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Infective dialysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330994/pattern-of-causative-micro-organisms-in-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-in-dialysis-patients-experience-from-saudi-arabia
#1
Bilal Mohsin
BACKGROUND: Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) are the leading cause of morbidity in HD patients. The majority of these infections relate to haemodialysis catheters. There is a paucity of local data on microbial agents responsible for CRBSI in our region. This prompted our study. METHODS: This Prospective observatory survey was conducted in Department of Nephrology, King Fahd Hospital, Hofuf KSA from Nov 2014 to Jan 2017 (26 months). It was performed on dialysis patients with HD catheters who developed features of CRBSI...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322409/tracking-competent-host-defence-to-chronic-inflammation-an-in-vivo-model-of-peritonitis
#2
Javier Uceda Fernandez, David Millrine, Simon A Jones
Anti-microbial host defence is dependent on the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of infection, the elimination of invading pathogens, and the efficient resolution of inflammation so as to minimise damage to the host. The peritoneal cavity provides an easily accessible and physiologically relevant system where the delicate balance of these processes may be studied. Here, we describe murine models of peritoneal inflammation that enable studies of both competent anti-microbial immunity and inflammation associated tissue damage as a consequence of recurrent bacterial challenge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321192/transvenous-lead-extraction-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients-with-infected-cardiac-devices
#3
Amr F Barakat, Oussama M Wazni, Khaldoun G Tarakji, Thomas Callahan, Nayef Nimri, Walid I Saliba, Shailee Shah, Karim Abdur Rehman, John Rickard, Michael P Brunner, David O Martin, Mohamed Kanj, Bryan Baranowski, Daniel Cantillon, Mark Niebauer, Thomas Dresing, Bruce D Lindsay, Bruce L Wilkoff, Ayman A Hussein
BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device infections have been on the rise. A high-risk population is that with renal disease, especially dialysis. We aimed to assess procedural profiles and clinical outcomes of transvenous lead extraction for cardiac implantable electronic device infection based on renal disease status. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1420 consecutive patients undergoing transvenous lead extraction of infected cardiac implantable electronic devices (1996-2012), we assessed procedural profiles and clinical outcomes in 3 groups: normal renal function (group 1, n=1159), renal dysfunction not requiring dialysis (group 2, n=163), and dialysis (group 3, n=98)...
January 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319777/encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-case-report
#4
Gabriel Caetano Pereira, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho Vieira, Eliezer Moreno Romano, Luiz Eduardo Bersani Amado
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CDK) can develop several diseases caused by the renal replacement therapy. Here we report a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis, the encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) in which the peritoneal tissue is gradually replaced by fibrous tissue. The patient in question, after late loss of renal graft and conversion to peritoneal dialysis, evolved with multiple hospitalizations for spontaneous bacterial infections, in recent admission, he was diagnosed with sub-occlusive abdomen secondary to the EPS...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315693/nacseld-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-nacseld-aclf-score-predicts-30-day-survival-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cirrhosis
#5
Jacqueline G O'Leary, K Rajender Reddy, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Scott W Biggins, Florence Wong, Michael B Fallon, Ram M Subramanian, Patrick S Kamath, Paul Thuluvath, Hugo E Vargas, Benedict Maliakkal, Puneeta Tandon, Jennifer Lai, Leroy R Thacker, Jasmohan S Bajaj
NACSELD (North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease) definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (NACSELD-ACLF) as ≥2 extra-hepatic organ failures has been proposed as a simple bedside tool to assess risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. We validated NACSELD-ACLF's ability to predict 30-day survival (defined as in-hospital death or hospice discharge) in a separate multicenter prospectively enrolled cohort of both infected and uninfected hospitalized patients with cirrhosis...
January 8, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313137/fungal-peritonitis-in-the-standardizing-care-to-improve-outcomes-in-pediatric-end-stage-renal-disease-scope-collaborative
#6
Raj Munshi, Christine B Sethna, Troy Richardson, Jonathan Rodean, Samhar Al-Akash, Sushil Gupta, Alicia M Neu, Bradley A Warady
BACKGROUND: Fungal peritonitis is a serious complication among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (SCOPE) Collaborative is a North American multicenter quality improvement initiative with the primary aim to reduce catheter-related infections in children on chronic dialysis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of fungal peritonitis and outcomes of affected patients among pediatric subjects receiving chronic PD and enrolled in SCOPE...
January 8, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311199/steady-state-pharmacokinetics-of-oral-ciprofloxacin-in-continuous-cycling-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-brief-report
#7
Colin Lee, Sandra A N Walker, Lesley Palmay, Scott E Walker, Sheldon Tobe, Andrew Simor
Steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral ciprofloxacin in 3 continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) outpatients given ciprofloxacin 750 mg b.i.d. for 5 doses was determined. Mean steady-state maximum serum concentration and half-life were 4.4 ± 1.5 mg/L and 10.3 ± 2.6 hours, respectively. Mean maximum dialysate concentration in the daytime long dwell and overnight continuous cycling dwell were 7.4 ± 1.2 mg/L and 3.3 ± 1.2 mg/L, respectively. Oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg b.i.d. may be reasonable for bloodstream and peritoneal infections caused by susceptible bacteria in CCPD patients...
January 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311198/fungal-peritonitis-caused-by-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-in-a-capd-patient-treated-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Frédéric Franconieri, Julie Bonhomme, Aline Doriot, Cécile Bonnamy, Maxence Ficheux, Thierry Lobbedez, Clémence Béchade
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is a ubiquitous yeast that may cause serious peritoneal dialysis (PD) infections. A 70-year-old man receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 6 months presented with a PD infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa The patient was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. His peritoneal catheter was simultaneously removed and reinserted. To date, only 10 cases of Rhodotorula CAPD infections have been reported. Catheters, corticoids, cancer, and previous antibiotic therapy were the main risk factors for these infections...
January 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311193/microbacterium-peritonitis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-a-case-report-and-review
#9
REVIEW
Philip W Lam, David M Naimark, Jerome A Leis
Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP) is a commonly encountered complication in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Establishing the causative organism in PDRP allows for targeted antibiotic selection, helps to guide duration of therapy, and determines the need for catheter removal. Microbacterium is a genus of aerobic gram-positive bacilli found in the environment. Its detection in clinical isolates has increased owing to improved microbiology diagnostics. We present a case of PDRP due to M...
January 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303612/the-effect-of-induction-therapy-on-established-cmv-specific-t-cell-immunity-in-living-donor-kidney-transplantation
#10
L Stranavova, P Hruba, E Girmanova, I Tycova, A Slavcev, J Fronek, J Slatinska, P Reinke, H-D Volk, O Viklicky
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection influences both short and long term outcomes in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different induction immunosuppression regimens on CMV specific T cell response in patients with already established CMV immunity. In 24 seropositive living donor kidney recipients, the frequency of CMV specific T cells was determined by ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot) assay prior and 6 months after transplantation. Recipients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with immediate-early (IE1) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) CMV-derived peptide pools and the number of cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was assessed...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298783/peritonitis-with-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-patient-on-automated-peritoneal-dialysis
#11
Hanna Bjarkhamar Poulsen, Torkil Á Steig, Jonas T Björkman, Shahin Gaini
We present a case where Listeria monocytogenesserotype 1/2a was determined to be the causative agent of peritonitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis. The patient, a 53-year-old Caucasian woman from the Faroe Islands was admitted to the National Hospital reporting of constant abdominal pain and a fever. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of L. monocytogenes. The patient was successfully treated with oral amoxicillin for 2 weeks and intraperitoneal vancomycin for 3 weeks. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis...
January 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295829/medication-therapy-management-after-hospitalization-in-ckd-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Katherine R Tuttle, Radica Z Alicic, Robert A Short, Joshua J Neumiller, Brian J Gates, Kenn B Daratha, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Sterling M McPherson, Naomi S Chaytor, Brad P Dieter, Stephen M Setter, Cynthia F Corbett
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CKD is characterized by remarkably high hospitalization and readmission rates. Our study aim was to test a medication therapy management intervention to reduce subsequent acute care utilization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The CKD Medication Intervention Trial was a single-blind (investigators), randomized clinical trial conducted at Providence Health Care in Spokane, Washington. Patients with CKD stages 3-5 not treated by dialysis who were hospitalized for acute illness were recruited...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291208/hepatitis-c-infection-in-renal-transplantation-pathogenesis-current-impact-and-emerging-trends
#13
REVIEW
Sailaja Kesiraju, Praneeth Srikanti, S Sahariah
Prevalence of hepatitis C infection, which is associated with mortality and morbidity, is higher in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and transplant recipients when compared to non HCV infected patients. In addition to the conventional risk factors, HCV infection maybe an additional risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease. HCV causes adverse effects leading to the poor long term outcome in renal transplant recipients; hepatitis C infection can cause both hepatic as well as extra hepatic complications...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284433/adaptation-of-the-who-maternal-near-miss-tool-for-use-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-international-delphi-study
#14
Abera K Tura, Jelle Stekelenburg, Sicco A Scherjon, Joost Zwart, Thomas van den Akker, Jos van Roosmalen, Sanne J Gordijn
BACKGROUND: Assessments of maternal near miss (MNM) are increasingly used in addition to those of maternal mortality measures. The World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced an MNM tool in 2009, but this tool was previously found to be of limited applicability in several low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to identify adaptations to enhance applicability of the WHO MNM tool in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using a Delphi consensus methodology, existing MNM tools were rated for applicability in sub-Saharan Africa over a series of three rounds...
December 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282226/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-of-pregnancies-in-women-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#15
Martina Gaggl, Christof Aigner, Dorottya Csuka, Ágnes Szilágyi, Zoltán Prohászka, Renate Kain, Natalja Haninger, Maarten Knechtelsdorfer, Raute Sunder-Plassmann, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, Alice Schmidt
Atypical HUS (aHUS) is a disorder most commonly caused by inherited defects of the alternative pathway of complement, or the proteins that regulate this pathway, and life-threatening episodes of aHUS can be provoked by pregnancy. We retrospectively and prospectively investigated 27 maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes in 14 women with aHUS from the Vienna Thrombotic Microangiopathy Cohort. Seven pregnancies (26%) were complicated by pregnancy-associated aHUS (p-aHUS), of which three appeared to be provoked by infection, bleeding, and curettage, and three individuals were considered to have preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome before the definitive diagnosis of p-aHUS was made...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280264/anti-shigatoxin-2-antibodies-in-ehec-o104-h4-infected-patients-may-predict-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#16
Werner Dammermann, Valentin Mihajlov, Barbara Middendorf, Alexander Mellmann, Helge Karch, Stefan Lüth, Sebastian Ullrich
BACKGROUND AND AIM: An outbreak of Shigatoxin 2 (Stx2) producing enterohemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E.coli (EHEC) O104:H4 infection in May 2011 in Germany caused enterocolitis and an unprecedented high 22% rate of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We hypothesized that anti-Stx2 IgM or IgG titers might predict HUS development. METHODS: 32 patients infected with EHEC O104:H4 (HUS: n=23;non-HUS: n=9) were retrospectively screened for anti-Stx2 IgM/IgG and matched with clinical data regarding HUS development, fever, superinfection, dialysis, neurological symptoms, intensive care, antibiotic treatment, and plasmapheresis...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277956/kidney-transplantation-and-waitlist-mortality-rates-among-candidates-registered-as-willing-to-accept-a-hepatitis-c-infected-kidney
#17
Brittany A Shelton, Deirdre Sawinski, Shikha Mehta, Rhiannon D Reed, Paul A MacLennan, Jayme E Locke
BACKGROUND: HCV-infected (HCV+) ESRD patients derive significant survival benefit from kidney transplantation (KT) over remaining on dialysis. Given high mortality rates on dialysis and the unique ability to accept HCV+ and HCV- donor kidneys, understanding their access to KT is essential. METHODS: 3,963 adult kidney-only candidates reported as willing to accept an HCV+ kidney from 2008-2014 were identified and assumed to be HCV+. Time-at-risk began at date of listing...
December 26, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277508/risk-predictors-and-causes-of-technique-failure-within-the-first-year-of-peritoneal-dialysis-an-australia-and-new-zealand-dialysis-and-transplant-registry-anzdata-study
#18
Emily J See, David W Johnson, Carmel M Hawley, Elaine M Pascoe, Sunil V Badve, Neil Boudville, Philip A Clayton, Kamal Sud, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Monique Borlace, Yeoungjee Cho
BACKGROUND: Concern regarding technique failure is a major barrier to increased uptake of peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the first year of therapy is a particularly vulnerable time. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study using competing-risk regression analyses to identify the key risk factors and risk periods for early transfer to hemodialysis therapy or death in incident PD patients. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients who initiated PD therapy in Australia and New Zealand in 2000 through 2014...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259634/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-iranian-hemodialysis-patients-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Nahid Ramezan Ghorbani, Shirin Djalalinia, Mitra Modirian, Zahra Esmaeili Abdar, Morteza Mansourian, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Hamid Asayesh, Hossein Ansari, Mehrdad Kazemzadeh Atoofi, Ramin Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Noroozi, Saeid Safiri, Mostafa Qorbani
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aims to provide a comprehensive evidence on HCV Infection in Iranian hemodialysis (HD) patients we conducted a systematic review. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, through a comprehensive search of literature until January of 2016, we estimated the pooled prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Iranian HD patients...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259089/peptide-uptake-is-essential-for-borrelia-burgdorferi-viability-and-involves-structural-and-regulatory-complexity-of-its-oligopeptide-transporter
#20
Ashley M Groshong, Abhishek Dey, Irina Bezsonova, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf
Borrelia burgdorferi is an extreme amino acid (AA) auxotroph whose genome encodes few free AA transporters and an elaborate oligopeptide transport system (B. burgdorferi Opp [BbOpp]). BbOpp consists of five oligopeptide-binding proteins (OBPs), two heterodimeric permeases, and a heterodimeric nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of liganded BbOppA4 revealed that each OBP likely binds a distinct range of peptides. Transcriptional analyses demonstrated that the OBPs are differentially and independently regulated whereas the permeases and NBDs are constitutively expressed...
December 19, 2017: MBio
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