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François Mion, Aurélien Garros, Fabien Subtil, Henri Damon, Sabine Roman
PURPOSE: High resolution anorectal manometry has been developed over the past years, as well as 3D high definition manometry (HDARM). However, the clinical impact of the results obtained with these new technologies remains to be determined. We thus analyzed various HDARM parameters of anal sphincter function and tested their capacity to discriminate between patients with constipation and those with fecal incontinence. METHODS: One hundred and fourteen consecutive patients underwent the same HDARM protocol (Medtronic), including 2 short duration voluntary anal contractions (5seconds) and 1 sustained (as long as possible) contraction...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Alexander J M Dingemans, Wilfried Krois, Juan Craniotis Rios, Richard J Wood, Marc A Levitt, Carlos A Reck-Burneo
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We conduct an annual medical mission to Hospital Ruth Paz para Niños Quemados y Cirugía Pediátrica in Honduras to operate on cases of anorectal malformations (ARM). To improve our knowledge of these patients, we compared their health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the health literacy of their caregivers from this hospital and ours in the United States. METHODS: The BRIEF Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Juliane Kupsch, Thomas Jackisch, Klaus E Matzel, Joerg Zimmer, Andreas Schreiber, Anja Sims, Helmut Witzigmann, Sigmar Stelzner
PURPOSE: Severity of anorectal dysfunction after low anterior resection is associated with various patient- and treatment-related factors. We aimed to quantify anorectal dysfunction after treatment for rectal cancer using the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score. METHODS: We retrieved from a prospective database 331 eligible patients on whom anterior resection for rectal cancer had been performed from 2000 to 2014. All patients were sent a LARS score accompanied by a supplementary questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Adrienne M Antonson, Bindu Balakrishnan, Emily C Radlowski, Geraldine Petr, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurobehavioral problems in offspring. Evidence from rodent models indicates that the maternal immune response to infection can alter fetal brain development, particularly in the hippocampus. However, information on the effects of maternal viral infection on fetal brain development in gyrencephalic species is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess several effects of maternal viral infection in the last one-third of gestation on hippocampal gene expression and development in fetal piglets...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional lower gastrointestinal disorders include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, functional fecal incontinence, and functional anorectal pain. These disorders are common and have significant medical and social effects. They also can be challenging to manage. Patients with mild symptoms may benefit from lifestyle modification. IBS is classified into two subtypes: diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant. Depending on the IBS subtype and its likely etiology, patients may benefit from treatment with antispasmodics, antidepressants, guanylate cyclase-C agonists, chloride channel activators, antidiarrheal agents, probiotics, and/or antibiotics...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Sahar Dehdari, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Somayeh Esmaeili, Rasool Choopani, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi
Hemorrhoidal disease is a prevalent anorectal condition which is generally not managed well with current pharmacologic interventions. However, in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) there are numerous plants with hemorrhoid-healing properties. The present research assembled plants with hemorrhoid-healing properties in ITM; their related pharmacological effects, phytochemical constituents and mechanisms of action in the modern medicine were also gathered. For this purpose, leading ITM textbooks were searched for plants with hemorrhoid-healing effects...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Aun Raza Shah, Vikram Jala, Hammad Arshad, Mohammad Bilal
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common cause of presentation to the emergency department and hospital admissions. The incidence of LGIB increases with age and the most common etiologies are diverticulosis, angiodysplasia, malignancy and anorectal diseases. Foremost modality for evaluation and treatment of LGIB is colonosopy. Other diagnostic tools such as nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography, angiography and capsule endoscopy are also frequently used in the workup of LGIB. Choice of treatment modality depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient, rate of bleeding, expertise and available resources...
March 7, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
Franco Marinello, Miquel Kraft, Nuria Ridaura, Francesc Vallribera, Eloy Espín
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of anal fistula with the OTSC® (over-the-scope-clip) proctology device involves the placement of an elastic alloy clip called Nitinol on the internal fistula opening to achieve fistula healing. The aim of this study was to analyze preliminary results of this technique in a case series. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent OTSC® clip placement for fistula-in-ano treatment between June 2015 and March 2017 at a specialized colorectal unit...
March 7, 2018: Cirugía Española
Sandeep Singh, Balram Bhargava, Padma Vasantha, Rohit Bhatia, Hanish Sharma, Sujoy Pal, Peush Sahni, Govind K Makharia
PURPOSE: The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a stool management kit (SMK) for containment of fecal incontinence in hospitalized bedridden patients. DESIGN: A single-group quasi-experimental study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Twenty bedridden adults who had at least 1 episode of fecal incontinence in the prior 24 hours participated in the study. The study setting was the neurological unit of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, India...
March 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Liliana G Bordeianou, Joseph C Carmichael, Ian M Paquette, Steven Wexner, Tracy L Hull, Mitchell Bernstein, Deborah S Keller, Massarat Zutshi, Madhulika G Varma, Brooke H Gurland, Scott R Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Xiaojia Li, Xiutian Guo, Weiqi Jin, Jingen Lu
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and acupuncture are known to mitigate tissue damage. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of combined electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation and BMSC injection in a rat model of anal sphincter injury-induced faecal incontinence (FI). METHODS: 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated control, FI, FI+EA, FI+BMSC, and FI+BMSC+EA. The anorectal tissues were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14...
March 8, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Saowarop Hinkan, Jureeporn Chuerduangphui, Tipaya Ekalaksananan, Jiratha Budkaew, Kanisara Proyrungroj, Charinya Pimson, Bandit Chumworathayi, Tanyaporn Hanond, Chamsai Pientong
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common agent of sexually transmitted infection, especially in asymptomatic extra-genital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to investigate anatomical site distribution and genotypes of C. trachomatis from asymptomatic MSM in northeast Thailand. Specimens were collected using swabs from anorectal, oropharyngeal, and urethral sites in 346 asymptomatic MSM. C. trachomatis infection was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyping was based on sequences of the ompA gene...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Simona Arena, Andrea Scaloni
Hen egg is a raw material widely used for preparation of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetoceutical products. Dedicated proteomic studies on egg fractions identified most abundant proteins. No similar studies have been performed at the peptidomic level so far. This study fills this gap and provides a comprehensive picture of the peptides present in the yolk plasma of different hen egg types after 24 and 264 h of laying, using a two-step fractionation followed by combined MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS and nanoLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kailas P Bhandarkar, Dinesh H Kittur, Santosh V Patil, Sudhakar S Jadhav
Objective: Epididymo-orchitis (EO) is a well-known complication of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. This is commonly seen in children who had hypospadias repair or in those who had surgery for anorectal malformation especially when it results in urethral stricture. However EO occurring as a complication of urethral stricture in adults operated for hypospadias in childhood is not well documented in the literature. Material and methods: This is a retrospective review of four adults who had proximal hypospadias repair in childhood...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Mohammed Khalifa, Khalid Shreef, Mohammad Ahmad Al Ekrashy, Tarek Abdelazim Gobran
Background: Rectovestibular fistula (RVF) is the most common type of anorectal malformations in females. The need for a diverting colostomy during correction of defect has ignited a heated debate. In this study, we reviewed the girls with RVF that had been treated by either one or two stage procedure in the past 10 years in our institution to define whether one stage or two stage procedures is safer and more beneficial for the patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy girls with RVF that had been operated from January 2005 to January 2015 were studied retrospectively...
April 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Bingbo Bao, Kai Fu, Xianyou Zheng, Haifeng Wei, Pengbo Luo, Hongyi Zhu, Xiaozhong Zhu, Xingwei Li, Tao Gao
OBJECTIVES: Nerve transfer has been developed to restore partial function after serious nerve injuries, for example, restoring bladder control after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim here was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept model using nerve transfer for restoring anorectal function after SCI. SETTING: We used laminectomy to model SCI, and bilateral spinal ventral and dorsal nerve root anastomosis to re-establish connectivity to the anorectal musculature...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
J Lévy, D Haye, N Marziliano, G Casu, F Guimiot, C Dupont, N Teissier, B Benzacken, P Gressens, E Pipiras, A Verloes, A-C Tabet
Ephrin B2, one of the ligand of the EphB receptors, is involved in a complex signaling pathway regulating the development of the nervous system, neuronal migration, erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis. We report a patient with a de novo variant in EFNB2 and a family in which segregates a 610-kb deletion at chromosome 13q33 encompassing only ARGLU1 and EFNB2 genes. The de novo variant was observed in a patient with anal stenosis, hypoplastic left ventricle and mild developmental delay. The deletion was identified in 2 sibs with congenital heart defect and mild developmental delay...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Xiao Bing Tang, Huan Li, Jin Zhang, Wei Lin Wang, Zheng Wei Yuan, Yu Zuo Bai
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the expression pattern of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) and β-catenin during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos and the possible role of Wif1 and β-catenin in the pathogenesis of ARM. Methods: ARM was induced with ethylenethiourea on the 10th gestational day in rat embryos. Cesarean deliveries were performed to harvest the embryos. The expression pattern of Wif1 and β-catenin protein and mRNA was evaluated in normal rat embryos ( n  = 288) and ARM rat embryos ( n  = 306) from GD13 to GD16 using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and real time RT-PCR...
2018: PeerJ
Ryo Ohta, Takahiro Inoue, Manabu Goto, Yuji Tachimori, Koji Sekikawa
INTRODUCTION: This report presents a case of anorectal malignant melanoma treated with combined laparoscopic abdomino-endoscopic perineal total mesorectal excision. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 82-year-old female presented with hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a 5-cm tumor in the anorectal junction, and biopsy specimen showed malignant melanoma. Modified ransanal total mesorectal excision was performed to get the sufficient surgical resection margins. After lymph node dissection in usual manner, mobilizing the rectum to the level of levator ani muscle...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
David Parés, Herand Abcarian
Benign anorectal conditions produce anal pain, rectal bleeding, or discharge from the perianal region, which are highly prevalent symptoms in the general population. Hemorrhoidal disease, anal fissure, perianal abscess, proctalgia syndromes and pruritus anii are the most common clinical disorders. Well-trained physicians irrespective of their specialty can treat most of these disorders and refer them to a specialist in proctology only when necessary. The aim of this review is to provide a practical guide to the management of benign anorectal disorders in terms of their initial management and the criteria for specialist referral...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
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