptor-signalling-counteracts-the-anorectic-effects-of-pyy3-36-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Yan-Chuan Shi, Chi Kin Ip, Felicia Reed, David A Sarruf, Birgitte S Wulff, Herbert Herzog
Peptide YY 3-36 (PYY3-36) is known as a critical satiety factor reducing food intake both in rodents and humans. While the anorexic effect of PYY3-36 is thought to be mediated mainly by the Y2 receptor, the involvement of other Y-receptors in this process has never been conclusively resolved. Amongst them the Y5 receptor (Y5R) is the most likely candidate to also be a target for PYY3-36 which is thought to counteract the anorectic effects of Y2R activation. Here we show that short term treatment of diet induced obese WT and Y5R knockout mice (Y5KO) with PYY3-36 leads to significantly reduced food intake in both genotypes, which is more pronounced in Y5R KO mice...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#11
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484364/energy-homeostasis-in-monotremes
#12
REVIEW
Stewart C Nicol
In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between "higher mammals" and "lower vertebrates." Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481851/what-to-do-with-lateral-nodal-disease-in-low-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-call-for-further-reflection-and-research
#13
Miranda Kusters, Andrew Slater, Rebecca Muirhead, Roel Hompes, Richard J Guy, Oliver M Jones, Bruce D George, Ian Lindsey, Neil J Mortensen, Chris Cunningham
BACKGROUND: There remains a lack of international consensus on the appropriate management of lateral nodal disease. Although the East manages this more aggressively with lateral lymph node dissections, the West aims to eradicate small-volume disease with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and lateral nodal disease is not considered for routine surgical treatment. However, recent studies have shown that, despite neoadjuvant treatment, a significant number of patients with lateral nodal disease develop local recurrence in the lateral compartment after total mesorectal excision...
June 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481175/dosimetric-evaluation-of-a-flexible-dual-balloon-constructed-applicator-in-treating-anorectal-cancer
#14
Hsiang-Chi Kuo, Keyur J Mehta, Ravindra Yaparpalvi, Alan Lee, Dinesh Mynampati, William Bodner, Madhur Garg, David Huang, Wolfgang A Tomé, Shalom Kalnicki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the dosimetric flexibility of a dual balloon brachytherapy applicator developed for the treatment of anorectal lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different amounts of water were infused into the inner and outer balloon separately to study the asymmetrical distribution of the catheter, the radial distance of the active source channel to the inner surface of the global target volume , the space between the active source channels, and their dosimetric impact to target tissues and uninvolved rectum...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464996/the-effect-of-endorectal-balloon-on-anorectal-dose-during-postoperative-volumetric-arc-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#15
Tino Streller, Urs Rusch, Maria D Herraiz Lablanca, Ira Minneken, Yousef Najafi, Binaya Shrestha, Susanne Oertel, Oliver Riesterer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of endorectal balloon (ERB) on anorectal dose during postoperative VMAT of prostate cancer. METHODS: In ten patients referred for salvage radiotherapy CTs were obtained without ERB and with air-filled ERB of 50ml and 100ml. CTs were repeated weekly (4-6 control CTs) and registered to the respective planning CT. For each planning CT, a VMAT plan was made with defined anorectal dose constraints and propagated on the respective control CTs...
April 29, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458865/primary-anorectal-melanoma-a-rare-entity-case-report
#16
Konstantinos Kothonidis, Fadi Maassarani, Yves Couvreur, Bernard Vanhoute, Robert De Keuleneer
Anorectal melanoma is a rare disorder. There have only been a few cases reported and there is no consensus of treatment. We report a case of 50-year-old Caucasian man presenting intermittent prolapse of an anorectal mass during 6 months with occasional bleeding. Biopsies came up with the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. No distant metastases were found. He underwent an abdominoperineal resection due to internal sphincter invasion. A second tumour was diagnosed in final histologic examination: a dysplastic rectal polyp invaded by the melanoma (collision tumour)...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458840/a-case-report-on-a-rare-presentation-of-solitary-rectal-ulcer-syndrome
#17
N Merali, M Yousuff, K Lynes, M Akhtar
We describe a highly unusual case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) that presented as a large polyp protruding from the anal canal. A 67-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding and mucus discharge. At examination under anaesthesia, a large pedunculated polypoidal lesion was found, measuring 25 × 20 mm, arising posterolaterally from the anorectal junction and protruding externally 50 mm in size. SRUS can be a misnomer as the condition can present in a number of different ways and only a minority of patients has a solitary ulcer...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457523/underdiagnosis-of-mild-congenital-anorectal-malformations
#18
Jara E Jonker, Monika Trzpis, Paul M A Broens
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the frequency and severity of congenital anorectal malformations (CARMs) differs by sex. STUDY DESIGN: We included 129 patients (0-319 weeks old) diagnosed with CARMs, who had been referred to our Department of Pediatric Surgery between 2004 and 2013. Rectoperineal and rectovestibular fistulas were classified as mild CARMs, all others as severe. If a patient was diagnosed with CARM within 48 hours after birth, this was considered an early diagnosis, all others as late...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456592/whole-exome-sequencing-of-sporadic-patients-with-currarino-syndrome-a-report-of-three-trios
#19
Ingunn Holm, Mari Spildrejorde, Barbro Stadheim, Kristin L Eiklid, Pubudu S Samarakoon
Currarino Syndrome is a rare congenital malformation syndrome described as a triad of anorectal, sacral and presacral anomalies. Currarino Syndrome is reported to be both familial and sporadic. Familial CS is today known as an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the transcription factor MNX1. The aim of this study was to look for genetic causes of Currarino Syndrome in sporadic patients after ruling out other causes, like chromosome aberrations, disease-causing variants in possible MNX1 cooperating transcription factors and aberrant methylation in the promoter of the MNX1 gene...
April 26, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449596/changes-in-platelet-count-and-size-indices-in-adolescent-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Joanna Oświęcimska, Żaneta Malczyk, Agnieszka Szymlak, Agata Mikołajczak, Katarzyna Ziora, Jacek Zamlynski, Edyta Machura, Piotr Zajac, Bogdan Koczy, Alicja Kasperska-Zajac
The significance of platelet size indices has not been widely analyzed in anorexia nervosa (AN). It seems important to get more knowledge on the easily available indices of platelet function obtained by routine complete blood count analysis in patients with AN. We analyzed platelet count (PLT), platelet distribution width (PDW), and mean platelet volume using an automated blood cell counter in 25 females with AN and healthy age- and gender-matched nonatopic controls. Mean PLT was significantly lower in patients with AN than in the control group...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
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