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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667766/role-of-clinical-trials-in-survival-progress-of-american-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer-and-lack-thereof
#1
Archie Bleyer, Eric Tai, Stuart Siegel
In the United States, adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have the lowest clinical trial participation rate of all age groups and slower progress in survival improvement than younger patients. Ominously, AYA clinical trial participation has been steadily decreasing since 2010, except in 15-19 year olds and AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In order to reverse the accrual trend, multiple changes are necessary, including convincing community oncologists to pursue clinical trials on behalf of their AYA patients and to have the new National Community Oncology Research Program and National Clinical Trials Network lead a coordinated effort to increase accrual...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667722/acute-myelogenous-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
REVIEW
Ursula Creutzig, Matthew A Kutny, Ronald Barr, Richard F Schlenk, Raul C Ribeiro
The incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) increases progressively with age. Favorable genetic mutations are most prevalent in children, and unfavorable profiles increase proportionately in adolescents and young adults (AYA) and into later adulthood. Survival rates of AYA have improved over recent decades to 50-60%, but their accrual to clinical trials remains poor. In contrast to AYA with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the prognostic benefit for AYA with AML enrolled in pediatric compared with adult trials is minor and only seen when different protocols are used...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667720/mycophenolate-mofetil-administered-every-8-hours-in-combination-with-tacrolimus-is-efficacious-in-the-prophylaxis-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-childhood-adolescent-and-young-adult-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#3
Olga Militano, Mehmet F Ozkaynak, Brinda Mehta, Carmella van deVen, Carl Hamby, Mitchell S Cairo
BACKGROUND: The optimal dose and schedule of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients remains to be determined. We previously reported safety and pharmacokinetics of MMF at 900 mg/m2 q6h dosing. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of tacrolimus plus q8h MMF dosing for acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in a heterogeneous population of children, adolescent, young adult allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients, utilizing multiple allogeneic donor sources...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667078/impact-of-different-coarctation-therapies-on-aortic-stiffness-phase-contrast-mri-study
#4
Michal Schäfer, Gareth J Morgan, Max B Mitchell, Michael Ross, Alex J Barker, Kendall S Hunter, Brian Fonseca, Michael DiMaria, Daniel Vargas, D Dunbar Ivy, Neil Wilson, Lorna P Browne
Coarctation of the aorta has been associated with increased thoracic aortic stiffness in adolescents and young adults. However, the effects of different therapeutic strategies on aortic stiffness in a young population is unknown. This study aimed to non-invasively assess aortic stiffness between different repair or intervention strategies in patients with coarctation of the aorta. Forty-nine coarctation patients who underwent either surgery (n = 26), balloon angioplasty (n = 14), or stent implantation (n = 12), and 26 age- and size-matched normotensive healthy controls underwent evaluation of thoracic aortic stiffness and flow hemodynamics via phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665948/preclinical-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-treatment-regimens-for-children
#5
E W Tucker, K E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens have been extrapolated from adults to children. However, pediatric disease merits different treatment strategies to avoid under- or over-treatment. While animal models have been pivotal in identifying effective regimens for adult disease, pediatric TB is heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single preclinical model. Infants and young children most commonly have disseminated disease or tuberculous meningitis (TBM), school-aged children have paucibacillary disease, and adolescents have adult-like cavitary lung disease...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665416/captive-chimpanzees-manual-laterality-in-tool-use-context-influence-of-communication-and-of-sociodemographic-factors
#6
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Stéphanie Barbu
Understanding variations of apes' laterality between activities is a central issue when investigating the evolutionary origins of human hemispheric specialization of manual functions and language. We assessed laterality of 39 chimpanzees in a non-communication action similar to termite fishing that we compared with data on five frequent conspecific-directed gestures involving a tool previously exploited in the same subjects. We evaluated, first, population-level manual laterality for tool-use in non-communication actions; second, the influence of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, group, and hierarchy) on manual laterality in both non-communication actions and gestures...
April 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662776/three-dimensional-morphometric-properties-of-rod-and-plate-like-trabeculae-in-adolescent-cancellous-bone
#7
Ming Ding, Xiaozhe Lin, Wenge Liu
Background/Objective: Despite many researches have been carried out on the three-dimensional microarchitecture of cancellous bone, the morphometric properties of rod and plate trabeculae in adolescent cancellous bone have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate three-dimensional morphometric properties of rod- and plate-like trabeculae in normal adolescent cancellous bone, and to compare them with adult cancellous bones to reveal morphometric changes from adolescence to adult life to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662516/adolescent-and-young-adult-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-special-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Amanda F Saltzman, Nicholas G Cost
While testicular germ cell tumors (T-GCTs) make up only 0.5% of pediatric malignancies and less than 2% of adult malignancies, they comprise 14% of adolescent malignancies, making it the most common solid tumor in this age group. The transition in incidence at this age is also accompanied by a transition in tumor histology with adolescents having mostly pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Similar to T-GCTs of all ages, surgical excision with orchiectomy is the standard initial step in treatment...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661735/fine-needle-aspiration-of-alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-in-a-child-cytomorphological-clues-for-the-surgical-pathologist
#9
Mohamed Mostafa, Daniel Abbott, Lauren N Parsons
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm generally affecting adolescents and young adults. Its unique histologic and ultrastructural features have been well-described; however, the cytopathological features of ASPS are less well-characterized, and recognition of this entity's features on cytologic preparations can ensure that the specimen adequacy and appropriate/rapid tissue allocation for additional testing. Herein we report a FNA case of ASPS with emphasis on cytomorphologic characteristics...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659684/%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-impaired-fetal-growth-and-cardiovascular-risk-nutrition-as-precision-medicine
#10
Michael R Skilton
Precision medicine refers to treatment or prevention strategies in a group of individuals identified by their phenotype or genotype. Dietary components or patterns may play an important role in precision medicine. There is emerging evidence to support a role for n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids in lowering blood pressure and reducing the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in people born with impaired fetal growth, a group at increased risk of coronary artery disease partly due to an increased risk of hypertensive disorders...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658261/survivorship-care-preferences-a-pilot-study-of-young-adults-with-cancer
#11
Adrienne Viola, Hannah-Rose Mitchell, Andrew Salner, Eileen Gillan, Jaime Rotatori, Brenda Cartmel, Sheila Santacroce, Xiaomei Ma, Nina Kadan-Lottick
Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) face increased risk for physical, social, and cognitive late complications of cancer therapy. Strategies are needed to better engage AYAs in survivorship research. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of enrolling AYAs within six months of diagnosis to a survivorship study and assess their health concerns and survivorship care preferences. Methods: Patients aged 15–34 years who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, or sarcoma at three Connecticut hospitals from 2008–2011 were identified and recruited by mail...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658168/age-differences-in-the-prosocial-influence-effect
#12
Lucy Foulkes, Jovita T Leung, Delia Fuhrmann, Lisa J Knoll, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or behaviours are affected by other people. There are significant age effects on susceptibility to social influence, typically a decline from childhood to adulthood. Most research has focused on negative aspects of social influence, such as peer influence on risky behaviour, particularly in adolescence. The current study investigated the impact of social influence on the reporting of prosocial behaviour (any act intended to help another person). In this study, 755 participants aged 8-59 completed a computerized task in which they rated how likely they would be to engage in a prosocial behaviour...
April 15, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658150/proximal-patellar-tendon-pathology-can-develop-during-adolescence-in-young-ballet-dancers-a-2-year-longitudinal-study
#13
A Rudavsky, J L Cook, S Docking
PURPOSE: Patellar tendinopathy (tendon pain and dysfunction), or jumper's knee is prevalent in adult jumping athletes. Pathology in the proximal patellar tendon is a key risk factor for developing patellar tendinopathy. When pathology develops in the proximal patellar tendon is not known, though it is reported to exist in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to follow young jumping athletes (ballet dancers) through adolescence to identify if pathology develops and its relation to the adolescent growth spurt...
April 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658144/bone-fragility-in-turner-syndrome-fracture-prevalence-and-risk-factors-determined-by-a-national-patient-survey
#14
Halley Wasserman, Philippe F Backeljauw, Jane C Khoury, Heidi J Kalkwarf, Catherine M Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is considered a comorbidity of adult women with Turner Syndrome (TS). Limited data are available on fracture prevalence in girls and women with this diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fractures in individuals with TS in the United States and identify risk factors for fracture. DESIGN: Girls and women with TS were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-report, national survey from November 2016 to March 2017. Non-TS controls were obtained through direct contacts of TS participants...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657975/visual-pathway-function-and-structure-in-wolfram-syndrome-patient-age-variation-and-progression
#15
James Hoekel, Anagha Narayanan, Jerrel Rutlin, Heather Lugar, Amal Al-Lozi, Tamara Hershey, Lawrence Tychsen
Background/aims: To report alterations in visual acuity and visual pathway structure over an interval of 1-3 years in a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults who have Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and to describe the range of disease severity evident in patients with WFS whose ages differed by as much as 20 years at first examination. Methods: Annual, prospective ophthalmological examinations were performed in conjunction with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis...
2018: BMJ Open Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655391/incidence-and-prevalence-of-bacteriologically-confirmed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#16
Kathryn J Snow, Lisa J Nelson, Charalambos Sismanidis, Susan M Sawyer, Stephen M Graham
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) among adolescents and young adults in endemic settings is poorly characterised. This study aimed to review published and unpublished estimates of the incidence and prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB among young people aged 10-24 years. We searched PubMed and World Health Organization archives for publications and unpublished data from population-based epidemiologic studies reporting confirmed pulmonary TB among young people, conducted from January 2000 onwards. We identified 27 publications and unpublished data from two national surveys, representing a total of 26 studies in 19 countries...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653301/the-moderating-role-of-resilience-on-the-relationship-between-perceived-stress-and-binge-eating-symptoms-among-young-adult-women
#17
Idia B Thurston, Robin Hardin, Rebecca C Kamody, Sylvia Herbozo, Caroline Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence and young adulthood are developmental periods during the life course that are sometimes associated with heightened stress and engagement in binge eating. Binge eating has been linked to psychiatric comorbidity, poorer physical health, and lower quality of life. However, less is known about protective factors that could buffer against binge eating behaviors. The current study examined the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among emerging adult female college students...
April 2, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651819/biochemical-predictors-of-early-onset-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-children-with-obesity
#18
Ju Young Kim, Jinmin Cho, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651268/sociocultural-appearance-standards-and-risk-factors-for-eating-disorders-in-adolescents-and-women-of-various-ages
#19
Bernadetta Izydorczyk, Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska
The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651223/the-mediating-role-of-self-criticism-in-the-relationship-between-parental-expressed-emotion-and-nssi
#20
Brooke A Ammerman, Seth Brown
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is found at high rates among adolescents and young adults and is associated with many negative consequences, warranting additional research. Two factors that may contribute to NSSI during this time period are one's levels of self-criticism and perceptions of their parental relationships; however, these relationships have received limited attention. The purpose of this current study was to address this gap in the literature. Adolescents and young adults (n=294) completed measures of perceived parental expressed emotion, self-criticism, and NSSI...
March 2018: Current Psychology
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