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Kimberly A Babson, Steven H Woodward, Marie Schaer, Sandra E Sephton, Danny G Kaloupek
BACKGROUND: Human studies have often found that brain regions rich in glucocorticoid receptors exhibit smaller volume in samples with past trauma and ongoing stress; however, relatively little research has addressed the hypothesis that such smaller volumes can be traced to elevated circulating glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). This issue takes on renewed interest in light of recent proposals to treat symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with exogenous synthetic GCs...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sascha Purmann, Stefan Pollmann
To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Asya Karchemskiy, Amy Garrett, Meghan Howe, Nancy Adleman, Diana I Simeonova, Dylan Alegria, Allan Reiss, Kiki Chang
Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ...
December 30, 2011: Psychiatry Research
Seongho Seo, Moo K Chung, Houri K Vorperian
We present a novel surface smoothing framework using the Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunctions. The Green's function of an isotropic diffusion equation on a manifold is constructed as a linear combination of the Laplace-Beltraimi operator. The Green's function is then used in constructing heat kernel smoothing. Unlike many previous approaches, diffusion is analytically represented as a series expansion avoiding numerical instability and inaccuracy issues. This proposed framework is illustrated with mandible surfaces, and is compared to a widely used iterative kernel smoothing technique in computational anatomy...
2010: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Jaetak Lee, Ja-Kyeong Lee, Kyungsook Han
Many computational methods for determining the infarct volume from the image of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained brain slices rely on the discretion of the user to determine the infarct region by visual inspection. Once the user determines the infarct boundary by visual inspection, the methods compute the area within the boundary with the assumption that all the spots within the boundary have been infarcted at the same level. However, in the same brain image, partially infarcted spots often tend to appear pinkish whereas fully or severely infarcted spots appear white...
June 2011: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Kiki Chang, Naama Barnea-Goraly, Asya Karchemskiy, Diana Iorgova Simeonova, Patrick Barnes, Terence Ketter, Allan L Reiss
BACKGROUND: Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have not reported on gray matter volumes but have reported increased lateral ventricular size and presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We studied gray matter volume, ventricular-to-brain ratios (VBR), and number of WMH in patients with familial, pediatric BD compared with control subjects. METHODS: Twenty subjects with BD (aged 14.6 +/- 2.8 years; 4 female) according to the Washington University in St...
August 1, 2005: Biological Psychiatry
Linda J Lotspeich, Hower Kwon, Cynthia M Schumann, Susanna L Fryer, Beth L Goodlin-Jones, Michael H Buonocore, Cathy R Lammers, David G Amaral, Allan L Reiss
BACKGROUND: Autism and Asperger syndrome (ASP) are neurobiological conditions with overlapping behavioral symptoms and of unknown etiologies. Results from previous autism neuroimaging studies have been difficult to replicate, possibly owing to site differences in subject samples, scanning procedures, and image-processing methods. We sought (1) to determine whether low-functioning autism (LFA; IQ<70), high-functioning autism (HFA; IQ>or=70), and ASP constitute distinct biological entities as evidenced by neuroanatomical measures, and (2) to assess for intersite differences...
March 2004: Archives of General Psychiatry
F Piccione, F Meneghello, K Priftis, P Tonin, J Nilsson, M Panizza
A single case study of a 58 year-old male with right asymmetric apraxia and akinetic-rigid syndrome is described. Brainimaging scans (MRI, SPECT) indicated asymmetric cortical atrophy compatible with the diagnosis of Corticobasal Degeneration. Reflex myoclonus was absent and myoclonic discharges only appeared in response to pharmacological treatment of limb dystonia and rigidity. Electromyographic evidence of jerky movements was recorded only in the affected right hand and forearm after muscle relaxation, and myoclonus was not preceded by an EEG paroxysm...
January 2002: Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology
T Kling-Petersen, M Rydmark
The BRAIN-project is an endeavor in using computer aided learning to improve the understanding of the human brain anatomy. The project consists of four parts, each based on modular packages: BRAINIMAGES: Brain atlas consisting of horizontal and frontal brain slices spaced I mm apart enabling the identification of structures and areas of the brain. The software also contains views of the brain's outer surface with all pertinent structures marked. BRAINRADIOLOGY: Visualisation of the brain using CT, MRI and angiography...
1997: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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