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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724276/fatal-small-intestinal-ischemia-due-to-methamphetamine-intoxication-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-results
#1
Hamid Attaran
Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718924/preliminary-study-of-a-novel-puborectalis-like-artificial-anal-sphincter
#2
Wentian Jin, Guozheng Yan, Hao Wu, Shan Lu, Zerun Zhou
Artificial anal sphincter (AAS) is an in situ implanted device that acts as a treatment for fecal incontinence regardless of etiology by augmenting the incompetent sphincteric structures. However, AAS is impeded from becoming a valid therapy by its high rate of ischemic complication and malfunction. This article presents an original puborectalis-like artificial anal sphincter (PAAS) that features a low risk of ischemia necrosis and rectal perception remodeling. The device retains continence by reproducing the action, including the pulling and angulating the rectum, of the puborectalis muscle, which forms the anorectal angle and reduces the required clamping pressure...
July 18, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712050/spatiotemporal-expression-of-bcl-2-bax-and-neural-cell-apoptosis-in-the-developing-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-of-rat-fetuses-with-anorectal-malformations
#3
Zhonghua Yang, Yuanyuan Geng, Zhiya Yao, Huimin Jia, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
Fecal incontinence and constipation still remain the major complications after procedures for anorectal malformations (ARMs). Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease of neural cell in lumbosacral spinal cord of ARMs patients and rat models. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the neural cell apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax expression were explored during lumbosacral spinal cord development in normal and ARMs fetuses. ARMs rat fetuses were induced by treating pregnant rats with ethylenethiourea on embryonic day 10...
July 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702180/abdominal-perineal-resection-or-wilde-local-excision-in-primary-anorectal-malignant-melanoma-case-report-and-review
#4
Saverio Latteri, Michele Teodoro, Michele Malaguarnera, Maurizio Mannino, Giuseppe Currò, Gaetano La Greca
INTRODUCTION: Primary anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that carries a poor prognosis. Anorectal melanoma (ARM) is often misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids adenocarcinoma polips and rectal cancer. ARM spreads along sub-mucosal planes and is often to wide-spread for complete resection at time of diagnosis and almost all patients die because of metastases. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 77-year-old male patient presented a history of recurrent rectal bleeding and whose histopathological diagnosis was melanoma...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699318/high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-an-expensive-hobby-or-worth-every-penny
#5
REVIEW
G Basilisco, A E Bharucha
Introduced approximately 10 years ago, high-resolution manometry catheters have fostered interest in anorectal manometry. This review, which accompanies two articles in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, reviews the methods, clinical indications, utility, and pitfalls of anorectal manometry and revisits the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Medical Position Statement on Anorectal Testing Techniques, which was last published in 1999. High-resolution manometry provides a refined assessment of the anorectal pressure profile, obviates the need for station pull-through maneuvers, and minimizes movement artifacts...
August 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696502/linking-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-with-anorectal-hemorrhoids-a-clinical-and-anatomical-review
#6
REVIEW
Joshua A Cuoco, Christopher L Hoehmann, Kyle Hitscherich, Sherry M Zakhary, Joerg R Leheste, German Torres
Patients who harbor brain arteriovenous malformations are at risk for intracranial hemorrhage. These malformations are often seen in inherited vascular diseases such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. However, malformations within the brain also sporadically occur without a hereditary-coding component. Here, we review recent insights into the pathophysiology of arteriovenous malformations, in particular, certain signaling pathways that might underlie endothelial cell pathology. To better interpret the origins, determinants and consequences of brain arteriovenous malformations, we present a clinical case to illustrate the phenotypic landscape of the disease...
July 11, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695901/development-and-validation-of-a-bowel-routine-based-self-report-questionnaire-for-sacral-sparing-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
N Liu, H Xing, M-W Zhou, F Biering-Sørensen
STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-administered tool for assessment of sacral sparing after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to test its validity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. METHODS: A 5-item SCI sacral sparing self-report questionnaire was developed based on several events that most patients might experience during bowel routine. 102 participants who sustained SCI within 12 months were asked to complete the questionnaire followed by an anorectal examination...
July 11, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695882/institutional-experience-with-laparoscopic-assisted-anorectal-pull-through-in-a-series-of-17-cases-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
Madhu Ramasundaram, Jegadeesh Sundaram, Prakash Agarwal, Raj Kishore Bagdi, Selvapriya Bharathi, Apurva Arora
AIMS: To retrospectively analyse the results of laparoscopically-assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) for high anorectal malformation (ARM) in male children in our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the hospital records of patients who had undergone LAARP from October 2010 to December 2015 in terms of age, operative time, length of hospital stay and post-operative complications. RESULTS: Of 17 cases, 13 (76%) were in 6‒12 months age group, whereas rest of them were in 12‒18 months age group...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693959/value-and-limits-of-stapled-transanal-rectal-repair-for-obstructed-defecation-syndrome-10-years-experience-with-450-cases
#9
Angelo Guttadauro, Marco Chiarelli, Matteo Maternini, Melissa Baini, Nicoletta Pecora, Francesco Gabrielli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: In the late's 90' a new surgical treatment, the stapled trans-anal rectal resection (STARR) was born to treat obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS). In this study we retrospectively analyze a series of 450 cases that underwent STARR in 10 years. METHODS: Between January 2001 to December 2011, 450 patients, diagnosed with ODS syndrome caused by rectocele or intussusception, underwent to STARR procedure. The presence of rectocele and/or intussusception was verified by dynamic defecography...
July 7, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692536/asymptomatic-anorectal-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections-are-associated-with-systemic-cd8-t-cell-activation
#10
Vinicius A Vieira, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Natalia B Cerqueira, Dayane A Costa, Priscilla R Costa, Ricardo P Vasconcelos, Valdez R Madruga, Ronaldo Ismério Moreira, Brenda Hoagland, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Esper G Kallás
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as a pivotal strategy in HIV prevention. However, bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), are also highly prevalent. Although the presence of STI-related mucosal lesions is a known risk factor for HIV acquisition, the potential increase in risk associated with asymptomatic STIs is not completely understood. Recent data demonstrated higher T cell activation is a risk factor for sexually acquired HIV-1 infection...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690772/bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-extending-to-rectal-mucosa-and-presenting-with-rectal-bleeding
#11
Andrew M Aneese, Vinayata Manuballa, Mitual Amin, Mitchell S Cappell
An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7...
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690493/emerging-signaling-pathway-in-arcuate-feeding-related-neurons-role-of-the-acbd7
#12
REVIEW
Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard
The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689883/currarino-syndrome-does-the-presence-of-a-genetic-anomaly-correlate-with-a-more-severe-phenotype-a-multicentre-study
#13
Sara Costanzo, Luigina Spaccini, Luca Pio, Girolamo Mattioli, Calogero Virgone, Patrizia Dall'Igna, Barbara Iacobelli, Alessandro Inserra, Giulia Brisighelli, Anna Maria Fagnani, Ernesto Leva, Giulia Giannotti, Maurizio Cheli, Paolo Frumento, Giovanna Riccipetitoni
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Currarino syndrome (CS) phenotype, initially described as the triad of hemisacrum, anorectal malformation (ARM) and presacral mass, can be extremely variable. The triad is often incomplete and 3 main CS phenotypical subtypes have been described: Complete, Mild and Minimal. Various associated malformations are often present. Mutations in the MNX1 gene are the main genetic background of CS, although they are not present in almost half of the cases. Aim of our study is to analyze the distribution of the 3 CS subtypes and the incidence of associated malformations in a large sample of patients and to add information about the role of the genetic testing in guiding the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of CS patients...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688794/transition-of-care-in-patients-with-anorectal-malformations-consensus-by-the-arm-net-consortium
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Giuliani, Caterina Grano, Dalia Aminoff, Nicole Schwarzer, Mariette Van De Vorle, Celia Cretolle, Michel Haanen, Giulia Brisighelli, Stefanie Marzheuser, Martin Connor
OBJECTIVES: To develop the first consensus to standardize the management of patients with Anorectal Malformations (ARMs) transitioning from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: A dedicated task force of experts performed an extensive literature review and multiple meetings to define the most important aspects of transition of care. The findings were discussed with all ARM-net consortium members and a set of practical recommendations agreed upon at the annual meeting in 2016...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685744/endorectal-fusion-imaging-a-description-of-a-new-technique
#15
Andre Ignee, Yi Dong, Gudrun Schuessler, Ulrich Baum, Christoph F Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Fusion imaging is an accepted method in abdominal imaging allowing a simultaneous display of reference imaging with a live ultrasound (US) investigation. For prostate cancer, promising results have been published for endorectal US (ERUS)-guided biopsy of suspicious lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, no other indication for the fusion of ERUS with MRI has been reported so far. METHODS: We report on three patients scheduled for ERUS due to anorectal fistulae after treatment (n = 2) or rectal carcinoma (n = 1), which were scheduled for real-time virtual onography (RVS), a method for the fusion of MRI imaging with US...
July 6, 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684238/involvement-of-central-nesfatin-1-neurons-on-oxytocin-induced-feeding-suppression-in-rats
#16
Reiko Saito, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Tanaka, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and oxytocin (OXT), suppress food intake. A newly identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesized in both peripheral tissue and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of PYY3-36, OXT, and OXT analog, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem, using Fos double fluorescence-immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684122/potent-antiobesity-effect-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analogue-continuously-administered-in-mice
#17
Naoki Nishizawa, Ayumu Niida, Yusuke Adachi, Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Tomoko Asakawa, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami
The gastrointestinal peptide, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and its shorter peptide analogues have been reported to reduce appetite by activating the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R), which is associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. A 14-amino acid PYY analogue, Ac-[d-Pro(24),Cha(27,28,36),Aib(31)]PYY(23-36) (3), showed high binding affinity and agonist activity for the Y2R, similar to that of PYY3-36, but had weak anorectic activity upon continuous administration in lean mice. Three amino acid substitutions [Pya(4)(26), Aib(28), Lys(30)], which contributed to the decreased hydrophobicity of 3, efficiently increased its anorectic activity...
June 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682972/temperature-controlled-delivery-of-radiofrequency-energy-in-fecal-incontinence-a-randomized-sham-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Arjan P Visscher, Tze J Lam, Maria M Meurs-Szojda, Richelle J F Felt-Bersma
BACKGROUND: Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. DESIGN: This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. SETTING: This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic...
August 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682965/does-a-defunctioning-stoma-impair-anorectal-function-after-low-anterior-resection-of-the-rectum-for-cancer-a-12-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#19
Soran Gadan, Hannah Floodeen, Rickard Lindgren, Peter Matthiessen
BACKGROUND: Anorectal function after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer is often impaired, and long-term outcome has not frequently been reported. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated anorectal function 12 years after rectal resection with regard to whether patients had a defunctioning temporary stoma at the initial rectal resection. DESIGN: An exploratory cross-sectional investigation of a previously randomized study population. SETTINGS: Twenty-one Swedish hospitals performing rectal cancer surgery during a 5-year period participated in the trial...
August 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682131/taeniectomy-pouch-as-neorectum-after-low-rectal-resection
#20
A Farag, A N Mashhour, M Y Elbarmelgi, M M Raslan, A M Abdelsalam, A A Mohsen
Background and Purpose The functional outcomes of incontinence and high stool frequency resulting from restorative surgery are often criticised. The aim of this study was to assess the taeniectomy pouch in comparison with other pouches described in the literature. Material and Methods This was a prospective cohort study. All patients who were candidate for low rectal resection presenting to the colorectal unit at Cairo University hospitals during the period February 2013 to February 2015 were included in the study (90 patients)...
July 6, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
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